lipid flippases promote antiviral silencing and the biogenesis of viral and host sirnas in arabidopsis.dicer-mediated processing of virus-specific dsrna into short interfering rnas (sirnas) in plants and animals initiates a specific antiviral defense by rna interference (rnai). in this study, we developed a forward genetic screen for the identification of host factors required for antiviral rnai in arabidopsis thaliana using whole-genome sequencing and a computational pipeline, we identified aminophospholipid transporting atpase 2 (ala2) and the related ala1 in the type iv subfamily of p-type atp ...201728123063
development of a molecular assay for the detection of cucumber mosaic virus and the discrimination of its subgroups i and ii.a nucleic acid based test for the detection of the economically important plant virus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) based on the luminex xtag technology was developed. this technology has the advantage of allowing the simultaneous detection of various targets. applying this method, we prove the presence of cmv in general and differentiate between its two subgroups i and ii for which significant differences concerning severity of symptoms and virulence have been reported. for the development of the ...201728109843
expression of an extracellular ribonuclease gene increases resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco.the apoplast plays an important role in plant defense against pathogens. some extracellular pr-4 proteins possess ribonuclease activity and may directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. it is likely that extracellular rnases can also protect plants against some viruses with rna genomes. however, many plant rnases are multifunctional and the direct link between their ribonucleolytic activity and antiviral defense still needs to be clarified. in this study, we evaluated the resistance of ni ...201628105959
viral effector protein manipulates host hormone signaling to attract insect vectors.some plant and animal pathogens can manipulate their hosts to cause them to release odors that are attractive to the pathogens' arthropod vectors. however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unexplored, and the specific effectors the pathogens employ as well as the pathways within the hosts they target are currently unknown. here we reveal that the aphid-borne cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) employs its 2b protein, a well-characterized viral suppressor of host rna interferenc ...201728059067
the roles of alpha-momorcharin and jasmonic acid in modulating the response of momordica charantia to cucumber mosaic virus.alpha-momorcharin (α-mmc) is a type-i ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kda that is found in momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. however, the role of endogenous α-mmc under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-mmc in plants are still unknown. to study the effect of α-mmc on plant viral defense and how α-mmc increases plant resistance to viru ...201627881976
genome-wide identification of endogenous rna-directed dna methylation loci associated with abundant 21-nucleotide sirnas in arabidopsis, the 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering rnas (sirnas) mediates rna-directed dna methylation (rddm) and transcriptional gene silencing (tgs) of transposable elements (tes). in the present study, we examined genome-wide changes in dna methylation and sirna accumulation in arabidopsis induced by expression of the cucumber mosaic virus silencing suppressor protein 2b known to directly bind to both the 21/24-nt sirnas as well as their associated argonaute proteins. we demonstrated a ...201627786269
trichoderma harzianum t-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by cucumber mosaic virus.understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. the ability of trichoderma harzianum, strain t-22 (t22) to control cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with t22/cmv were examined. plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reac ...201627777581
movement protein of cucumber mosaic virus associates with apoplastic ascorbate oxidase.plant viral movement proteins facilitate virion movement mainly through interaction with a number of factors from the host. we report the association of a cell wall localized ascorbate oxidase (csao4) from cucumis sativus with the movement protein (mp) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). this was identified first in a yeast two-hybrid screen and validated by in vivo pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (bifc) assays. the bifc assay showed localization of the bimolecular complexes o ...201727668429
interaction between cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein and plant catalase induces a specific necrosis in association with proteasome activity.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) can induce a specific necrosis on arabidopsis through the interaction between the cmv 2b protein and host catalase, in which the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be involved. we previously reported that the cmv 2b protein, the viral rna silencing suppressor, interacted with the h2o2 scavenger catalase (cat3), leading to necrosis on cmv-inoculated arabidopsis leaves. we here confirmed that cmv could more abundantly accumulate in the cat3-knockout mutant (cat3), and tha ...201727659495
rapid identification of qtls underlying resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in pepper (capsicum frutescens).next-generation sequencing enabled a fast discovery of qtls controlling cmv resistant in pepper. the gene ca02g19570 as a possible candidate gene of qcmr2.1 was identified for resistance to cmv in pepper. cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is one of the most important viruses infecting pepper, but the genetic basis of cmv resistance in pepper is elusive. in this study, we identified a candidate gene for cmv resistance qtl, qcmr2.1 through slaf-seq. segregation analysis in f2, bc1 and f2:3 populations d ...201727650192
cmv2b-ago interaction is required for the suppression of rdr-dependent antiviral silencing in arabidopsis.using a transient plant system, it was previously found that the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b protein relies on its double-strand (ds) rna binding capacity, but it is independent of its interaction with argonaute (ago) proteins. thus, the biological meaning of the 2b-ago interaction in the context of virus infection remains elusive. in this study, we created infectious clones of cmv mutants that expressed the 2b functional domains of dsrna or ago binding and tested the effect of ...201627605926
rna-seq reveals virus-virus and virus-plant interactions in research on plant viruses has focused mainly on crop diseases, little is known about these viruses in natural environments. to understand the ecology of viruses in natural systems, comprehensive information on virus-virus and virus-host interactions is required. we applied rna-seq to plants from a natural population of arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera to simultaneously determine the presence/absence of all sequence-reported viruses, identify novel viruses and quantify the host transcripto ...201627549115
