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molecular organization and stabilizing forces of simple rna viruses. v. the role of lysyl residues in the stabilization of cucumber mosaic virus strain s. 19765803
investigation on the infection of cucumber mesophyll protoplasts with cucumber mosaic virus.isolated protoplasts from the first leaf mesophyll of cucumber plants have been successfully infected in vitro with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). virus instability before, during and after inoculation of the protoplasts resulted in low infectivities when extracts were assayed on cowpea; however, viral rna extraction improved the bioassay technique. attempts to optimize inoculation and incubation of protoplasts are outlined, incorporating the improved assay.197613767
antiphytoviral activity of 2,4 dioxo hexahydro triazine.three treatments with 2,4 dioxo hexahydro triazine (dht) significantly reduced the concentration of potato virus x (pvx) in systemically infected tobacco plants. in hypersensitive plants dht caused a reduction in the number of local lesions produced by pvx. in systemic and hypersensitive hosts, treatment with dht resulted in a more or less marked reduction in the concentration of, and in the number of local lesions caused by, potato virus y (pvy), potato virus a (pva), tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) ...197942301
cucumber mosaic virus rna contains 7-methyl guanosine at the 5'-terminus of all four rna species.purified cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) rna was reacted with naio4 and then [3h]kbh4 to label ends containing exposed 2',3'-hydroxyls. the four major rna species were then fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. analysis of digests of these rnas by ribonucleases t1 plus t2, alkaline phosphatease, snake venom diesterase and nucleotide pyrophosphatase by means of paper electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography indicated that the sequence m7g(5')ppp(5')n was present at the 5'-end of ...1975175260
[dioxohexahydrotriazine, a new synthetic antiphytoviral compound (author's transl)].this paper reports the first results of studies made to determine the antiviral activity of dioxo hexahydro triazine, a newly developed antiphytoviral compound. after treatment with dioxo hexahydro triazine, the concentration of helical potato virus x in leaves of nicotiana tabacum "samsun" was found to be considerably reduced in both the serological test and local lesion test conducted on nicotiana glutinosa at temperatures of 14 degrees c +/- 3 degrees c. in secondarily infected leaves, the re ...1979473960
characterization of a satellite rna associated with cucumber mosaic virus. 1978622808
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. v. extensive nucleotide sequence homology among carna 5 preparations of different cmv strains. 1978644887
survival of a satellite rna in vivo and its dependence on cucumber mosaic virus for replication. 1978664246
[on the effect of some morpholinium compounds on the multiplication of rna viruses (author's transl)].in the present paper the authors report about the effect of n,n-dimethylmorpholinium chloride (dmmc), n,n-dimethyl-2-oxomorpholinium chloride (dmomc), and n,n-diethyl-2-oxomorpholinium chloride (deomc) on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), potato virus x (pvx), and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) as well as the plaque formation by the rna phages m 12, f 2, and qbeta. the used morpholinium compounds do not influence strikingly the multiplication of phytoviruses. the results found by se ...1978685536
[differential thermal behavior of various strains of cucumber mosaic virus. hypothesis of a pleiotropic mechanism connecting various properties].pseudorecombinat viruses are constructed by mixing rna coming from two cmv strains differentiated by their thermosensitivity. the pseudorecombinant shows thermal properties analogous to the parental strain diving rna number 3. in order to explain the numerous properties coded by rna 3 a pleiotropic effect is considered.1976827369
synthesis of single- and double-stranded cucumber mosaic virus rnas in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. 1977888352
distribution of cucumber mosaic virus in systemically infected tobacco leaves. 1977888355
cucumber mosaic virus rna 5. partial characterization and evidence for no large sequence homologies with genomic rnas. 1977891991
physical and chemical differentiation of three strains of cucumber mosaic virus and peanut stunt virus. 1976982815
further studies on the rna component distribution among the nucleoproteins of cucumber mosaic virus. 1976982816
[systemic infestation by cucumber mosaic virus on french bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) in the german democratic republic (author's transl)]. 19751242556
widely separated sequence elements within cucumber mosaic virus satellites contribute to their ability to induce lethal tomato necrosis.to determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants d, s and y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cdnas. d and s are necrogenic and non-necrogenic 'prototype' variants, respectively, and y possesses the 3' conserved necrosis-determining region but does not cause lethal tomato necrosis. its 5' half harbours an insertion/deletion region that results in a molecule about 30 nucleotides longe ...19921279099
high resistance to cucumber mosaic virus conferred by satellite rna and coat protein in transgenic commercial tobacco cultivar g-140.a chimeric vector was constructed to express cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellite (sat) rna and coat protein (cp). transgenic lines of tobacco cultivar g-140 expressing cp and sat-rna were obtained; these lines had high resistance to cmv. fifty to 70% of the transgenic plants were symptomless 90 days after inoculation with 25-50 micrograms/ml of cmv. resistance was about twice that conferred by the sat-rna or the cp gene alone in transformed plants.19921282396
