evaluation of potential risks associated with recombination in transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.virus-resistant transgenic plants have been created primarily through the expression of viral sequences. it has been hypothesized that recombination between the viral transgene mrna and the rna of an infecting virus could generate novel viruses. as mrna/viral rna recombination can occur in virus-resistant transgenic plants, the key to testing this risk hypothesis is to compare the populations of recombinant viruses generated in transgenic and non-transgenic plants. this has been done with two cu ...200818089757
characterization of a defective rna derived from rna 3 of the y strain of cucumber mosaic virus.a defective (d) rna 3 naturally generated from the y strain of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-y) was characterized using a biologically active cdna clone. sequencing of the clone revealed that the d rna 3, named d rna 3yalpha, was derived from cmv-y rna 3 and contained a 10 nt deletion in the 5' untranslated region and a 162 nt deletion within the 3a open reading frame. co-inoculation of d rna 3yalpha with cmv-y derived from in vitro transcripts facilitated propagation of cmv-y containing d rna 3yal ...200818175038
phenotypes and functional effects caused by various viral rna silencing suppressors in transgenic nicotiana benthamiana and n. tabacum.rna silencing suppressor genes derived from six virus genera were transformed into nicotiana benthamiana and n. tabacum plants. these suppressors were p1 of rice yellow mottle virus (rymv), p1 of cocksfoot mottle virus, p19 of tomato bushy stunt virus, p25 of potato virus x, hcpro of potato virus y (strain n), 2b of cucumber mosaic virus (strain kin), and ac2 of african cassava mosaic virus (acmv). hcpro caused the most severe phenotypes in both nicotiana spp. ac2 also produced severe effects in ...200818184062
separation of plant viral satellite double-stranded rna using high-performance liquid chromatography.high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for further separation of double-stranded (ds) rnas obtained by cf-11 cellulose chromatography from plants infected with satellite associated cucumber mosaic virus. fractions separated by monolithic polymer column, especially applicable for nucleic acid analyses, were identified electrophoretically and confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction test. once standardized, the method has revealed clear evidence of satellite presence without precip ...200818206900
antiviral activity of the exopolysaccharide produced by serratia sp. strain gsm01 against cucumber mosaic virus.the potential of the exopolysaccharide (eps) from a serratia sp. strain gsm01 as an antiviral agent against a yellow strain of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-y) was evaluated in tobacco plants (nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi-nc). the spray treatment of plants using an eps preparation, 72 before cmv-y inoculation, protected them against symptom appearance. fifteen days after challenge inoculation with cmvy, 33.33% of plants showed mosaic symptoms in eps-treated plants compared with 100% in the control ...200818239419
improvement of pvx/cmv cp expression tool for display of short foreign antigens.we have previously reported that potato virus x-expressed coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) formed virus-like particles (vlps), which served as carriers for display of different neutralizing epitopes of newcastle disease virus (ndv). in this work, we further modified the purification protocol of recombinant vlps carrying short neutralizing epitopes of the ndv proteins and demonstrated that self-contained capsid protein subunits of cmv transiently expressed from heterologous virus packa ...200818280751
a novel methyltransferase methylates cucumber mosaic virus 1a protein and promotes systemic mammalian and yeast systems, methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of diverse processes, such as protein-protein interactions, protein localization, signal transduction, rna processing, and transcription. the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 1a protein is essential not only for virus replication but also for movement. using a yeast two-hybrid system with tobacco plants, we have identified a novel gene encoding a methyltransferase that interacts with the cmv 1a protein and have ...200818321966
the mechanism selecting the guide strand from small rna duplexes is different among argonaute proteins.double-stranded rna induces rna silencing and is cleaved into 21-24 nt small rna duplexes by dicer enzyme. a strand of dicer-generated small rna duplex (called the guide strand) is then selected by a thermodynamic mechanism to associate with argonaute (ago) protein. this ago-small rna complex functions to cleave mrna, repress translation or modify chromatin structure in a sequence-specific manner. although a model plant, arabidopsis thaliana, contains 10 ago genes, their roles and molecular mech ...200818344228
dna-templated cmv viral capsid proteins assemble into nanotubes.this communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) viral capsid proteins (cps) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only approximately 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded dnas of different lengths.200818401891
attacking the defenders: plant viruses fight back.plants use rna silencing mechanisms and produce short-interfering rna (sirna) molecules in a defense response against viral infection. to counter this defense response, viruses produce suppressor proteins, which can block the host silencing pathway or interfere with its function in plant cells. the targets for many viral suppressors and the mechanisms by which they function in plant cells are still largely unknown. recent reports describe that the 2b suppressor of the cucumber mosaic virus binds ...200818403207
accurate and efficient data processing for quantitative real-time pcr using a tripartite plant virus as a model.real-time pcr is becoming a preferred method for quantification of minute amounts of nucleic acids. to achieve the full potential of this technique, accurate and convenient models for post-pcr data analysis are required. in this study, three different models were chosen to quantify the definitive copy numbers of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) genomic rnas using raw fluorescence data of real-time pcr, and equations were proposed to compare their expression levels in virions or in planta. the results ...200818533900
abnormal cell division caused by inclusion bodies in e. coli; increased resistance against external stress.inclusion body formation occurs naturally in prokaryotic cells, but is particularly common when heterologous foreign proteins are overexpressed in bacterial systems. the plant disease virus protein cmv 3a (cucumber mosaic virus movement protein) and the 56 kda orientia tsutsugamushi (ot56) protein (an outer membrane protein), which causes tsutsugamushi disease, were expressed in escherichia coli, and found to form inclusion bodies. confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these inclusion ...200818424015
behavior of rnai suppressor protein 2b of cucumber mosaic virus in planta in presence and absence of virus.the 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the rnai pathway. the 2b gene from cmv-banana, new delhi isolate (cmv-ndls) was amplified from cmv infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. constitutive expression of 2b gene in healthy nicotiana tabacum caused phenotypic aberrations during somatic embryogenesis, which were not observed ...200818438704