development of reverse transcription thermostable helicase-dependent dna amplification for the detection of tomato spotted wilt virus.a protocol for the reverse transcription-helicase-dependent amplification (rt-hda) of isothermal dna was developed for the detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv). specific primers, which were based on the highly conserved region of the n gene sequence in tswv, were used for the amplification of virus's rna. the lod of rt-hda, reverse transcriptase-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays were conducted using 10-f ...201627538747
virus infection of plants alters pollinator preference: a payback for susceptible hosts?plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. however, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. we found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected tomato (solanum lycop ...201627513727
heterotrimeric g-proteins facilitate resistance to plant pathogenic viruses in arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh.heterotrimeric g-proteins, consisting of gα, gβ and gγ subunits, are important signal transducers in eukaryotes. in plants, g-protein-mediated signaling contributes to defense against a range of fungal and bacterial pathogens. here we studied response of g-protein-deficient mutants to ssrna viruses representing 2 different families: cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) (bromoviridae) and turnip mosaic virus (tumv) (potyviridae). we found that development of spreading necrosis on infected plants was suppr ...201627454415
the entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.we investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. immunohistochemical observations indicated that zymv was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. zymv-rna was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of zymv-inoculated cucumber. steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that zymv enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not ...201627400992
the detection of hydrogen peroxide involved in plant virus infection by fluorescence spectroscopy.the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) forms part of the defense reaction of plants against invading pathogens. ros have multifaceted signaling functions in mediating the establishment of multiple responses. to verify whether hydrogen peroxide (h2 o2 ) contributes to plant virus infection and the development of induced symptoms, we used fluorescence to monitor the generation of h2 o2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) to investigate the subcellular distribution of h2 o2 in le ...201627373455
partial biological and molecular characterization of a cucumber mosaic virus isolate naturally infecting cucumis melo in iran.melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. the virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of fabaceae family and chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) isolate showed the presence of cmv in th ...201627366772
golden2-like transcription factors coordinate the tolerance to cucumber mosaic virus in arabidopsis.arabidopsis thaliana golden2-like (glks) transcription factors play important roles in regulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes, as well as participate in chloroplast development. however, the involvement of glks in plants resistance to virus remains largely unknown. here, the relationship between glks and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) stress response was investigated. our results showed that the arabidopsis glk1glk2 double-mutant was more susceptible to cmv infection and suffered mor ...201627346129
role of transcription factor hat1 in modulating arabidopsis thaliana response to cucumber mosaic virus.arabidopsis thaliana homeodomain-leucine zipper protein 1 (hat1) belongs to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (hd-zip) family class ii that plays important roles in plant growth and development as a transcription factor. to elucidate further the role of hd-zip ii transcription factors in plant defense, the a. thaliana hat1, hat1hat3 and hat1hat2hat3 mutants and hat1 overexpression plants (hat1ox) were challenged with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). hat1ox displayed more susceptibility, while loss-of-f ...201627328697
the interaction between turnip crinkle virus p38 and cucumber mosaic virus 2b and its critical domains.cross protection is a common phenomenon among closely related strain viruses in co-infected plants. however, unrelated viruses, turnip crinkle virus (tcv) and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), also show an antagonistic effect in co-infected arabidopsis plants. in many cases, viral suppressors of rna silencing (vsrs) have important roles in the interactions between viruses in mixed infections. cmv 2b and tcv p38 are multifunctional proteins and both of them are well characterized vsrs and have importa ...201627288723
transcriptomic profiling of melon necrotic spot virus-infected melon plants revealed virus strain and plant cultivar-specific alterations.viruses are among the most destructive and difficult to control plant pathogens. melon (cucumis melo l.) has become the model species for the agriculturally important cucurbitaceae family. approaches that take advantage of recently developed genomic tools in melon have been extremely useful for understanding viral pathogenesis and can contribute to the identification of target genes for breeding new resistant cultivars. in this work, we have used a recently described melon microarray for transcr ...201627267368
asymmetric synthesis and bioselective activities of α-amino-phosphonates based on the dufulin motif.the asymmetric synthesis of enantiomerically pure α-aminophosphonates with high and bioselective activities is a challenge. here, we report that both enantiomers of α-aminophosphonates bearing the n-benzothiazole moiety can be prepared in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) by using chiral thiourea organocatalysts. evaluation of the antiviral activities of our reaction products against cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) led to promising hits with high and selective ...201627166879
a genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) from isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), designated cmv-rom, was isolated from rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near avignon, france. laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical cmv isolates, cmv-rom has a particularly narrow host range. it could be transmitted by aphids aphis gossypii and myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical cmv isolate. phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the cmv-rom genomic rnas shows that this isolate ...201627138549