proceedings: studies on the replication of cucumber mosaic virus. 19761275390
association of rna 3 with aphid transmission of cucumber mosaic virus. 1977888360
[spontaneous hosts of broad bean wilt virus. communication].of 110 plant species, grown from seeds in the vicinity of sources of broad bean wilt virus (bbwv) in 1974, exactly 50% proved to be infected by the mentioned virus within one vegetation period. obviously 54 of the species are previously unknown hosts of bbwv. they belong to the following 21 families: amaranthaceae, boraginaceae, campanulaceae, caryophyllaceae, chenopodiaceae, commelinaceae, compositae, cruciferae, euphorbiaceae, hydrophyllaceae, labiatae, leguminosae, loasaceae, papaveraceae, po ...1977878706
molecular weights of the double-stranded rnas of cucumber mosaic virus strain s and its associated rna 5. 1977878314
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. iii. little nucleotide sequence homology between carna 5 and helper rna. 1977878313
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. ii. in vitro translation in a wheat germ protein-synthesis system. 1977878312
cucumber mosaic virus-associating rna 5. i. role of host plant and helper strain in determining amount of associated rna 5 with virions. 1977878311
alfalfa mosaic virus rna. determination of the sequence homology between the four rna species and a comparison with the four rna species of cucumber mosaic virus.the method of taylor et al. [taylor, j. m., illmensee, r & summers, j. (1976) biochim. biophys. acta, 442, 324--330 and gould and symons (1977) nucleic acids res. 4, 3787--3802] has been used to transcribe complementary dna probes from the four major rnas of alfalfa mosaic virus (amv). analysis of the kinetics of hybridization of these probes in homologous and heterologous complementary dna . rna hybridization reactions has shown that the sequence of the smallest rna (rna 4), which contains the ...1978720343
preparative immunoabsorption electrophoresis.a method for separating a component from a mixture of antigens is described. the component which may be a virus or subfraction of a virus, is isolated by driving the mixture by electrophoresis through a gel containing precipitating antibodies directed against the unwanted components. the method is illustrated by the isolation of hepatitis b antigen from whole serum and by the separation of wild cucumber mosaic virus from a strain of tobacco mosaic virus.1978631871
virus diseases of berry crops in the soviet far east i. identification of some mechanically transmitted viruses, detected in primorye territory.in primorye territory, ussr, cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-i), arabis mosaic virus (amv), raspberry, ringspot virus (rrsv), and tomato ringspot virus (trsv) were identified on berry crops (currant, raspberry, honeysuckel). with respect to indicator plants and physico-chemical and serological properties, the isolates obtained do not differ from other isolates of these viruses, reported on berry crops in europe and north america.1977610231
nucleotide sequence analyses of peanut stunt cucumovirus rnas 1 and 2.the nucleotide sequences of the rnas 1 and 2 of the peanut stunt virus strain j (psv-j) were determined and compared with those of the cucumber mosaic virus strain y (cmv-y, subgroup i), strain q (cmv-q, subgroup ii) and the tomato aspermy virus strain v (tav-v) at both the nucleotide and protein levels. rna 1 of psv-j consists of 3355 nucleotides (nt) and has one large open reading frame (orf) which can encode the putative 1a protein of mr 112025. psv-j rna 1 and the 1a protein are 65 to 73% id ...19921545224
cucumber mosaic virus. 19921575085
determination of the sequence homology between the four rna species of cucumber mosaic virus by hybridization analysis with complementary dna.the method of taylor etal., (11) has been used to transcribe complementary dna probes from the four major rna species of cucumber mosaic virus (rnas 1 - 4 in order of decreasing molecular weight). analysis of the kinetics of hybridization of these probes in homologous and heterologous complementary dna-rna hybridization reactions has shown that the sequence of the smallest rna (rna 4), which contains the coat protein gene, is present within rna 3. rnas 1 and 2 are unique rna molecules while each ...1977593886
extensive purification of the cucumber mosaic virus-induced rna replicase. 1979462818
nucleotide sequence near the 5'-terminal of cucumber mosaic virus rna no. 5 segment. 1979428526
in vitro messenger properties of a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus.the nucleotide sequence of a naturally occurring satellite rna (satrna) of cucumber mosaic virus strain f (cmv-f) isolated from petasites japonicum miq. has been determined. f-satrna is 338 nucleotides long and possesses a single open reading frame (orf; residues 11 to 91) in its 5-terminal region. analysis of in vitro translation products of the rna revealed that the major peptide synthesized had an mr of 2800, corresponding to the value (mr 2874) calculated from the amino acid sequence predict ...19901689769
translation of the four major rna species of cucumber mosaic virus in plant and animal cell-free systems and in toad oocytes. 1977405796
enzyme cytochemical method for identification of cucumber mosaic virus particles in infected cells. 1979373234
detection of cucumber mosaic virus in viruliferous aphids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 1978351927
in-vitro translation of cucumoviral satellites. iii. translational efficiencies of cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5 sequence variants can be related to the predicted secondary structures of their first 55 nucleotides.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellites d- and s-carna 5 (carna 5 = cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5), their full-length cdna clone transcripts, and dna clone transcripts of their open reading frames (orfs) were used as mrnas in the wheat-germ in-vitro translation system. natural d-carna 5 yielded an anomalously large polypeptide, while transcripts made from cdna clones of d-carna 5 or its first orf had no mrna activity. transcripts made from the second major orf in d-carna 5 yielded a ...19901697436