a new combination of rna-mediated dna ligation and on-chip elongation for detecting viral rna.we describe a novel method that combines rna-mediated dna ligation and on-chip elongation for detecting viral rna. these virus species-specific detection probes (dps) were designed to match sequences of the "target" virus and then chemically synthesized into 2 parts. if the target virus exists, 2 parts of the dp can be ligated by t4 dna ligase. the ligated dp was hybridized to its corresponding capture probe (cp) on a dna array. then, an on-chip dna polymerization (including cy3-dutp) was perfor ...200818513911
occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in guilan province, iran.during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (cucumis melo l.), cucumber (c. sativus l.), squash (cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (citrulus lanatus l.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of guilan province in iran. symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich elisa (das-elisa) or rt-pcr to detect zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (cab ...200818564898
coat protein-mediated resistance against an indian isolate of the cucumber mosaic virus subgroup ib in nicotiana benthamiana.coat protein (cp) -mediated resistance against an indian isolate of the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) subgroup ib was demonstrated in transgenic lines of nicotiana benthamiana through agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were tested for resistance against cmv by challenge inoculations. the transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumula ...200818535359
serological behavior of cucumber mosaic virus (strain y) and the virus protein.antisera with titers of 1/128 were obtained by injecting rabbits intravenously (iv) or intramuscularly (im) with purified cucumber mosaic virus (strain y) (cmv-y). gel-diffusion tests with cmv-y resulted in the formation of a curved band with the iv antisera and both a curved and a straight band with the im antisera. the curved band results from the combination of high molecular weight virus antigen with specific antibody, and the straight band originates from the combination of a product of vir ...196818614108
tobacco leaf veins as sources of a cucumber mosaic virus for aphids. 196818614118
overexpression of the arabidopsis thaliana eds5 gene enhances resistance to viruses.the arabidopsis thaliana enhanced disease susceptibility 5 gene (eds5) is required for salicylic acid (sa) synthesis in pathogen-challenged plants. sa and eds5 have an important role in the arabidopsis rcy1 gene-conferred resistance against the yellow strain of cucumber mosaic virus [cmv(y)], a bromoviridae, and hrt-conferred resistance against the tombusviridae, turnip crinkle virus (tcv). eds5 expression and sa accumulation are induced in response to cmv(y) inoculation in the rcy1-bearing ecot ...200818557905
structural and functional characterization of the 5' region of subgenomic rna5 of cucumber mosaic virus.the uncapped and orf-less subgenomic rna5 is produced in subgroup ii strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), but not in subgroup i strains. its initiation nucleotide (nt 1903) is in a 21 nt conserved sequence (box1) that is absent in cmv subgroup i. putative non-coding rna structural elements surrounding box1 in the plus and minus strand were identified in silico and by in vitro rnase probing. four main stem-loop structures (slm, sll, slk and slj) were identified between nt 1887 and 1999 of isol ...200818559944
bentonite aids virus transmission.the addition of 0.1-1% bentonite to crude sap of erigeron glaucus containing tomato ringspot virus increased transmission of the virus to bean, but similar amounts of bentonite to the same inoculum decreased transmission to cucumber and cowpea. addition of bentonite to crude inoculum of this virus in cucumber, bean, and cowpea reduced transmission to cucumber, bean, and cowpea. bentonite decreased transmission to cowpea of cucumber mosaic virus from young cucumber but increased transmission from ...196618611479
polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis of the soluble leaf proteins from nicotiana tabacum var. 'samsun' and 'samsun nn'. iv. similarity of qualitative changes of specific proteins after infection with different viruses and their relationship to acquired resistance.the development of systemic mosaic symptoms on nicotiana tabacum var. 'samsun' or 'samsun nn' after infection with potato virus x (pvx), potato virus yo (pvyo) or cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was accompanied by differing alterations in protein constitution upon electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. small amounts of four new protein components i-iv, identical to those found earlier in tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) infected samsun nn, were observed in both varieties after infection with cmv. only ba ...197518621356
twenty years of transgenic plants resistant to cucumber mosaic virus.plant genetic engineering has promised researchers improved speed and flexibility with regard to the introduction of new traits into cultivated crops. a variety of approaches have been applied to produce virus-resistant transgenic plants, some of which have proven to be remarkably successful. studies on transgenic resistance to cucumber mosaic virus probably have been the most intense of any plant virus. several effective strategies based on pathogen-derived resistance have been identified; name ...200818624632
comparative studies on two satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellite rna (sat-rna, d. w. mossop and r. i. b. francki, 1978, virology86, 562-566) is similar in many of its physical and biological properties to cmv associated rna 5 (carna 5) described by kaper and tousignant (1977, virology85, 323-327). however, carna 5, unlike sat-rna, causes a serious necrotic disease of tomato. sat-rna when inoculated together with various cmv or tomato aspermy virus strains not only failed to increase the severity of symptoms in infected to ...197918627899
nucleotide sequence of cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5.the complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber mosaic virus-associated (satellite) rna 5 (carna 5) strain d has been determined. the molecule is 335 residues long and is capped at its 5' extremity. there were minor variations in the sequence of different preparations of the satellite rna. otherwise, no unusual features of secondary structure or sequence are present. carna 5 (d) contains a number of possible initiation and termination codons for protein synthesis. study of carna 5 isolated from oth ...197818627882
the stability of satellite viral rnas in vivo and in the satellite rna (sat-rna) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), the rna of satellite tobacco necrosis virus (stnv-rna) was shown to be capable of surviving in vivo without replication for at least 10 days in the absence of its helper tobacco necrosis virus (tnv). however, under similar conditions, the genomic rna 3 of cmv failed to survive for 48 hr. it has been demonstrated that both stnv-rna and sat-rna are significantly more resistant to inactivation in vitro than the rnas of their helper vi ...197918627891
cucumber mosaic virus and peanut stunt virus differ in an initial event that occurs during the infection of cowpea leaf epidermal cells.using procedures described earlier for peanut stunt virus (psv) (g. i. mink, virology 72, 291-298, 1976), hydroxylamine, ribonuclease (rnase), and tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone were used to determine 10-min inactivation profiles for cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and cmv-rna. these profiles indicate that the first event that is detectable by the use of inactivating agents in the infection of cowpea primary leaves by either cmv or cmv-rna differed significantly from that reported earlier for psv and ps ...198018631664