aquaporin-mediated long-distance polyphosphate translocation directed towards the host in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: application of virus-induced gene silencing.arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi translocate polyphosphate through hyphae over a long distance to deliver to the host. more than three decades ago, suppression of host transpiration was found to decelerate phosphate delivery of the fungal symbiont, leading us to hypothesize that transpiration provides a primary driving force for polyphosphate translocation, probably via creating hyphal water flow in which fungal aquaporin(s) may be involved. the impact of transpiration suppression on polyphosphate t ...201627136716
aphid performance changes with plant defense mediated by cucumber mosaic virus titer.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) causes appreciable losses in vegetables, ornamentals and agricultural crops. the green peach aphid, myzus persicae sulzer (aphididae) is one of the most efficient vectors for cmv. the transmission ecology of aphid-vectored cmv has been well investigated. however, the detailed description of the dynamic change in the plant-cmv-aphid interaction associated with plant defense and virus epidemics is not well known.201627103351
the effects of plant virus infection on polarization reflection from leaves.alteration of leaf surface phenotypes due to virus infection has the potential to affect the likelihood of colonisation by insect vectors, or to affect their feeding activities. the aim of this study was to investigate whether viruses that rely on insects for their transmission, and which can be sensitive to the polarization of light, affect the percentage polarization of light reflected from leaves. we also set out to discover whether a correlation exists between the expression of eceriferum (c ...201627100188
a petunia ethylene-responsive element binding factor, pherf2, plays an important role in antiviral rna silencing.virus-induced rna silencing is involved in plant antiviral defense and requires key enzyme components, including rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrs), dicer-like rnase iii enzymes (dcls), and argonaute proteins (agos). however, the transcriptional regulation of these critical components is largely unknown. in petunia (petunia hybrida), an ethylene-responsive element binding factor, pherf2, is induced by tobacco rattle virus (trv) infection. inclusion of a pherf2 fragment in a trv silencing const ...201627099376
functionality of host proteins in cucumber mosaic virus replication: gapdh is obligatory to promote interaction between replication-associated, we evaluated the role of two host proteins, a bromo domain containing rna binding protein (brp1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), in the replication of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). lc-ms/ms analysis of host/viral proteins pull down against brp1 from cmv-infected plants co-infiltrated with brp1-flag agroconstruct identified that brp1 specifically interacts with a ten amino acid motif (843-spqdvvplvr-852) encompassing the helicase domain of replicase protein p1a. the int ...201627077230
unusual rna plant virus integration in the soybean genome leads to the production of small rnas.horizontal gene transfer (hgt) is known to be a major force in genome evolution. the acquisition of genes from viruses by eukaryotic genomes is a well-studied example of hgt, including rare cases of non-retroviral rna virus integration. the present study describes the integration of cucumber mosaic virus rna-1 into soybean genome. after an initial metatranscriptomic analysis of small rnas derived from soybean, the de novo assembly resulted a 3029-nt contig homologous to rna-1. the integration of ...201626993236
corrigendum: enhancement of rna-directed dna methylation of a transgene by simultaneously downregulating a ros1 ortholog using a virus vector in nicotiana benthamiana.[this corrects the article on p. 44 in vol. 4, pmid: 23565118.].201626973697
an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector for maize functional genomics research.maize is a major crop whose rich genetic diversity provides an advanced resource for genetic research. however, a tool for rapid transient gene function analysis in maize that may be utilized in most maize cultivars has been lacking, resulting in reliance on time-consuming stable transformation and mutation studies to obtain answers. we developed an efficient virus-induced gene silencing (vigs) vector for maize based on a naturally maize-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain, zmbj-cmv. an ...201626921244
aphid vector population density determines the emergence of necrogenic satellite rnas in populations of cucumber mosaic virus.the satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) that induce systemic necrosis in tomato plants (n-satrna) multiply to high levels in the infected host while severely depressing cmv accumulation and, hence, its aphid transmission efficiency. as n-satrnas are transmitted into cmv particles, the conditions for n-satrna emergence are not obvious. model analyses with realistic parameter values have predicted that n-satrnas would invade cmv populations only when transmission rates are high. here, we ...201626916424
elevated co2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (co2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. life history and feeding behaviour of myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aco2, 400 ppm) or elevated co2 (eco2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. plant parameters were significantly altered by eco2 with a negative impact on aphid's life hi ...201626743585
biological and molecular characterization of a korean isolate of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus infecting cucumis species in korea.surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (c. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (c. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, korea. severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. the symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thi ...201526673519
sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. five new isolates of cmv were isolated from naturally infected hippeastrum hybridum, dahlia pinnata, hemerocallis fulva, acorus calamus and typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. for molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (cp) gene of these isolates was amplified by rt-pcr. the resulting amplicons were ...201526666188
cmv1 is a gate for cucumber mosaic virus transport from bundle sheath cells to phloem in melon.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has the broadest host range among plant viruses, causing enormous losses in agriculture. in melon, strains of subgroup ii are unable to establish a systemic infection in the near-isogenic line sc12-1-99, which carries the recessive resistance gene cmv1 from the accession pi 161375, cultivar 'songwhan charmi'. strains of subgroup i overcome cmv1 resistance in a manner dependent on the movement protein. we characterized the resistance conferred by cmv1 and established t ...201626661733
expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid pathway in type h1 thioredoxin transiently silenced pepper plants during a begomovirus compatible interaction.the type-h thioredoxins (trxs) play a fundamental role in oxidative stress tolerance and defense responses against pathogens. in pepper plants, type-h trxs participate in the defense mechanism against cucumber mosaic virus. the goal of this study was to analyze the role of the catrxh1-cicy gene in pepper plants during compatible interaction with a dna virus, the euphorbia mosaic virus-yucatan peninsula (eumv-yp). the effects of a transient silencing of the catrxh1-cicy gene in pepper plants wëre ...201626606929
synthesis, antiviral activity, 3d-qsar, and interaction mechanisms study of novel malonate derivatives containing quinazolin-4(3h)-one moiety.a series of novel malonate derivatives containing quinazolin-4(3h)-one moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activities against cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). results indicated that the title compounds exhibited good antiviral activities. notably, compounds g15, g16, g17, and g18 exhibited excellent curative activities in vivo against cmv, with 50% effective concentration (ec50) values of 208.36, 153.78, 181.47, and 164.72μg/ml, respectively, which were better than that of ning ...201626598463
multiple virus resistance using artificial trans-acting sirnas.plant tas gene encoded trans-acting sirnas (ta-sirnas) regulate the expression of target mrnas by guiding their cleavage at the sequence complementary region as micrornas. since one tas transcript is cleaved into multiple ta-sirnas in a phased manner, tas genes may be engineered to express multiple artificial ta-sirnas (ata-sirnas) that target multiple viruses at several distinct genomic positions. to test this hypothesis, the arabidopsis tas3a gene was engineered to express ata-sirnas targeting ...201626562057
satellite rnas and satellite viruses.satellite rnas and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. most of these satellite rnas are noncoding rnas, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. in only a few cases have the functions of these satellite rnas in such interactions been stu ...201626551994
temporal analysis of reassortment and molecular evolution of cucumber mosaic virus: extra clues from its segmented genome.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is a damaging pathogen of over 200 mono- and dicotyledonous crop species worldwide. it has the broadest known host range of any virus, but the timescale of its evolution is unknown. to investigate the evolutionary history of this virus, we obtained the genomic sequences of 40 cmv isolates from brassicas sampled in iran, turkey and japan, and combined them with published sequences. our synonymous ('silent') site analyses revealed that the present cmv population is the ...201626539800
a shift in plant proteome profile for a bromodomain containing rna binding protein (brp1) in plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and its satellite proteins are the integral part of a successful infection caused by a given rna virus pathogenic to plants. therefore, identification of crucial host proteins playing an important role in establishing the infection process is likely to help in devising approaches to curbing disease spread. cucumber mosaic virus (q-cmv) and its satellite rna (qsatrna) are important pathogens of many economically important crop plants worldwide. in a previous study, we demonstrated the biological significance ...201626463137
environment and host genotype determine the outcome of a plant-virus interaction: from antagonism to has been hypothesized that plant-virus interactions vary between antagonism and conditional mutualism according to environmental conditions. this hypothesis is based on scant experimental evidence, and to test it we examined the effect of abiotic factors on the arabidopsis thaliana-cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) interaction. four arabidopsis genotypes clustering into two allometric groups were grown under six environments defined by three temperature and two light-intensity conditions. plants we ...201626365599
synthesis, anti-tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus activity, and 3d-qsar study of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety.a series of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety were designed and synthesized. antiviral bioassay results indicated that most of the title compounds exhibited excellent antiviral activities against tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in vivo. among the title compounds, 7j exhibited the best curative activity against tmv, with a half-maximal effective concentration (ec50) value of 213.5 μg/ml, which was better than that of ningnanmycin ...201526318070
differential life history trait associations of aphids with nonpersistent viruses in cucurbits.the diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. we assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. we quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex rt-pcr targeting cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), and pa ...201526313961
high temperature, high ambient co₂ affect the interactions between three positive-sense rna viruses and a compatible host differentially, but not their silencing suppression efficiencies.we compared infection of nicotiana benthamiana plants by the positive-sense rna viruses cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), potato virus y (pvy), and by a potato virus x (pvx) vector, the latter either unaltered or expressing the cmv 2b protein or the pvy hcpro suppressors of silencing, at 25°c vs. 30°c, or at standard (~401 parts per million, ppm) vs. elevated (970 ppm) co2 levels. we also assessed the activities of their suppressors of silencing under those conditions. we found that at 30°c, accumula ...201526313753
genotyping of cucumber mosaic virus isolates in western new york state during epidemic years: characterization of an emergent plant virus the early 2000s an epidemic of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) spread within the midwestern and eastern us affecting snap and dry bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) cultivation. fifty one cmv isolates from this period were partially characterized from varied hosts by sequencing a section from each of the three genomic rnas. aside from one subgroup ii strain from pepper, all isolates, including those from snap bean, fell within the ia subgroup. the nucleotide sequence diversity of virus populations samp ...201526254084
postharvest survival of porcine sapovirus, a human norovirus surrogate, on phytopathogen-infected leafy greens.leafy greens are increasingly being recognized as an important vehicle for human noroviruses (hunov), which cause recurring gastroenteritis outbreaks. leafy greens often become infected by phytopathogens in the field, which may cause symptoms on the edible parts. whether plant pathogen infections enhance the survival of hunov on leafy greens is unknown. lettuce and spinach plants were infected with a bacterium, xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians strain 701a, and with cucumber mosaic virus strain ...201526219360