extensive sequence homology at the 3'-termini of the four rnas of cucumber mosaic virus.the sequences of 270 residues from the 3'-termini of the four rnas of cucumber mosaic virus have been determined by copying the in vitro polyadenylated rnas with reverse transcriptase using d(pt8g) as primer and the 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates as specific chain terminators. the terminal sequences of rnas 3 and 4 were identical; this was expected since hybridization data has shown that the sequence of rna 4 was present at the 3'-end of rna 3 (gould and symons (1978) eur. j. biochem. ...197992011
influence of nitrogen supply on host and multiplication of cucumber mosaic virus.the effect of several concentrations of nitrogen (0, 21, 70, 210, 420 and 630 ppm) on the growth and multiplication of cucumber mosaic virus in cucumber (cucumis sativus l. barshati) grown in sand culture was studied. the effect of nitrogen nutrition on the concentration of virus appeared to be directly related to vegetative growth of the host. 420 ppm level yielding the best growth also showed the highest virus concentration and total nitrogen percentage at 30th day of infection.197767769
fractionation of cucumber mosaic virus rna and its translation in a wheat embryo cell-free system. 1975163049
cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5. vi. characterization and denaturation-renaturation behavior of the double-stranded form.the double-stranded form of cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5 has been purified and further characterized. its molecular weight determined by sedimentation equilibrium is 2.15 . 10(5). the buoyant density calculated from its symmetrical distribution in cs2so4, following isopycnic ultracentrifugation, is 1.615 g/cm3. the sedimentation rate of double-stranded cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5 is slightly greater than that of cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5; its electrophoretic mob ...1979486481
nucleotide sequence of a satellite rna of a strain of cucumber mosaic virus associated with a tomato fruit necrosis. 19921377383
comparative studies on tomato aspermy and cucumber mosaic viruses. v. purification and properties of a cucumber mosaic virus inducing severe chlorosis. 1976982841
identical 3'-termini of the four rna species of cucumber mosaic virus. 1977855192
nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna associated with a tomato top stunting. 19921282706
a single nucleotide change within a plant virus satellite rna alters the host specificity of disease induction.some rna plant viruses contain satellite rnas which are dependent upon their associated virus for replication and encapsidation. some cucumber mosaic virus satellite rnas induce chlorosis on any of several host plants, including either tobacco or tomato. the exchange of sequence domains between cdna clones of chlorosis-inducing and non-pathogenic satellite rnas delimited the chlorosis domain for both tobacco and tomato plants to the same region. site-directed mutagenesis of one nucleotide (149) ...19921284656
temperature-sensitive replication of cucumber mosaic virus in muskmelon (cucumis melo cv. iroquois), maps to rna 1 of a slow strain.several strains of cucumber mosaic virus have been categorized as either 'fast' or 'slow', based on the time of appearance of symptoms after inoculation onto zucchini squash (curbita pepo cv. black beauty). these strains were examined for their ability to replicate in muskmelon (cucumis melo cv. iroquois) at elevated temperatures. all of the fast strains were able to replicate at 37 degrees c in muskmelon, whereas all of the slow strains were unable to replicate to detectable levels at 37 degree ...19911856702
complete replication of a satellite rna in vitro by a purified rna-dependent rna polymerase.the 334 nucleotide r satellite rna was used as a template for purified rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) from cucumber mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants. the products of the reaction were dsrna and positive-strand rna of the same size as the r satellite rna. similar products were obtained when t7 rna polymerase positive-strand transcripts of a cdna clone of the satellite rna, designed to have the same 5' and 3' ends as the satellite rna, were used as templates. the formation of the positive ...19921376771
changes in the activity and the polypeptide composition of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem ii of tobacco leaves infected with cucumber mosaic virus strain y.the amount of 22- and 23-kda polypeptides in a 23-kda protein family, which plays a regulatory role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution, decreased significantly during the progress of appearance of chlorotic spots in cucumber mosaic virus strain y (cmv[y])-inoculated tobacco (nicotiana tabacum 'ky57') leaves (plant mol. biol. 16:689-698, 1991). the present study was conducted to determine if the amount of other polypeptides of the oxygen-evolving complex and the oxygen-evolving activity also decr ...19921421513
the nucleotide sequence of rna-1 of raspberry bushy dwarf virus.raspberry bushy dwarf virus (rbdv) has isometric, 33 nm diameter particles and a bipartite rna genome. sequencing of the larger component (rna-1) showed that it consists of 5449 nucleotides and contains one large open reading frame encoding a putative translation product with a calculated m(r) of 190,000. comparisons of this polypeptide with non-structural proteins of other plant viruses revealed significant homologies with those of alfalfa mosaic virus (almv), brome mosaic virus (bmv), cucumber ...19921469359