the rnas of cucumoviruses: 3'-terminal sequence analysis of two strains of tomato aspermy virus.the sequences of 189 residues from the 3' terminus of three rnas of one strain and two rnas of another strain of tomato aspermy virus have been determined; there was almost complete sequence homology between the rnas. a base-paired transfer rna-like structure is proposed for tomato aspermy virus rnas which is similar in many aspects to the structure proposed for the 3'-terminal 172 residues of rna 4 of the q-strain of cucumber mosaic virus (r. h. symons, nucleic acids res.7, 825-837, 1979). thes ...198118635070
cucumber mosaic virus-induced rna replicase: solubilization and partial purification of the particulate enzyme.cucumber seedlings infected with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) contain a virus-induced rna-dependent rna polymerase (rna replicase) in both soluble and particulate fractions of plant extracts; no such activity is found in uninfected plants. the extensive purification and characterization of the soluble rna replicase has been described (r. kumarasamy and r. h. symons, 1979, virology 96, 622-632) while the characterization of the particulate enzyme is reported here. the particulate rna replicase was ...198118635080
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5, viii. identification and partial characterization of a carna 5 incapable of inducing tomato necrosis.a new satellite-like replicating rna found in association with cucumber mosaic virus type 1 (cmv-1), one of the earliest cmv isolates described (doolittle, 1920), was identified and partially characterized. cmv-1-associated rna 5, or (1)carna 5, was isolated from cmv-1 propagated in tomato, where it failed to induce lethal necrosis. in this way it was distinguished from carna 5 with the tomato necrosis-causing ability, which was redesignated (n)carna 5. although (1)carna 5 and (n)carna 5 could b ...198118635101
comparative studies on tomato aspermy and cucumber mosaic viruses. vi. partial compatibility of genome segments from the two viruses.isolated rna genomic segments (rnas 1, 2, and 3) of tomato aspermy virus and of three strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) were inoculated to leaves of chenopodium amaranticolor costs and reyn in all combinations. the data presented demonstrate that whereas rna 3 is readily interchangeable between the two viruses to produce infections resulting in lesion development, rnas 1 and 2 are not, although they are interchangeable between the three cmv strains. the possible significance of these observ ...198118635103
comparative studies on tomato aspermy and cucumber mosaic viruses. vii. serological relationships reinvestigated.distant antigenic relationships between australian strains of tomato aspermy virus (tav) and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) were investigated by three serological methods: radial double immunodiffusion in agar, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), and immune-electron microscopy (iem) using the antibody decoration technique. based on the work with tav and cmv presented in this paper, it appears that the elisa method is especially suitable for studying antigenic relationships among viruses. fo ...198218635114
no viral gene is able to elicit rna-dependent rna polymerase in cucumber mosaic virus-infected cucumber cotyledons.infection of cucumber cotyledons by cucumber mosaic virus, a divided genome virus, leads to the early appearance of considerable rna-dependent rna polymerase activity. when the genome components were tested separately for this effect, no single one was found active, and different combinations of two components caused varying lesser stimulations than when the three components necessary for infectivity were used. these intermediate effects paralleled the infectivities of these two-component mixtur ...198218635115
cross-protection and interference between electrophoretically distinct strains of cucumber mosaic virus in tomato.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was partially purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation from extracts of tomato leaflets. the presence and quantity of two strains with different electrophoretic mobilities was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel (2.5%) electrophoresis of preparations from as little as 50 mg of tissue. this method was used to analyze interference and cross-protection between the strains. coinoculation resulted in local and systemic mixed infections and reductions in the synthesis of bo ...198218635131
hybridization analysis of chrysanthemum stunt viroid with complementary dna and the quantitation of viroid rna sequences in extracts of infected order to develop a method for the quantitation of viroids in extracts of infected plants by hybridization analysis with labeled complementary dna (cdna), the kinetics of hybridization of chrysanthemum stunt viroid (csv) with [32p]cdna were investigated. two buffer systems were used, each with a total cation concentration of 0.19 m, with one containing no formamide (buffer a) and the other 40% (v/v) formamide (buffer b). initial experiments with buffer a at 60 degrees showed that the rate of h ...197918631615
a striking change in symptoms on cucumber mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants induced by a satellite rna.the small rna from cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) we had formerly referred to as rna 5 was shown to have a satellite nature similar to carna 5 (kaper and tousignant, 1977, virology 80, 186-195) and sat-rna (mossop and francki, 1978, virology 86, 562-566). our satellite rna has a great deal in common with carna 5 and sat-rna in many respects, except that its replication causes a striking change in symptoms on tobacco and on some species of nicotiana infected with cmv. large amounts of satellite rna ...198118635035
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. vii. double-stranded form accumulation and disease attenuation in tobacco.the double-stranded (ds) form of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-associated rna 5 (carna 5), which accumulates in unusually large proportions in cmv-infected xanthi nc tobacco plants, could be identified directly in buffer extracts of these plants via its reaction with poly(i):poly(c) or poly(a):poly(u) antisera in two-dimensional immunodiffusion tests. after infiltration of cmv-infected tobacco tissues with 4'-aminomethyltrioxalen, followed by irradiation with long-wavelength ultraviolet light, a c ...198118635069
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. ix. the overtaking of viral rna synthesis by carna 5 and dscarna 5 in tobacco.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and cmv-associated rna 5 (carna 5)-related rna synthesis was monitored under conditions of semisynchronous infection using a differential temperature inoculation technique (dawson and schlegel, 1973). leaf strips sampled at specific intervals between 0 and 100 hr after temperature shift were vacuum infiltrated with [32p]phosphoric acid and actinomycin d and incubated during 4-hr periods. total nucleic acid extracts were analyzed on polyacrylamide gels to compare the r ...198218638791
highly purified cucumber mosaic virus-induced rna-dependent rna polymerase does not contain any of the full length translation products of the genomic rnas.the extensively purified rna-dependent rna polymerase (rna replicase) induced by infection of cucumber seedlings with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was investigated to determine whether the enzyme contains full-length translation products of the cmv genomal rnas. two experimental approaches were used. (1) rna replicase preparations from plants infected with three strains of cmv (q, p, and t) all had almost identical polypeptide compositions, which included a major polypeptide of relative mobility ...198218638845