plant subviral rnas as a long noncoding rna (lncrna): analogy with animal lncrnas in host-virus interactions.satellite rnas (satrnas) and viroids belong to the group called subviral agents and are the smallest pathogens of plants. in general, small satrnas and viroids are 300-400 nt in size and do not encode any functional proteins; they are thus regarded as so-called long noncoding rnas (lncrnas). these lncrnas are receiving great attention as a new rna class involved in gene regulation to control important biological processes such as gene transcription and epigenetic regulation. a substantial number ...201626116900
molecular characterization of cucumber mosaic virus isolates infecting tomato in hamedan and tehran provinces of we identified four isolates, ms, 3h, 50a, and 2k of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) infecting tomato, on the basis of their non-coding intergenic region and a part of the coat protein (cp) sequence in the cmv genomic rna3. the sequences from the four isolates were compared with other previously characterized isolates of cmv isolated from different plant species across the globe. sequence comparisons revealed that the two cmv isolates from hamedan province (ms and 3h) had the highest sequence id ...201526104334
a critical evaluation of whether recombination in virus-resistant transgenic plants will lead to the emergence of novel viral the evaluation of the potential impacts of first-generation genetically modified (gm) crops, one of the most complex issues has been whether the expression of viral sequences would lead to the emergence of novel viruses, which could occur through recombination between transgene mrna and that of an infecting non-target virus. here, we examine this issue, focusing on cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), which is a particularly pertinent choice, as it is both a major plant pathogen and also the virus wi ...201525982848
visual monitoring of cucumber mosaic virus infection in nicotiana benthamiana following transmission by the aphid vector myzus persicae.the single-stranded, positive-sense and tripartite rna virus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was used in this study as a method for monitoring the initial stages of virus infection following aphid transmission. the rna2 of cmv was modified to incorporate, in a variety of arrangements, an open reading frame (orf) encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp). the phenotypes of five engineered rna2s were tested in nicotiana tabacum, nicotiana clevelandii and nicotiana benthamiana. only one con ...201525979730
satellite rnas interfere with the function of viral rna silencing suppressors.viral satellite rnas (satrnas) are small subviral rnas and depend on the helper virus for replication and spread. satrnas can attenuate helper virus-induced symptoms, the mechanism of which remains unclear. here, we show that two virus-encoded suppressors of rna silencing (vsrs), cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b and tombusvirus p19, suppress hairpin rna (hprna)-induced silencing of a β-glucuronidase (gus) gene in nicotiana benthamiana. this suppression can be overcome by cmv y-satellite rna (y-sat ...201525964791
correction: nicotiana small rna sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004906.].201525915543
comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three rna viruses: cucumber mosaic virus, tomato spotted wilt virus and potato virus x.the chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. so far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. in this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) and potato virus x (pvx). a chrysanthemum 135k microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression ...201525904110
mutation and recombination frequencies reveal a biological contrast within strains of cucumber mosaic virus.recent in planta studies have shown that strains fny and ls of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) display differential genetic diversities, fny and ls having higher and lower mutation frequencies, respectively (j. s. pita and m. j. roossinck, j virol 87:790–797, 2012 in this article, we show that these virus strains have differential recombination frequencies as well. however, the high-diversity fny strain is a low-recombination virus, whereas the very-low-diver ...201525903331
co-digestion of tobacco waste with different agricultural biomass feedstocks and the inhibition of tobacco viruses by anaerobic digestion.tobacco is widely planted across the world especially in china, which means that a large amount of tobacco waste needs to be treated. this study investigated the biogas fermentation of tobacco stalks co-digested with different biomass feedstocks and the inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) by anaerobic digestion. results showed that the maximum methane yield of tobacco stalks at 35 °c was 0.163 m(3) ch4 ⋅ kg vs(-1), which was from the co-digestion of tobacco st ...201525898081
two amino acids near the n-terminus of cucumber mosaic virus 2b play critical roles in the suppression of rna silencing and viral infectivity.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b suppresses rna silencing primarily through the binding of double-stranded rna (dsrna) of varying sizes. however, the biologically active form of 2b remains elusive. here, we demonstrate that the single and double alanine substitution mutants in the n-terminal 15th leucine and 18th methionine of cmv 2b exhibit drastically attenuated virulence in wild-type plants, but are efficiently rescued in mutant plants defective in rna-dependent rna polymerase 6 (rdr6) and dice ...201625893424
characterisation of the dark green islands of cucumber mosaic virus infected nicotiana tabacum.there are significant differences between the dgis and lgts. additionally, most of the characteristics indicate that the dgis are more similar to recovered tissue and can resist viral attacks. dark green islands (dgis) surrounded by light green tissues (lgts) are common leaf symptoms of plants that are systemically infected by various mosaic viruses. we performed cytological, physiological and molecular biological analyses of the dgis and lgts in cucumber mosaic virus-infected nicotiana tabacum ...201525782691
antiviral activity of thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) on citrullus lanatus.watermelon mosaic potyvirus (wmv) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. to overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by ev ...201525737655
heterologous replicase driven 3' end repair of cucumber mosaic virus satellite investigate the extent of the 3' end repair in a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain q (q(sat)) by a heterologous tomato aspermy virus (tav), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic rnas of tav was developed. analysis of nicotiana benthamiana plants agroinfiltrated with tav and either wild type or each of the six 3' deletion mutants of q(sat) revealed that (i) heterologous replicase failed to generate q(sat) multimers, a hallmark featu ...201525705791