infection of cowpea mesophyll protoplasts with cucumber mosaic virus. 1977929986
nucleotide sequence of rna 3 of peanut stunt cucumovirus.the nucleotide sequence of the rna 3 of the peanut stunt virus strain j (psv-j) was determined and compared with those of the cucumber mosaic virus strain y (cmv-y, subgroup i) and the tomato aspermy virus strain c (tav-c) at both the nucleotide and protein levels. the rna 3 of psv-j consists of 2186 nucleotides and has two large open reading frames (orfs). by analogy to other tripartite plant viruses, it is presumed that the first orf (867 nucleotides) codes for the 3a protein and the second or ...19911926787
infectious in vitro transcripts from amplified cdnas of the y and kin strains of cucumber mosaic virus.using a method based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with primers that include the phi 10 promoter of bacteriophage t7, we obtained cdna clones of the three rna genomes of two different strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv; kin and y strains) from which infectious in vitro transcripts were generated, and demonstrated that the same primers could be used for amplification of at least two other strains of cmv (o and py). this method is rapid and requires only limited nucleotide (nt) sequenc ...19921601304
differentiation of cucumber mosaic virus isolates using the polymerase chain reaction.a procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) has been developed to classify cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv) isolates accurately into two subgroups. two cmv-specific primers that flank the cmv capsid protein gene were used to amplify a dna fragment of approximately 870 bp. restriction enzyme analysis of this fragment produces distinct restriction patterns that assign the cmv isolate into one of two subgroups. these two restriction groups correlate with the previously established cmv ...19921645146
insect-mediated transmission of mixed and reassorted cucumovirus genomic rnas.transmissions of virus using the aphid myzus persicae were performed using plants co-infected with two cucumoviruses, tomato aspermy virus (v-tav) and cucumber mosaic virus (m-cmv). five of the aphid-transmitted progeny viruses (3.7%) induced symptoms distinct from those induced by either parental virus. northern blot hybridization analysis of encapsidated rnas from these novel progeny demonstrated that all of the rna profiles were characteristic of pseudo-recombinants, i.e. viruses with reassor ...19921645147
[satellite rna (rna3) of tomato black ring virus is found with one of the 2 major rnas (rna2) in a new capsid nucleoprotein].tomato black ring virus (tbrv) like other nepoviruses posseses two nucleoproteins m and b and two major rnas, rna1 and rna2 respectively distributed in b and m. a new nucleoprotein has just been discovered and comprises one molecule of rna2 associated with one molecule of rna3. rna3 is a small rna of molecular weight 500,000 d considered to be a satellite rna. its level appears to depend on the infection stage, local or systemic. rna3 is able to modify the relative proportions of nucleoproteins ...1977417836
differentiation of biologically distinct cucumber mosaic virus isolates by page of double-stranded rna.electrophoresis on 5% polyacrylamide was used to analyze dsrnas of 26 cucumber mosaic virus isolates propagated in nicotiana tabacum. there was variation between isolates in the migration of each of the dsrnas 1, 2, and 3. comparison of the dsrna profiles enabled each isolate to be allocated to 1 of 7 distinct dsrna profile types. two distinct and readily distinguishable isolates were mixed in planta and dsrna from these infected plants compared with in vitro mixtures of them. all bands from bot ...19921428753
characterization of a satellite rna associated with strain k8 of cucumber mosaic virus. 19901697067
cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna (y strain): analysis of sequences which affect yellow mosaic symptoms on tobacco.plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) (kin strain) produce a mild mosaic disease on tobacco whereas infections of cmv with satellite rna (strain y) cause a severe yellow mosaic. analysis of recombinant and mutant forms of satellite rna identified a site (nucleotides 185/186) in the y satellite rna that affects the ability to induce the yellow mosaic in combination with cmv but not with tomato aspermy virus. the location of this site with respect to other mutations in the satellite rna ...19901698919
serial passage of infectious transcripts of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna clone results in sequence heterogeneity.populations of the d-satellite rna (d-sat) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) have a major site of heterogeneity at which a significant proportion of the molecules vary from each other. the generation of this heterogeneity was investigated by using infectious transcript rna of a prototype d-sat clone as an inoculum of uniform sequence to initiate serial passages in five different host plant species. rnase protection assays indicated that heterogeneity at the same site seen in natural d-sat rna popul ...19902158699
host-associated selection of sequence variants from a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus.the sequence of lx-satrna, a cmv-satrna necrogenic for tomato that shows the unusual property of accumulating in cucumber and in squash to levels similar to those in tomato and in tobacco, was determined. when compared with the sequences of other necrogenic cmv-satrnas that do not show this property, or with a sequence variant of lx-satrna that retains it, the high accumulation of lx-satrna in squash was correlated with the presence of two u/c transitions. the sequences of progeny lx-satrna from ...19911714668