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5: x. the complete nucleotide sequence of a carna 5 incapable of inducing tomato necrosis.the complete nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5 (carna 5) that does not induce the tomato necrosis disease (j. m. kaper, m. e. tousignant, and s. m. thompson, virology 114, 526-533, 1981) has been determined and compared with the known sequence of a necrosis-inducing carna 5 (k. e. richards, g. jonard, m. jacquemond, and h. lot, virology 89, 395-408, 1978). the nonnecrotic satellite rna, (1)carna 5, is one nucleotide smaller yet 93% homologous with (n)carna 5, the ne ...198318638999
stability and structural transitions of tomato aspermy virus and cucumber mosaic virus.the properties of the s-strain of cucumber mosaic virus (s-cmv) and the b-strain of tomato aspermy virus (b-tav) have been studied with respect to their (i) size and sedimentation behavior, (ii) requirement of divalent metal ions for stability, (iii) sensitivity towards chloride salts and the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate, (iv) solubility in ammonium sulfate-containing buffers, and (v) ph-dependent structural transitions. the results indicate that the coat protein of b-tav is more hyd ...198418639813
satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus: characterization of two new satellites.two new satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) which did not induce necrosis on tomato in the presence of cmv, b-sat rna, and wl-sat rna, were shown to be related by sequence to two well-characterized satellite rnas of cmv: g-sat rna (non-necrotic on tomato) and n-carna 5 (necrotic on tomato). using the techniques of molecular hybridization analysis, rna fingerprinting and partial rna sequencing, b-sat rna and wl-sat rna were shown to be more closely related to each other (probably differ ...198418639803
double-stranded rnas of cucumber mosaic virus and its satellite contain an unpaired terminal guanosine: implications for replication.terminal sequences of the double-stranded (ds) forms of rnas 3 and 4 and the satellite rna (carna 5) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) have been determined. the ds forms of both carna 5 and rna 3 contain an unpaired guanosine (g) at the 3' end of the minus (-) strand, a feature also present in the replicative forms (rfs) of several animal alphaviruses. the unpaired g present in the cmv-related ds rnas suggests that these molecules represent rfs and that viral and satellite rnas share common replica ...198518640549
viral rna synthesis by a particulate fraction from cucumber seedlings infected with cucumber mosaic virus.particulate preparations from cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected cucumber cotyledons incorporated [alpha-32p]gtp into products which, after phenol extraction, appeared to be double-stranded forms of the four cmv rnas. in preparations isolated 3 to 5 days after inoculation, the label was incorporated mostly into plus rna as shown by dot-blot hybridization using single-strand recombinant dna clones of cmv rna. after a short pulse the labeled material consisted mostly of small heterogeneous produ ...198518640532
subgenomic rnas with nucleotide sequences derived from rnas 1 and 2 of cucumber mosaic virus can act as messenger rnas in vitro.encapsidated rnas of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) were analyzed by hybridization to specific probes after gel electrophoresis. [32p]-complementary dna (cdna) probes were prepared by transcription of genomic rna 1 and rna 2 nucleotide sequences that had been cloned in a bacteriophage m13 vector. probes that correspond to unique sequences near the 3' ends of rna 1 and rna 2 revealed over 20 smaller rnas. the subgenomic rnas derived from each genomic rna were analyzed more definitively by hybrid sel ...198518639845
cross protection between strains of cucumber mosaic virus: effect of host and type of inoculum on accumulation of virions and double-stranded rna of the challenge strain.two strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) differed in three characteristics of value for cross-protection experiments. their virions and also two of their double-stranded rnas could be separated and distinguished by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, and the symptoms of one strain were milder than the other in tobacco, tomato, and squash. the mild strain, cmv-s, protected plants of these three hosts from the effects of the second strain, cmv-p, and also prevented the accumulation of virion ...198518640529
in vitro translation of cucumoviral satellites. i. purification and nucleotide sequence of cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5 from cucumber mosaic virus strain s.the satellite cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-associated rna 5 (carna 5) of cmv strain s (cmv-s) which previously had been assigned the capability both to direct the synthesis of two small proteins in vitro (r. a. owens and j. m. kaper, 1977, virology, 80, 196-203) and to induce the tomato necrosis disease in the presence of its helper virus (j. m. kaper and h. e. waterworth, 1977, science, 196, 429-431), has been reinvestigated. polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses under partially denaturing ...198618640643
a role for inositol hexakisphosphate in the maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens.phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, insp6) is an important phosphate store and signal molecule in plants. however, low-phytate plants are being developed to minimize the negative health effects of dietary insp6 and pollution caused by undigested insp6 in animal waste. insp6 levels were diminished in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing an antisense gene sequence for myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (ips, catalysing the first step in insp6 biosynthesis) or escherichia coli ...200818643983
nucleotide sequence analysis of six satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus: primary sequence and secondary structure alterations do not correlate with differences in pathogenicity.the nucleotide sequences of six satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) differing in their pathological properties have been determined. although these rnas varied in length from 333 to 342 nucleotides, the extent of nucleotide sequence homology to each other and to four other satellite rnas ranged from 84 to 97%, allowing satellite rna subgrouping on the basis of nucleotide sequence. this subgrouping was further extended by an analysis of the nature of the differences in nucleotide sequen ...198718644565
biological activity of t7 transcripts of a prototype clone and a sequence variant clone of a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus.molecular cloning of the (d)carna 5 (previously known as n-carna 5) necrosis-inducing satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus produced a prototype clone (pdsat4) and a sequence variant clone (pdsat1). pdsat1 contained 10 nucleotide changes between positions 70 and 160 which rendered that region identical to the corresponding region of a satellite rna which does not induce necrosis. t7 rna polymerase transcripts of each clone replicated in both tobacco and tomato, and the progeny satellite rnas di ...198718644568
engineering of the membrane of fibroblast cells with virus-specific antibodies: a novel biosensor tool for virus detection.a novel concept for the assay of viral antigens is described. the methodological approach is based on a membrane-engineering process involving the electroinsertion of virus-specific antibodies in the membranes of fibroblast cells. as a representative example, vero fibroblasts were engineered with antibodies against cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and used for the construction of an ultra-sensitive miniature cell biosensor system. the attachment of a homologous virus triggered specific changes to the ...200818693110