impact of cucumber mosaic virus infection on the varietal traits of common bean cultivars in iran.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) appears to be one of the most widespread pathogens on beans. in the present research, 49 iranian lines and cultivars of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) were screened for their reaction to cmv. plants at primary leaf stage were inoculated with cmv by rub inoculation and then they were kept in an insect-proof growth chamber at 20 °c. three weeks postinoculation, inoculated plants were assayed based on their symptoms, growth rate, fresh and dry weights and virus titer. ...201425674621
complete sequence of rna3 of cucumber mosaic virus isolates infecting gerbera jamesonii suggests its grouping under ib subgroup.the complete rna3 genome of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was amplified by rt-pcr from three infected gerbera (gerbera jamesonii) leaf samples exhibiting severe chlorotic mosaic and flower deformation symptoms. the amplicons obtained were cloned sequenced and deposited in genbank under the accessions jn692495, jx913531 (from cv. zingaro) and jx888093 (from cv. silvester). these sequences shared 98-99 % identities to each other and with a strain of cmv-banana reported from india, and 90-95 % identi ...201425674612
identification of sirna generating hot spots in multiple viral suppressors to generate broad-spectrum antiviral resistance in plants.viruses are one of the most devastating plant pathogens causing severe economic losses worldwide. rna silencing is a robust technology to knock down the expression of specific genes. this mechanism can be exploited to generate virus resistant plants through expression of the viral derived sequences. viruses in turn have evolved to encode suppressors of rna silencing to combat host defense. mixed infection of plants is of common occurrence in nature and simultaneous targeting of suppressor(s) of ...201525648440
design, synthesis, and antiviral activity of novel rutin derivatives containing 1, 4-pentadien-3-one moiety.rutin (compound 5) and some compounds (compounds 1-4 and 6) were isolated from artemisia princeps pamp (a. princeps pamp.) and a series of novel rutin derivatives containing 1,4-pentadien-3-one moiety were designed and synthesized. the target compounds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)h nmr), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)c nmr), and esi-ms. bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds showed good to excellent antiviral activ ...201525618020
combined use of genetic and genomics resources to understand virus resistance and fruit quality traits in melon.the availability of the genome sequence of many crop species during the past few years has opened a new era in plant biology, allowing for the performance of massive genomic studies in plant species other than the classical models arabidopsis and rice. one of these crop species is melon (cucumis melo), a cucurbit of high economic value that has become an interesting model for the study of biological processes such as fruit ripening, sex determination and phloem transport. the recent availability ...201525594580
nicotiana small rna sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna.satellite rnas (satrnas) are small noncoding subviral rna pathogens in plants that depend on helper viruses for replication and spread. despite many decades of research, the origin of satrnas remains unknown. in this study we show that a β-glucuronidase (gus) transgene fused with a cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) y satellite rna (y-sat) sequence (35s-gus:sat) was transcriptionally repressed in n. tabacum in comparison to a 35s-gus transgene that did not contain the y-sat sequence. this repression wa ...201525568943
unique symbiotic viruses in plants: endornaviruses.linear double-stranded rnas (dsrnas) of about 15 kbp in length are often found from healthy plants, such as bell pepper and rice plants. nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses reveal that these dsrnas are not transcribed from host genomic dnas, encode a single long open reading frame (orf) with a viral rna-dependent rna polymerase domain, and contain a site-specific nick in the 5' region of their coding strands. consequently the international committee on taxonomy of viruses has approve ...201527760919
the impact of silicon on transcripts related to cucumber mosaic virus infection in cucumber.the role of soluble silicon (si) in alleviating viral plant infections is largely unknown. in order to analyse this gap in knowledge, this study provides insights into the relative gene expression data obtained from 1) control, 2) cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected and 3) sodium silica-treated, cmv-infected cucumis sativus line b10 tissue cultures regenerated plants. the absence or presence of cmv was determined through rt-pcr, six days' post-inoculation. qrt-pcr was performed on five selected ...201527141739
a single amino acid at n-terminal region of the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus strain m1 has a pivotal role in virus responses to infection by a mild strain of cucumber mosaic virus, termed cmv-m1, were re-examined in several plant species in comparison with those by a severe strain cmv-y. mild systemic symptoms were developed on the six plant species inoculated with cmv-m1. virus titer in the nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with cmv-m1 was significantly lower than those infected with cmv-y, although infection by cmv-m1 interfered with further infection by cmv-y in the plants. subsequently, the atte ...201525541532
cucumber mosaic virus as a carotenoid inhibitor reducing phelipanche aegyptiaca infection in tobacco plants.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is a highly infectious cucumovirus, which infects more than 800 plant species and causes major diseases in greenhouse and field crops worldwide. parasitic weeds such as phelipanche aegyptiaca are a major constraint to the production of many crops in the world and the parasite's lifestyle makes control extremely difficult. the parasite seeds can germinate after conditioning and perceiving strigolactones secreted by the host roots. strigolactones are rhizosphere signali ...201425482816
four sequence positions of the movement protein of cucumber mosaic virus determine the virulence against cmv1-mediated resistance in melon.the resistance to a set of strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in the melon accession pi 161375, cultivar 'songwhan charmi', is dependent on one recessive gene, cmv1, which confers total resistance, whereas a second set of strains is able to overcome it. we tested 11 strains of cmv subgroups i and ii in the melon line sc12-1-99, which carries the gene cmv1, and showed that this gene confers resistance to strains of subgroup ii only and that restriction is not related to either viral replicati ...201525470079
control of insect vectors and plant viruses in protected crops by novel pyrethroid-treated nets.long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llitns) constitute a novel alternative that combines physical and chemical tactics to prevent insect access and the spread of insect-transmitted plant viruses in protected enclosures. this approach is based on a slow-release insecticide-treated net with large hole sizes that allow improved ventilation of greenhouses. the efficacy of a wide range of llitns was tested under laboratory conditions against myzus persicae, aphis gossypii and bemisia tabaci. two n ...201525404196