replication footprint analysis of cucumber mosaic virus electroporated into tomato protoplasts.total rna extracted from cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strains wt, with its associated satellite carna 5 (cmv-associated rna 5), was successfully electroporated into isolated tomato protoplasts. at various time intervals samples were extracted for total nucleic acids and analyzed by semidenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). sequence-specific hybridization probes were used for the detection of viral and satellite rnas following northern transfer. the resulting page patterns and/or a ...19921378705
cdna cloning and analysis of rna 2 of a prunus stem pitting isolate of tomato ringspot virus.recombinant plasmids containing sequences derived from the genome of a tomato ringspot virus (tomrsv) isolate associated with both stem pitting disease of stone fruits and apple union necrosis and decline were constructed. selected inserts were subcloned into the polylinker region of the sp6 transcription vector psp64. using the sp6 promoter flanking this region, high specific activity 32p-labelled crna probes were generated by sp6 rna polymerase. crna probes were specific for tomrsv rna 2 prese ...19911791854
a protein in the oxygen-evolving complex in the chloroplast is associated with symptom expression on tobacco leaves infected with cucumber mosaic virus strain y.to elucidate the molecular basis of symptom expression in virus-infected plants, the changes in proteins between tobacco, nicotiana tabacum cv. ky57, leaves inoculated with cucumber mosaic virus strain y [cmv(y)] and strain o [cmv(o)], were compared by 2-dimensional (2-d) gel electrophoresis. the appearance of chlorotic spots in cmv(y)-inoculated tobacco leaves accompanied an increase of 3 polypeptides and a decrease in 6 polypeptides, as compared with those in the cmv(o)-inoculated tobacco whic ...19911868202
the requirement for a 5' stem-loop structure in brome mosaic virus replication supports a new model for viral positive-strand rna initiation.sequences with strong similarity to internal control regions 1 and 2 (icr1 and -2; a and b boxes) of trna genes are found at the 5' termini of the genomic rnas of brome mosaic virus (bmv) and other plant viruses. the functionality of these motifs was studied by introducing point mutations into the icr2-like sequence of prna-2 m/s, a bmv rna-2 deletion mutant that replicates in the presence of rnas-1 and -2 but does not encode a functional viral protein. the accumulation of positive-strand progen ...19921731107
evolutionary relationships in the cucumoviruses: nucleotide sequence of tomato aspermy virus rna 1.rna 1 of the v strain of tomato aspermy virus (tav) consists of 3410 nucleotides and contains one open reading frame (orf) of 2982 nucleotides, resembling rna 1 of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strains q and fny (68% and 66% identical, respectively) and of brome mosaic virus (bmv) (41% identical). in comparisons between amino acid sequences, three conserved regions (n-terminal, c-terminal and central) between tav and each cmv were found. the n- and c-terminal regions were also conserved with bmv, ...19911895056
replication of cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna in vitro by an rna-dependent rna polymerase from virus-infected tobacco.an rna-dependent rna polymerase purified from tobacco infected with cucumber mosaic virus catalyzes the synthesis of (-) and (+) strands of the viral satellite rna, carna 5, but fails to replicate the satellite rna of peanut stunt virus (psv). the enzyme replicates the genomic rnas of the three principal cucumoviruses cmv, psv and tomato aspermy virus (tav) with varying efficiencies. the specificity with which cmv rdrp replicates different sequence-unrelated rna templates suggests that the site ...19911720399
nucleotide sequence and evolutionary relationships of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strains: cmv rna 3.the nucleotide sequence of rna 3 of two subgroup i strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), fny-cmv and m-cmv, was determined and compared at both the nucleic acid and protein level with the previously determined, corresponding (partial) sequences of rna 3 of five other subgroup i strains: c-cmv, d-cmv, i17f-cmv, o-cmv and y-cmv. fny-cmv rna 3 is composed of 2216 nucleotides (nt) and m-cmv rna 3 2214 nt. both rnas contain two open reading frames, the 3a gene and the coat protein gene. these rnas ...19902230731
a single amino acid substitution in the coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus induces chlorosis in tobacco.some strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) induce a bright yellow/white chlorosis in tobacco instead of the light green/dark green mosaic induced by most cmv strains. this property is controlled by rna 3 of this tripartite virus. recombination between cdna clones of rna 3 from a green mosaic strain, fny-cmv, and a chlorotic strain, m-cmv, and inoculation of infectious transcripts of the chimeric rnas 3, together with rnas 1 and 2 of fny-cmv, localized the chlorosis induction domain to a region ...19921392593
coat protein gene sequences of two cucumber mosaic virus strains reveal a single amino acid change correlating with chlorosis induction.the coat protein genes of two chlorosis-inducing strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) were compared by nucleotide sequence analysis. the predicted amino acid sequences of the encoded coat proteins were compared with those of two other chlorosis-inducing and four mosaic-inducing cmv strains. overall, the sequences were highly conserved, with more than 95% amino acid sequence identity between any two strains. however, a proline is present at amino acid 129 of all the mosaic-inducing strains, whe ...19911919534