complete nucleotide sequence of a new satellite rna associated with cucumber mosaic virus inducing tomato necrosis.a new strain (tn strain) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was isolated from tomato plants with necrotic symptoms and proved to carry a necrogenic satellite rna (tn-sat rna). double-strand cdna of the tn-sat rna was synthesized by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using primers designed according to the conserved terminal sequences of known cmv satellite rnas. sequence analysis indicated that the tn-sat rna consisted of 390 nucleotides (nt). comparison of the sequence of the tn-sa ...199718762886
host responses in life-history traits and tolerance to virus infection in arabidopsis thaliana.knowing how hosts respond to parasite infection is paramount in understanding the effects of parasites on host populations and hence host-parasite co-evolution. modification of life-history traits in response to parasitism has received less attention than other defence strategies. life-history theory predicts that parasitised hosts will increase reproductive effort and accelerate reproduction. however, empirical analyses of these predictions are few and mostly limited to animal-parasite systems. ...200818704166
a simple technique for separation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus from cucumber mosaic virus in natural mixed infections.a simple technique was developed to separate cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) from cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in natural mixed infections. sap from cowpea leaves infected naturally with a mixture of ccmv and cmv was inoculated mechanically on the first tri-foliolate leaf of cowpea seedlings. both inoculated and non-inoculated upper leaves were sampled 3 or 8 days post-inoculation and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using primers specific to ccmv and cmv. r ...200818755217
a simple, sensitive, specific detection of mixed infection of multiple plant viruses using macroarray and microtube hybridization.a simple, sensitive and specific method using a cdna macroarray to detect multiple viruses was devised. the method is used in plants such as potato and lily, which need a reliable routine diagnosis for mixed infection. the biotinylated crna targets were prepared using an in vitro transcription-based system that was designed especially to eliminate nonspecific hybridizations. the macroarray hybridization was carried out using a convenient, cost-effective "microtube hybridization" (mth) system. by ...200818760308
artificial micrornas highly accessible to targets confer efficient virus resistance in plants.short-hairpin rnas based on microrna (mirna) precursors to express the artificial mirnas (amirnas) can specifically induce gene silencing and confer virus resistance in plants. the efficacy of rna silencing depends not only on the nature of amirnas but also on the local structures of the target mrnas. however, the lack of tools to accurately and reliably predict secondary structures within long rnas makes it very hard to predict the secondary structures of a viral genome rna in the natural infec ...200818768978
bioreactor strategies for improving production yield and functionality of a recombinant human protein in transgenic tobacco cell cultures.plant cell culture production of recombinant products offers a number of advantages over traditional eukaryotic expression systems, particularly if the product can be targeted to and purified from the cell culture broth. however, one of the main obstacles is product degradation by proteases that are produced during cell culture, and/or the loss of biological activity of secreted (extracellular) products as a result of alteration in the protein conformation. because proteolysis activity and targe ...200918767186
a novel anti-plant viral protein from coelomic fluid of the earthworm eisenia foetida: purification, characterization and its identification as a serine protease.a novel protein showing strong antiviral activities against cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and tomato mosaic virus (tmv) was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm eisenia foetida. the protein was characterized as a cold-adapted serine protease. its molecular weight was estimated to be 27,000 by sds-page. the enzyme was most active at ph 9.5 and 40-50 degrees c. the protease activity at 4 degrees c was 60% of that obtained at the optimal temperature. the activity was suppressed by variou ...200818775500
hrt-mediated hypersensitive response and resistance to turnip crinkle virus in arabidopsis does not require the function of tip, the presumed guardee protein.the arabidopsis resistance protein hrt recognizes the turnip crinkle virus (tcv) coat protein (cp) to induce a hypersensitive response (hr) in the resistant ecotype di-17. the cp also interacts with a nuclear-targeted nac family of host transcription factors, designated tip (tcv-interacting protein). because binding of cp to tip prevents nuclear localization of tip, it has been proposed that tip serves as a guardee for hrt. here, we have tested the requirement for tip in hrt-mediated hr and resi ...200818785827
the 2b protein and the c-terminus of the 2a protein of cucumber mosaic virus subgroup i strains both play a role in viral rna accumulation and induction of symptoms.two chimeras of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), fcb7(2b)-cmv and frad35(2b)-cmv, with the 2b genes of strains cb7-cmv and rad35-cmv, respectively, in an fny-cmv background, gave different responses on nicotiana glutinosa: fcb7(2b)-cmv induced systemic necrosis while frad35(2b)-cmv caused only mild mosaic. this differential virulence was attributable to the nature of amino acid 55 of their 2b proteins. however, sequence analysis revealed that leu(55) of the 2b protein was necessary but not sufficien ...200818786688
high level expression of a virus resistance gene, rcy1, confers extreme resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in arabidopsis thaliana.a coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-type resistance gene, rcy1, confers resistance to a yellow strain of cucumber mosaic virus, cmv(y), in arabidopsis thaliana ecotype c24. resistance to cmv(y) in c24 is accompanied by a hypersensitive response (hr) that is characterized by the development of necrotic local lesions at the primary infection sites. to further study the hr and resistance to cmv(y) in ecotype col-0, which is susceptible to cmv(y), col-0 were transformed with rc ...200818842090
estimation of the effective number of founders that initiate an infection after aphid transmission of a multipartite plant virus.the fecundity of rna viruses can be very high. thus, it is often assumed that viruses have large populations, and rna virus evolution has been mostly explained using purely deterministic models. however, population bottlenecks during the virus life cycle could result in effective population numbers being much smaller than reported censuses, and random genetic drift could be important in virus evolution. a step at which population bottlenecks may be severe is host-to-host transmission. we report ...200818842732
development of a new cucumber mosaic virus-based plant expression vector with truncated 3a movement protein.we have developed a cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-based expression vector for the production of heterologous proteins in plants. cell-to-cell movement of cmv is dependent on the presence of coat protein (cp). previous studies have shown that deletion of 33 amino acids (aa) from the carboxy-terminus of the 3a movement protein facilitates cell-to-cell movement that is independent of cp. the cmv-based expression vector that we have designed utilizes this truncated 3a protein, allowing the expression ...200818804833