alanine scanning of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b protein identifies different positions for cell-to-cell movement and gene silencing suppressor activity.the multifunctional 2b protein of cmv has a role in the long distance and local movement of the virus, in symptom formation, in evasion of defense mediated by salicylic acid as well as in suppression of rna silencing. the role of conserved amino acid sequence domains were analyzed previously in the protein function, but comprehensive analysis of this protein was not carried out until recently. we have analyzed all over the 2b protein by alanine scanning mutagenesis changing three consecutive ami ...201425380036
the relationship between host lifespan and pathogen reservoir potential: an analysis in the system arabidopsis thaliana--cucumber mosaic virus.identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. it has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. this hypothesis is sustained by analyses o ...201425375140
dna-templated assembly of viral protein hydrogel.hydrogels are a promising class of biomaterials that can be easily tailored to produce a native extracellular matrix that exhibits desirable mechanical and chemical properties. here we report the construction of a hydrogel via the assembly of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) capsid protein and y-shaped and cross-shaped dnas.201425359526
robust rna silencing-mediated resistance to plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions.some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. however, depending on the strategy followed to achieve ptgs of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. in the present study, we utilized the nicotiana benthamiana–plum pox virus (ppv) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-ha ...201425346969
pseudorecombination between two distinct strains of cucumber mosaic virus results in enhancement of symptom severity.recently, a cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain, named as cmv-209, was isolated from glycine soja. in this study, symptom expression of cmv-209 was analyzed in detail in nicotiana benthamiana by comparing with that of cmv-fny, which is a representative strain of cmv. using infectious cdna clones of cmv strains 209 and fny, symptom expression of various pseudorecombinants between these two strains were examined in the early and late infection stages. in the early infection stage, the pseudorecombi ...201425289019
first report of cucumber mosaic virus isolated from wild vigna angularis var. nipponensis in korea.a viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around suwon area in korea. the causal virus was characterized as cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of rnas 1, 2 and 3 and named as cmv-wva. cmv-wva isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi-nc, petunia hybrida, and cucumis sativus. strikingly, cmv-wva induced severe mosaic and malform ...201425289004
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based system for simultaneous detection of multiple lily-infecting viruses.a detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (rt) polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. the most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), lily mottle virus (lmov), lily symptomless virus (lsv). leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the kangwon province of korea and used to evaluate the detection system. simplex and multiplex rt-pcr were performe ...201325288961
cloning and profiling of small rnas from cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna.rna silencing is not only a gene regulation mechanism that is conserved in a broad range of eukaryotes but also an adaptive immune response against foreign nucleic acids including viruses in plants. a major feature of rna silencing is the production of small rna (srna) of 21-24 nucleotides (nt) in length from double-stranded (ds) or hairpin-like (hp) rna by dicer-like (dcl) proteins. these srnas guide the binding and cleavage of cognate single-stranded (ss) rna by an rna silencing complex. like ...201525287499
the effect of chrysoperla carnea (neuroptera: chrysopidae) and adalia bipunctata (coleoptera: coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) by aphis gossypii (hemiptera: aphididae).the effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of chrysoperla carnea and adults of adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central cmv-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector ...201525208589
identification of micrornas and their targets in tomato infected with cucumber mosaic virus based on deep sequencing.micrornas (mirnas) play important regulatory roles in plant development and stress responses. tomato is an economically important vegetable crop in the world with publicly available genomic information database, but only a limited number of tomato mirnas have been identified. in this study, two independent small rna libraries from mock and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected tomatoes were constructed, respectively, and sequenced with a high-throughput illumina solexa system. based on sequence a ...201425204630
virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous sirnas in arabidopsis.antiviral immunity controlled by rna interference (rnai) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral rnas by the virus-derived small interfering rnas (sirnas). here we show that activation of antiviral rnai in arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous sirnas mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rrna. these virus-activated sirnas (vasirnas) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ...201425201959
tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection.tomato yellow leaf curl virus (tylcv) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. recently, the ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an rna-dependent rna polymerase and to be allelic with ty-3. here we show that upon tylcv challenging of resistant lines carrying ty-1 or ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production o ...201425136118
molecular genetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus populations infecting pepper suggests unique patterns of evolution in korea.studying genetic structure and diversity of viruses is important to understand the evolutionary mechanisms that generate and maintain variations in viral populations. cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is endemic in most pepper fields in korea. currently, no effective methods for control of cmv are available due to many environmental and biological factors such as the extensive evolutionary capacity of cmv. thus, analyzing the genetic structure of cmv populations may facilitate the development of strat ...201425116642
the capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and turnip crinkle virus (tcv) belong to different families, but arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. in this study, we found that tcv provides effective resistance to infection by cmv in arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. ...201425092463