custom polymerase-chain-reaction engineering of a plant expression vector.polymerase-chain-reaction (pcr) amplification combined with custom-synthesized oligodeoxyribonucleotide (oligo) primers can be used to make complex genetic engineering steps (e.g., translational fusions) easy. much of the complexity of the engineering steps can be incorporated into the custom oligo primers. using this technique, a plant constitutive expression vector, puc18cpexp, was constructed. this vector is based on the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s gene-regulatory elements and the cucumber m ...19912055473
expression of the gene encoding the coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain wl appears to provide protection to tobacco plants against infection by several different cmv strains.the gene (cp) encoding the coat protein (cp) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain wl (cmv-wl, which belongs to cmv subgroup ii) was custom polymerase chain reaction (cpcr)-engineered for expression as described by slightom [gene 100 (1991) 251-255]. cpcr amplification was used to add 5'- and 3'-flanking ncoi sites to the cmv-wl cp gene, and cp was cloned into the expression vector, puc18cpexp. this cmv-wl cp expression cassette was transferred into the genome of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cv. h ...19911748291
isolation and partial characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for a naturally occurring double-stranded rna.a monoclonal antibody (mab) against the double-stranded form of the cucumber mosaic virus-associated rna 5, the sequence variant that induces the tomato necrosis disease (ds(n)carna 5), has been obtained. specificity studies using a radioimmunoassay showed that the purified mab recognizes neither dna nor ssrna of different sources including ss(n)carna 5, poly(i).poly(c), nor dsrna of two other sequence variants of carna 5. therefore, the mab seems to recognize a conformational variation only pre ...19862424171
detection of double-stranded rna by elisa and dot immunobinding assay using an antiserum to synthetic polynucleotides.an antiserum against polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (in-cn) was used to detect double-stranded rna (dsrna) by several serological techniques. dsrna was readily detected by indirect elisa (elisa-i) and dot immunobinding assay (dia). addition of the antigen to poly-l-lysine-precoated plates and blocking with uncreamed milk powder allowed detection levels of 100 pg.ml-1 in-cn by elisa-i. concentrations as low as 1 ng.ml-1 were detected by dia using polyvinyliden difluoride (pvdf) membranes. detect ...19911939501
a defective replicase gene induces resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants.nicotiana tabacum cv. turkish samsun nn plants were transformed with a modified and truncated replicase gene encoded by rna-2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain fny. the replicase gene had been modified by deleting a 94-base-pair region spanning nucleotides 1857-1950; the deletion also caused a shift in the open reading frame, resulting in a truncated translation product approximately 75% as large as the full-length protein. upon transformation via agrobacterium tumefaciens, transgenic plants were ...19921528890
tomato aspermy virus has an evolutionary relationship with other tripartite rna plant viruses.the entire rna 3 (2214 nucleotides) of a chrysanthemum isolate of tomato aspermy virus (c-tav) has been cloned and its sequence determined. c-tav possesses two open reading frames which encode a 3a protein (277 amino acids) and a coat protein (229 amino acids). computer-assisted comparisons were made between c-tav rna 3 and its predicted protein sequences and those of two other tripartite rna viruses, cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and brome mosaic virus (bmv). results from this study suggest that ...19911990057
characterization of cucumber mosaic virus rna-dependent rna polymerase.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) was purified form cmv-infected tobacco. the purified enzyme is completely dependent on exogenous template. the enzyme utilizes a variety of viral rnas and cmv satellite rna as template for minus-strand synthesis. cellular rnas are not used as templates. ribosomal rna inhibits the viral rna synthesis by the cmv rdrp.19912001739
secondary structure as a constraint on the evolution of a plant viral satellite rna.the genetic variability and evolution of the satellite rna (satrna) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was analyzed. twenty-five cmv-satrnas compared clustered into three main groups, and no correlation was found between genetic proximity and other characteristics (pathogenicity, geographical origin) of the satrnas. values for the number of nucleotide substitutions per site between any two satrnas suggest that divergence is checked by functional constraints. the analysis of mutations relative to an ...19911719213
nucleotide sequence of tomato aspermy virus rna 2.rna 2 of the v strain of tomato aspermy virus (tav) consists of 3074 nucleotides and contains one open reading frame of 2487 nucleotides. thus, it resembles rna 2 of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strains q and fny (62% identical to both), brome mosaic virus (42% identical) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (40% identical). in comparisons between amino acid sequences, three different regions of similarity could be distinguished. these were the central part (amino acids 224 to 757 for v-tav), which ...19912016592
site-directed mutagenesis of a plant viral satellite rna changes its phenotype from ameliorative to necrogenic.comparison of the nucleotide sequences of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellite rnas, which induce necrosis on tomatoes, reveals a highly conserved region within their 3' halves. the sequence of wl1 satellite (wl1-sat) rna, which attenuates cmv symptoms on tomatoes, differs from all necrogenic satellite rnas at three nucleotide positions within this conserved region. these nucleotides were progressively mutated to determine what sequence is required for the induction of necrosis in tomatoes. inf ...19901691499