macroarray detection of plant rna viruses using randomly primed and amplified complementary dnas from infected plants.abstract membrane-based macroarrays provide a relatively inexpensive technology with the potential to detect hundreds of pathogens in a single assay. for the simultaneous detection of a large number of pathogens, it is necessary to obtain sufficient nucleic acids for labeling, and any amplification reactions need to be performed using unbiased, pathogen-non-specific primers. a nonradioactive macroarray system is described to test for plant rna viruses using 70-mer oligonucleotide probes immobili ...200718942945
an analysis of host adaptation and its relationship with virulence in cucumber mosaic virus.abstract the host range of a pathogen can have special consequences on its evolution and the evolution of its virulence. for generalists, adaptation to different hosts may be conditioned by different trade-offs in the pathogen's life history and be affected by evolutionary processes that shape pathogen populations. we have examined adaptation of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) to different hosts, and analyzed the relationship between host adaptation and virulence. for this, six cmv isolates from cen ...200518943016
spermine signaling plays a significant role in the defense response of arabidopsis thaliana to cucumber mosaic virus.we have proposed that the polyamine spermine (spm) functions as a signaling molecule to evoke defense reactions/cell death in avirulent pathogen-attacked tobacco plants. to understand its molecular basis in depth, spm-responsive genes in arabidopsis thaliana were identified by supersage analysis. close to 90% of the spm-responsive genes also responded during cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-elicited hypersensitive response. spm modulated the expression of genes of redox components, and genes involved ...200918922600
virus infection improves drought tolerance.viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. however, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. various plant species were inoculated with four different rna viruses, brome mosaic virus (bmv), cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), tobacco mosaic virus and tobacco ra ...200818823313
dissection of the oligogenic resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in the melon accession pi 161375.resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in the exotic melon accession pi 161375, cultivar "sonwang charmi" (sc) had previously been described as oligogenic, recessive and quantitative, with a major qtl residing in linkage group xii (lgxii). we have used a collection of near isogenic lines (nils) with introgressions of sc into the genome of the susceptible accession piel de sapo (ps) to further characterise this resistance. infection of nils carrying introgressions on lgxii showed that only nil ...200918825359
transmission efficiency of cucumber mosaic virus by aphids associated with virus epidemics in snap bean.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is a major component of the virus complex that has become more pronounced in snap bean in the midwestern and northeastern united states since 2001. multiple-vector-transfer tests were done to estimate the cmv transmission efficiencies (p) of the main aphid species identified in commercial snap bean fields in new york and pennsylvania. the four most efficient vectors (p > 0.05) were aphis gossypii, a. glycines, acyrthosiphon pisum, and therioaphis trifolii, which were ...200818943413
sampling for the incidence of aphid-transmitted viruses in snap bean.abstract data collected in 2002 and 2003 on alfalfa mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus incidences of infection in commercial snap bean fields in new york state were used to develop relationships between disease incidence (p(low)) and sample size while accounting for the inherent spatial aggregation of infected plants observed with these two viruses. for a plan consisting of 300 sampled plants (n = 60 quadrats, n = 5 plants per quadrat), estimating p(low) from the incidence of positive groups ...200518943551
population dynamics of cucumber mosaic virus in melon crops and in weeds in central spain.abstract understanding epidemiology and evolution of plant viruses requires knowledge of their ecology: obtaining information about the dynamics and genetic structure of viral populations in their various hosts is necessary to analyze host specialization and to identify reservoirs and inoculum sources. we present here a 3-year analysis of the population dynamics of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in central spain in weed hosts and melon. cmv infection in weed hosts was detected throughout the year a ...200418943076
novel cytopathological structures induced by mixed infection of unrelated plant viruses.abstract when two unrelated plant viruses infect a plant simultaneously, synergistic viral interactions often occur resulting in devastating diseases. this study was initiated to examine ultrastructural virus-virus interactions of mixed viral infections. mixed infections were induced using potyviruses and viruses from other plant virus families. novel ultrastructural paracrystalline arrays composed of co-infecting viruses, referred to as mixed virus particle aggregates (mvpas), were noted in the ...200418943827
recovery from cucurbit leaf crumple virus (family geminiviridae, genus begomovirus) infection is an adaptive antiviral response associated with changes in viral small rnas.a strong recovery response occurs in cantaloupe (cucumis melo) and watermelon (citrullus lanatus) infected with the bipartite begomovirus cucurbit leaf crumple virus (culcrv). this response is characterized by initially severe symptoms, which gradually become attenuated (almost symptomless). an inverse relationship was detected between viral dna levels and recovery, indicating that recovered tissues had reduced viral titers. recovered tissues also were resistant to reinfection with culcrv; i.e., ...200818943741
cucumber mosaic virus establishes systemic infection at increased temperature following viral entrance into the phloem pathway of tetragonia expansa.abstract a potential regulatory site for cucumber mosaic virus (cmv, pepo strain) movement necessary to establish systemic infection was identified through immunological and hybridization studies on tetragonia expansa, which was systemically infected by cmv at 36 degrees c but not at 24 degrees c. in inoculated leaves, cell-to-cell movement of cmv was enhanced at 36 degrees c compared with that observed at 24 degrees c. cmv was distributed in the phloem cells of minor veins as well as epidermal ...200318944074
synergistic disease in pepper caused by the mixed infection of cucumber mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus.abstract the occurrence of more than one virus species in a single plant is not uncommon in cultivated and native plant species. a mixed virus infection may lead to greater disease severity than individual viral components and this is sometimes referred to as a synergistic disease. although, in some cases, synergism has been demonstrated for various plant growth parameters such as plant height, weight, and yield, proof of synergy typically has not been demonstrated for symptom severity when the ...200618944438
transmissibility of cucumber mosaic virus by aphis gossypii correlates with viral accumulation and is affected by the presence of its satellite rna.abstract satellite rnas (satrnas) are associated with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in tomato, most often causing severe epidemics of necrotic plants, and not associated with specific host symptoms. laboratory studies on virus transmission by the aphid vector aphis gossypii were performed to better understand the dynamics of field populations of cmv. the presence of satrnas correlated with lower concentrations of virus in infected plants and with a decrease in the efficiency of transmission from s ...200018944468