vertical transmission selects for reduced virulence in a plant virus and for increased resistance in the host.for the last three decades, evolutionary biologists have sought to understand which factors modulate the evolution of parasite virulence. although theory has identified several of these modulators, their effect has seldom been analysed experimentally. we investigated the role of two such major factors-the mode of transmission, and host adaptation in response to parasite evolution-in the evolution of virulence of the plant virus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in its natural host arabidopsis thaliana ...201425077948
a versatile complementation assay for cell-to-cell and long distance movements by cucumber mosaic virus based agro-infiltration.microinjection, bombardment or tobamovirus and potexvirus based assay has been developed to identify the putative movement protein (mp) or to characterize plasmodesma-mediated macromolecular transport. in this study, we developed a versatile complementation assay for the cell-to-cell and long distance movements of macromolecules by agro-infiltration based on the infectious clones of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). the movement-deficient cmv reporter was constructed by replacing the mp on rna 3 with ...201425014544
coat protein mutations in an attenuated cucumber mosaic virus encoding mutant 2b protein that lacks rna silencing suppressor activity induces chlorosis with photosynthesis gene repression and chloroplast abnormalities in infected tobacco tobacco plants, the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) pepo strain induces mosaic symptoms, including pale green chlorosis and malformed tissues. here, we characterized the involvement of 2b protein and coat protein (cp) in the development of mosaic symptoms. a 2b mutant (r46c) that lacks viral suppressor of rna silencing (vsr) activity showed an asymptomatic phenotype with low levels of virus accumulation. tomato spotted wilt virus nss protein did not complement the virulence of the r46c, although ...201424889248
genetic structure and molecular variability of cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the united states.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. from 2000 to 2012, epidemics of cmv severely affected the production of snap bean (phaseulos vulgaris l.) in the midwest and northeastern united states. virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. in addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of p ...201424801880
evidence of local adaptation in plant virus effects on host-vector interactions.recent research suggests that plant viruses, and other pathogens, frequently alter host-plant phenotypes in ways that facilitate transmission by arthropod vectors. however, many viruses infect multiple hosts, raising questions about whether these pathogens are capable of inducing transmission-facilitating phenotypes in phylogenetically divergent host plants and the extent to which evolutionary history with a given host or plant community influences such effects. to explore these issues, we worke ...201424748599
quantitative transcriptional changes associated with chlorosis severity in mosaic leaves of tobacco plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) causes mosaic disease in inoculated tobacco plants. coat protein (cp) is one of the major virulence determinants of cmv, and an amino acid substitution at residue 129 in cp alters the severity of chlorosis, such as pale green chlorosis and white chlorosis, in symptomatic tissues of mosaic leaves of infected tobacco. in this study, we compared the transcriptomes of chlorotic tissues infected with the wild-type pepo strain of cmv and two strains carrying cp mutants with ...201424745045
identification, molecular cloning and expression analysis of five rna-dependent rna polymerase genes in salvia miltiorrhiza.rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrs) act as key components of the small rna biogenesis pathways and play significant roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs) and antiviral defense. however, there is no information about the rdr gene family in salvia miltiorrhiza, an emerging model medicinal plant with great economic value. through genome-wide predication and subsequent molecular cloning, five full-length s. miltiorrhiza rdr genes, termed smrdr1-smrdr5, were identified. the length of s ...201424733018
domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (sa), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. in arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with cmv, the 2b protein also primes the induction of sa biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. we found that cmv infection of susceptible tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) also induced sa accumulation. ...201424633701
nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of cucumber mosaic virus protein 2b determines the balance between its roles as a virulence determinant and an rna-silencing suppressor.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b protein is an rna-silencing suppressor that plays roles in cmv accumulation and virulence. the 2b proteins of subgroup ia cmv strains partition between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the biological significance of this is uncertain. we fused an additional nuclear localization signal (nls) to the 2b protein of subgroup ia strain fny-cmv to create 2b-nls and tested its effects on subcellular distribution, silencing, and virulence. the additional nls enhanced 2b p ...201424599997
effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. as individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. in this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three c ...201424571200
repair of the 3' proximal and internal deletions of a satellite rna associated with cucumber mosaic virus is directed toward restoring structural integrity.the phenomenon of rapid turnover of 3' proximal nucleotides (nt) lost by the action of nuclease in rna viruses is integral to replication. here, a set of six deletions encompassing the 3' 23 nt region of a satellite rna (satrna) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain q (q-sat), were engineered. repair of the 3' end was not observed in the absence of cmv. however, co-expression with cmv in planta revealed that q-sat mutants lacking the 3' 18 nt but not the 3' 23 nt are repaired and the progeny acc ...201424503085
using a viral vector to reveal the role of microrna159 in disease symptom induction by a severe strain of cucumber mosaic transgenic arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana), expression of the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b silencing suppressor protein from the severe subgroup ia strain fny disrupted microrna (mirna)-regulated development but orthologs from mild subgroup ii strains (q and ls) did not, explaining strain-specific differences in symptom severity. however, it is unknown which mirnas affected by fny2b critically affect viral symptoms. observations that fny2b-transgenic plants phenocopy microrna159ab (mir15 ...201424492335
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 1095