functional analysis of deletion mutants of cucumber mosaic virus rna3 using an in vitro transcription system.full-length dna copies of rnas 1, 2, and 3 of cmv y strain (cmv-y) were cloned downstream of modified phage t7 promoter sequences to obtain infectious rna transcripts. the small number of extra nonviral nucleotides at the 5' ends considerably decreased the specific infectivity of the transcripts of rnas 1 and 2 but did not affect that of the rna3 transcripts. using the most infective transcripts, up to 45% of tobacco protoplasts could be infected. various cdna mutants were constructed from the f ...19912053275
transformed tomato plants express a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus and produce lethal necrosis upon infection with viral rna.tomato plants transformed with a single copy of a tomato necrosis causing satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) express the satellite sequence, but the plants show no disease symptoms and have a normal appearance. upon challenge infection of the f1 progeny with a cmv strain free of any detectable encapsidated satellite the plants accumulated single and double-stranded forms of satellite rna and developed lethal necrosis.19901696472
nucleotide sequence and evolutionary relationships of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strains: cmv rna 1.the nucleotide sequence of rna 1 of the fny strain (subgroup i) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was determined and compared at both the nucleic acid and protein levels with the corresponding sequence of rna 1 of the q strain (subgroup ii) of cmv. fny-cmv rna 1 consisted of 3357 nucleotides and contained a single long open reading frame (orf) of 2979 nucleotides, whereas q-cmv rna 1 consists of 3389 nucleotides and contains a single orf of 2973 nucleotides. the levels of sequence homology between ...19892732682
complete nucleotide sequence of rna 3 from cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) strain o: comparative study of nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences among cmv strains o, q, d and y.the complete nucleotide sequence (2217 residues) of rna 3 of cucumber mosaic virus strain o (cmv-o) was determined. two open reading frames were identified, encoding a 3a protein (279 amino acid residues) in the 5'-proximal region and a coat protein (218 amino acid residues). the amino acid sequence of the coat protein c terminus was determined directly from purified protein, and confirmed the presence of the coat protein open reading frame in cmv-o rna 3. comparison of nucleotide sequences and ...19892732698
nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes and flanking regions of cucumber mosaic virus strains c and wl rna 3.several strains of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) have been classified, and nucleic acid hybridization data indicate that these strains differ widely in nucleotide sequence. we have constructed cdna clones of the coat protein coding regions of cmv strains c and wl, and have compared the nucleotide sequences of the rna 3 intergenic region, coat protein gene, and 3' untranslated region with published cmv sequences from the same regions of the q, d and y strains. these comparisons show that the c and ...19892732712
differentiation and antigenic characterization of closely related alfalfa mosaic virus strains with monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 15 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was raised against five strains of alfalfa mosaic virus (amv) which were closely related antigenically but biologically distinct. a wide diversity of mab specificity was revealed by screening them in three formats of indirect elisa, using native and glutaraldehyde-fixed amv particles as well as isolated coat protein preparations. of these mabs, seven reacted specifically with only one amv strain in at least one elisa format and at least one mab wa ...19902125636
reciprocal phenotype alterations between two satellite rnas of cucumber mosaic virus.cucumber mosaic virus y satellite rna (y-satrna) induces distinctive yellow mosaic symptoms on tobacco, whereas s19 satellite rna (s19-satrna) causes an attenuated green mosaic on tobacco, although they show considerable sequence identity. biological assays of infectious chimeric satellite rna molecules synthesized from cdna clones of y-satrna and s19-satrna using common restriction sites showed that the determinant for the induction of yellow mosaic symptoms lies in the bstxi-nhei fragment, in ...19911717640
differential replication in zucchini squash of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna maps to rna 1 of the helper virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) supports the replication and encapsidation of its satellite rna, both in solanaceous and cucurbit host plants; however, different strains of cmv support the replication of satellite rnas with different efficiency. in addition, replication of satellite rna is very efficient in solanaceous host plants and generally poor in cucurbit host plants. the wl1-satellite (wl1-sat) rna is an exception, and replicates to high levels in both solanaceous and curcubit host plants wit ...19911704659
complete replication of a eukaryotic virus rna in vitro by a purified rna-dependent rna polymerase.a soluble rna-dependent rna polymerase was isolated from nicotiana tabacum plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), which has a genome of three positive-strand rna components, 1, 2, and 3. the purified polymerase contained two virus-encoded polypeptides and one host polypeptide. polymerase activity was completely dependent on addition of cmv rna as template, and the products of reaction were single-stranded (ss) rna and double-stranded (ds) rna, corresponding to rnas 1, 2, and 3, and a ...19902208291