characterization of synergy between cucumber mosaic virus and potyviruses in cucurbit hosts.abstract mixed infections of cucurbits by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and potyviruses exhibit a synergistic interaction. zucchini squash and melon plants coinfected by the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and either fny-cmv (subgroup ia) or ls-cmv (subgroup ii) displayed strong synergistic pathological responses, eventually progressing to vascular wilt and plant death. accumulation of fny- or ls-cmv rnas in a mixed infection with zymv in zucchini squash was slightly higher than infe ...200218944139
rhizobacteria-mediated growth promotion of tomato leads to protection against cucumber mosaic virus.abstract we evaluated combinations of two strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) formulated with the carrier chitosan for the ability to induce growth promotion of tomato plants and resistance to infection by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). each pgpr combination included gb03 (bacillus subtilis) and one of the following pgpr strains: se34 (b. pumilus), in937a (b. amyloliquefaciens), in937b (b. subtilis), inr7 (b. pumilus), or t4 (b. pumilus). the pgpr combinations formulated with ch ...200318944330
multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in a single tube for sensitive and simultaneous detection of four rna viruses and pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive trees.abstract a multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in a single closed tube was developed for the simultaneous detection of four rna viruses: cucumber mosaic virus, cherry leaf roll virus, strawberry latent ringspot virus, and arabis mosaic virus, and the bacterium pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. the method enabled, for the first time, the sensitive and simultaneous detection of rna and dna targets from plant viruses and a bacterium, saving time, decreasin ...200318944338
one amino acid change in cucumber mosaic virus rna polymerase determines virulent/avirulent phenotypes on cowpea.abstract the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (hr) is known to depend on the interaction between a resistance gene of a host plant and a corresponding avirulence gene of a pathogen. the cv. kurodane-sanjaku of cowpea (vigna unguiculata) has the cry locus that confers resistance against cucumber mosaic virus strain y (cmv-y). the resistance is overcome by infection with a legume strain of cmv (cmv-l). rna 2, which codes for the 2a protein, a subunit of the viral replicase components, ha ...199918944644
identification and subgrouping of cucumber mosaic virus with mouse monoclonal antibodies.abstract using a mixture of isolates of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) from subgroups i and ii as immunogens, 20 mouse hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies were produced. a reliable method for efficient detection and accurate subgrouping of cmv isolates has been developed. tests with 12 well-characterized strains of cmv and other cucumoviruses demonstrated the presence of epitopes that were virus and subgroup specific. analyses of 109 accessions of cmv isolates collected from variou ...200018944541
evolution of virulence in natural populations of the satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus.from 1986 to 1992, an epidemic of tomato necrosis caused by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) plus cmv satellite rnas (satrnas) occurred in eastern spain. from 1989 onward, the frequency of tomato necrosis di-minshed, and it almost completely disappeared after 1991. analyses of plants infected with cmv and with cmv satrna and of the phenotype (necrogenic or nonnecrogenic for tomato) induced by some cmv satrna variants, showed that the disappearance of tomato necrosis was due to changes in the genetic ...200018944553
defective movement of viruses in the family bromoviridae is differentially complemented in nicotiana benthamiana expressing tobamovirus or dianthovirus movement proteins.abstract taxonomically distinct tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (tmv), red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (rcnmv), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv), brome mosaic bromovirus (bmv), and cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus (ccmv) exhibit differences in their host range. each of these viruses encodes a functionally similar nonstructural movement protein (mp) that is essential for cell-to-cell movement of a progeny virus. despite the lack of significant amino acid identity among the mps of cmv, tmv, ...199818944938
satellite rna of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus spreads epidemically in natural populations of its helper virus.abstract three hundred thirty-eight isolates of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv), sampled from natural populations in six areas of spain between 1989 and 1996, were screened for the presence of satellite rna (satrna). the frequency of cmv isolates with satrna approached 1.00 in valencia (east spain) between 1990 and 1994 where a tomato necrosis epidemic induced by cmv+satrna had started in 1986 and was smaller north and west of this area in 1992 and 1993. after 1994, satrna almost disappeared f ...199818944903
tissue culture methods for the screening and analysis of putative virus-resistant transgenic potato plants.abstract following regeneration, putative virus-resistant transgenic plants are usually transferred from tissue culture to a greenhouse or growth chamber to screen for resistance to infection and disease development using mechanical, graft, or insect vector inoculation methods. to reduce initial screening costs and time, we developed mechanical and graft inoculation methods suitable for tissue culture use. the in vitro methods were validated by comparing them with similar greenhouse screens usin ...199818944923
transgenic resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in tomato: blocking of long-distance movement of the virus in lines harboring a defective viral replicase gene.abstract tomato breeding lines were transformed with a defective replicase gene from rna 2 of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). a total of 63 transformants from five tomato genotypes were evaluated for resistance to cmv strains. the responses of r1 transgenic offspring fit into three categories: fully susceptible lines (44%), fully resistant lines (8%), and an intermediate-type mixture of susceptible and resistant seedlings in variable proportions (48%). further characterization of the response of tw ...199818944823
seed transmission of cucumber mosaic virus in spinach.abstract spinach (spinacia oleracea) seed from a commercial breeding line suspected of harboring cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was analyzed for seed transmission of the virus. initial seed grow-out tests and enzymelinked immunosorbent assay studies indicated that cmv was present in this seed lot at a level of nearly 15%. to verify these results and gain insight into the mechanism of seed transmission, four combinations of crosses between healthy and/or infected parent plants were conducted. none o ...199718945063
electrochemical elisa for the detection of cucumber mosaic virus using o-pheneylenediamine as substrate.a sensitive electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the determination of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was proposed in this paper. the activity of labeled enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, was measured with electrochemical methods using o-phenylenediamine as substrate. the enzymatic reaction product is 2,3-diaminophenazine, which can be easily reduced on the dropping mercury electrode with improved sensitivity. coupled with the plate trapped antigen indirect elisa format using ...200118968475