identification of a 334-ribonucleotide viral satellite as principal aetiological agent in a tomato necrosis epidemic.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), a widespread and economically important virus of vegetable crops, often contains a satellite rna, here designated carna-5 (for cmv-associated rna 5). viral satellites are small nucleic acids that are sequence-unrelated to, but replicatively dependent upon, the viral genome. they essentially are molecular parasites of their helper viruses, and thereby frequently modulate viral symptom expression. some isolates of carna-5 change normally moderate cmv symptoms in tomato ...19902326553
ubiquitinated conjugates are found in preparations of several plant viruses.recently d.d. dunigan, r.g. dietzgen, j.e. schoelz, and m. zaitlin (virology 165, 310-312, 1988) demonstrated that a small proportion of the subunits of tobacco mosaic virus particles were conjugated with the small protein ubiquitin. we have now detected ubiquitinated conjugates in immunoblots of virion preparations of several other plant viruses, using anti-human ubiquitin antiserum. based on their polyacrylamide gel migrations, plant virus-associated ubiquitin-immunoreactive proteins were cons ...19902162109
infectious cucumber mosaic virus rna transcribed in vitro from clones obtained from cdna amplified using the polymerase chain reaction.full-length cdna to rna 1, rna 2 and rna 3 of cucumber mosaic virus strain q (cmv-q) was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the first-strand primer contained a bamhi site and sequences complementary to the 3' terminus of the rna. the second-strand primers contained a bamhi site, a t7 promoter and sequences corresponding to the 5' terminus of each rna. after cleavage with bamhi, the pcr products were cloned into the bamhi site of the vector pembl9(+). five clones of each rna wer ...19902254748
the cdna of cucumber mosaic virus-associated satellite rna has in vivo biological properties.two isolates of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-associated satellite rna, differing in their biological properties, have been reverse transcribed. one was able to induce the tomato necrotic syndrome whereas the other one attenuated fernleaf symptoms on tomato plants after co-inoculation with the helper virus. cdnas representing partial or full-length copies have been cloned in the plasmid pat 153 and sequenced. the two rnas showed a very limited number of variations (2 to 5 substitutions depending o ...19883348783
cucumber-mosaic-virus-associated rna-5. xii. symptom-modulating effect is codetermined by the helper virus satellite replication support function.in tomato, the disease-modulating effects of a cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellite isolate from belgium, here designated t-carna-5 (carna-5 = cmv-associated rna-5), were found to be different depending on the supporting helper virus strain. with two cmv strains, t-carna-5 induced lethal necrosis, but with a third strain from ixora spp. (cmv-ix), aggravated stunting was observed. however, the primary structure of the t-carna-5 contained within virus isolated from tobacco or tomato infected with ...19902277868
induction of tobacco chlorosis by certain cucumber mosaic virus satellite rnas is specific to subgroup ii helper strains.two satellite (sat) rnas of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), b2- and wl3-sat rnas, which induce systemic chlorosis on tobacco, were inoculated onto tobacco with a number of cmv strains. systemic chlorosis was observed only when these satellite rnas were associated with subgroup ii cmv strains. infection of tobacco with various pseudorecombinants of subgroup i and ii cmv strains, together with wl3- or b2-sat rna, suggests that chlorosis is associated with rna 2 of subgroup ii cmv strains. chlorosis w ...19902330677
nucleotide sequence of a new satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus. 19902356138
cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna (strain y): analysis of sequences which affect systemic necrosis on tomato.the location of a sequence within the y satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) that confers the ability to induce necrosis on tomato plants has been analysed using chimeric satellite rnas. these recombinant rna molecules contained parts of the y (necrogenic) and ra (benign) satellite rnas and were inoculated into tomato plants together with cmv helper virus. from the composition of the recombinant satellite rnas that induced necrosis it was concluded that, of the nucleotides which differ b ...19902374005
plants transformed with a tobacco mosaic virus nonstructural gene sequence are resistant to the virus.nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi nn plants were transformed with nucleotides 3472-4916 of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) strain u1. this sequence contains all but the three 3 terminal nucleotides of the tmv 54-kda gene, which encodes a putative component of the replicase complex. these plants were resistant to infection when challenged with either tmv u1 virions or tmv u1 rna at concentrations of up to 500 micrograms/ml or 300 micrograms/ml, respectively, the highest concentrations tested. resistance wa ...19902385595
anti-sense regions in satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus form stable complexes with the viral coat protein gene.the interaction in vitro of the rna of the q-strain of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) with its satellite rna (sat-rna) has been studied. in hybridisation reactions containing 30% formamide at 45 degrees, sat-rna binds to cmv rna 3 and 4 but not to cmv rna 1 and 2 or rna from tobacco mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus. the viral coat protein gene present in rna 3 and 4 contains the site of binding but this region does not contain complementary sequences of any significant length to the sat-rna se ...19862422629
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