evidence for alternate states of cucumber mosaic virus replicase assembly in positive- and negative-strand rna synthesis.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) encodes two viral replication proteins, 1a and 2a. accumulating evidence implies that different aspects of 1a-2a interaction in replication complex assembly are involved in the regulation of virus replication. to further investigate cmv replicase assembly and to dissect the involvement of replicase activities in negative- and positive-strand synthesis, we transiently expressed cmv rnas and/or proteins in nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a dna or rna-mediated express ...200919022467
structural and biological properties of cucumber mosaic virus particles carrying hepatitis c virus-derived epitopes.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is a three-component isodiametric plant virus with an extremely wide host range, present worldwide. a pseudorecombinant form has been described, deriving from the rna3 component of the cmv-s strain, carrying the coat protein (cp) gene, and the rna 1, 2 components of the cmv-d strain. the cp gene was then engineered to express one or two copies of a synthetic peptide derived from many hypervariable region 1 (hvr1) sequences of the hepatitis c virus (hcv) envelope p ...200918992770
transgenic peppers that are highly tolerant to a new cmv pathotype.the cmv (cucumber mosaic virus) is the most frequently occurring virus in chili pepper farms. a variety of peppers that are resistant to cmvp0 were developed in the middle of 1990s through a breeding program, and commercial cultivars have since been able to control the spread of cmvp0. however, a new pathotype (cmvp1) that breaks the resistance of cmvp0-resistant peppers has recently appeared and caused a heavy loss in productivity. since no genetic source of this new pathotype was available, a ...200919018536
influence of cytoplasmic heat shock protein 70 on viral infection of nicotiana benthamiana.the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) generally occurs in plants infected with viruses. however, the effect of hsp70 accumulation on plant viral infection and pathogenesis remains elusive. in this study, the expression of six hsp70 genes was found to be induced by the four diverse rna viruses, tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus x (pvx), cucumber mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus, in nicotiana benthamiana. heat treatment enhanced the accumulation and systemic infection of these ...200819019009
a critical domain of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein for rna silencing suppressor activity.alignment of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b protein sequences from two cmv subgroups revealed two highly variable regions. to examine contributions of variable sequence domains to the suppressor activity, we performed a comparative study between 2b proteins of a subgroup i strain (sd-cmv) and a subgroup ii strain (q-cmv). here we show that the suppressor activity of sd2b is stronger than that of q2b and that a domain existent in sd2b but absent in q2b is a major determinant of the suppressor act ...200919059248
production of cucumber mosaic virus rna5 and its role in recombination.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is a plant infecting tripartite positive-strand rna virus. in addition to three genomic and two known subgenomic rnas, cmv strains of subgroup ii (e.g. q-cmv), but not subgroup i (e.g. fny-cmv), produce and package a redundant rna5 encompassing the 3' 304-307 nucleotides of rnas 2 and 3. the mechanism regulating rna5 production and its role in cmv life cycle is unknown. in this study, transient expression of q2 or q3 by agroinfiltration into nicotiana benthamiana plan ...200919059620
stability and competitiveness of interviral recombinant rnas derived from a chimeric cucumovirus.we previously described interviral recombinant rnas derived from a chimeric virus having rnas 1 and 2 of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) with rna 3 from the related tomato aspermy virus (tav) and the 2b gene from either tav or another strain of cmv. here, we show that these interviral recombinant rnas 3 were stable in the infected plants and could co-exist with their wild-type parental viral rnas in the same plants, but their de novo generations were inhibited in the presence of the wild-type parent ...200919063925
microtubule-associated protein atmpb2c plays a role in organization of cortical microtubules, stomata patterning, and tobamovirus infectivity.atmpb2c is the arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of mpb2c, a microtubule-associated host factor of tobacco mosaic virus movement protein that was been previously identified in nicotiana tabacum. to analyze the endogenous function of atmpb2c and its role in viral infections, transgenic arabidopsis plant lines stably overexpressing green fluorescent protein (gfp)-atmpb2c were established. the gfp-atmpb2c fusion protein was detectable in various cell types and organs and localized at micro ...200919074626
de novo emergence of a novel satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus following serial passages of the virus derived from rna transcripts.satellite rna (satrna) is often associated with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv); however, its origin remains unexplained and a subject for speculation. we passaged progeny of molecularly cloned cmv-fny and cmv-ls in nicotiana tabacum cv. ky 14 under greenhouse conditions. a satrna emerged after at least eight successive transfers of cmv-fny, but no satrna was recovered after eleven serial transfers of cmv-ls under the same conditions. the sequences of the newly emerged satrna were determined, and an ...200919082686
leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies.the expression of exogenous antibodies in plant is an effective strategy to confer protection against viral infection or to produce molecules with pharmaceutical interest. however, the acceptance of the transgenic technology to obtain self-protecting plants depends on the assessment of their substantial equivalence compared to non-modified crops with an established history of safe use. in fact, the possibility exists that the introduction of transgenes in plants may alter expression of endogenou ...200919099506
monoclonal antibodies specific to cucumber mosaic virus coat protein possess dna-hydrolyzing activity.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (cmv-cp) were designed from cdna and deduced amino acid sequences of the light chain genes of 10 out of 14 different hybridoma cell lines. ten of these mabs revealed a very restricted germline family vkappaii, within which gene bd2 has identical amino acid sequences with vipase and an i41sl 1-2 catalytic antibody light chain, both of which possess peptidase activity. four out of the 14 mabs illustrated another germline f ...200919187964
phylogenetic and transcriptional analysis of a strictosidine synthase-like gene family in arabidopsis thaliana reveals involvement in plant defence responses.protein domains with similarity to plant strictosidine synthase-like (ssl) sequences have been uncovered in the genomes of all multicellular organisms sequenced so far and are known to play a role in animal immune responses. among several distinct groups of arabidopsis thaliana ssl sequences, four genes (atssl4-atssl7) arranged in tandem on chromosome 3 show more similarity to ssl genes from drosophila melanogaster and caenorhabditis elegans than to other arabidopsis ssl genes. to examine whethe ...200919121120
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