intracellular distribution of the 126k/183k and capsid proteins in cells infected by some tobamoviruses.leaves of plants infected by tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) strain u1, tmv strain m, tomato mosaic virus strain dahlemense and tobacco mild green mosaic virus strain u2 were examined for the presence and intracellular distribution of their capsid and 126k/183k proteins by immunoblotting and immunogold electron microscopy. the bulk of the capsid protein was found in the virus bundles (crystals), although small amounts were found in the chloroplasts and nuclei of cells infected by some of these tobamo ...19921431815
complete uncoating of the 5' leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus rna occurs rapidly and is required to initiate cotranslational virus disassembly in vitro.destabilizing events required for subsequent cotranslational disassembly of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) particles in vitro were studied. brief treatment of u-32p-labelled tmv (strain vulgare or u2) with 1% sds exposed only 2.5% of the rna (160 5' nucleotides) in a susceptible subpopulation of virions. limited uncoating occurred almost immediately and appeared to be synchronous because the amount of 5' oligonucleotide marker (omega) recovered remained constant throughout a 15 min period in sds. ad ...19911849966
the complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (sh strain) genomic rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus watermelon strain sh (cgmmv-sh) was determined using cloned cdna. this sequence is 6421 nucleotides long containing at least four open reading frames, which correspond to 186k, 129k, 29k and 17.3k proteins. the 17.3k protein is the coat protein. sequence analysis shows that cgmmv-sh is very closely related to another watermelon strain. cgmmv-w, although three amino acid substitutions in the 29k protein were ...19911856687
transfer of the movement protein gene between two tobamoviruses: influence on local lesion development.the effects of transfer of the movement gene between the tobamoviruses tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) and tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) were studied. the movement protein (mp) gene of tmgmv was cloned into an infectious cdna of tmv to build the recombinant virus v23. v23, like tmv and tmgmv, caused systemic infection in nicotiana tabacum xanthi. in n. sylvestris v23 and tmv spread systemically although tmgmv produces necrotic local lesions on this host. v23 and tmv cause systemic infection ...19911984654
transgenic tobacco plants expressing a coat protein gene of tobacco mosaic virus are resistant to some other tobamoviruses.transgenic tobacco plants expressing the coat protein (cp) gene of tobacco mosaic virus were tested for resistance against infection by five other tobamoviruses sharing 45-82% homology in cp amino acid sequence with the cp of tobacco mosaic virus. the transgenic plants (cp+) showed significant delays in systemic disease development after inoculation with tomato mosaic virus or tobacco mild green mosaic virus compared to the control (cp-) plants, but showed no resistance against infection by ribg ...19902131095
a classification of the tobamoviruses based on comparisons among their 126k proteins.the products of partial proteolysis of the mr 126,000 in vitro translation products of the rna of eight tobamoviruses were separated by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the peptide patterns obtained were compared using a computer program designed to establish phylogenetic relationships. the resulting most-parsimonious phylogenetic trees grouped the tobamoviruses into clusters i (tobacco mosaic virus, tomato mosaic virus, tobacco mild green mosaic virus, pepper mild mottle virus) and ii (s ...19902230728
the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of the tobamovirus tobacco mild green mosaic virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of the tobamovirus tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tm-gmv) was determined. it shows 64.4% sequence homology with the genomic rna of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) and 66.0% with that of tomato mosaic virus (tomv). its genomic organization is similar to that of tmv and tomv. the 5' proximal open reading frame (orf) encodes a 126k polypeptide and a 183k readthrough product in which nucleotide-binding and polymerase-sequence motifs are found. the thi ...19902371769
the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus (orsv) was determined. the rna genome of orsv is 6618 nucleotides long and contains five open reading frames (orfs 1 to 5) coding for proteins of m(r) 126 k, 181 k, 34 k, 18 k and 52 k, respectively. this is the longest rna of the known viruses of the tobamovirus genus. the sequences of the orsv rna encoded proteins exhibit high homology to the proteins of the members of the tobamovirus genus. the genomic o ...19957487489
nucleotide sequence analysis of a cdna clone encoding the 34k movement protein gene of odontoglossum ringspot virus, orsv-cy, the korean isolate.the partial nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the korean isolate of odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus (orsv-cy) from cool-growing cymbidium was determined. the sequence contained a full length open reading frame (orf) coding for the viral cell-to-cell movement protein (mp). the orf was located upstream of the coat protein gene and 105 nucleotides longer than that of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv). the orf predicts a polypeptide chain of 303 amino acids with a molecular weight of 3357 ...19948000012
on the relationship between x-bodies and symptom development in plants infected with different tobamoviruses.the relationship between systemic mosaic symptoms and the occurrence of viral 126-kda protein in x-bodies was studied in tobacco infected with the tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) strains u2, u5, and ribgrass mosaic virus (rmv) strain hr, and in other plant species infected with tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) strain w u 1. strains u2, u5, and hr coded for proteins of 126, 126, and 130 kda, respectively, but these were not recognized by antisera against the corresponding protein from w u 1. on ...19938240005
broad resistance to tobamoviruses is mediated by a modified tobacco mosaic virus replicase transgene.tobacco plants made transgenic to express the wild type tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) 183-kda replicase gene were not resistant to tmv. however, transgenic plants containing essentially the same sequences, but with an additional insertion that would terminate translation in the middle of the 183-kda gene, were highly resistant to systemic infection by tmv and other tobamoviruses. the 1.4-kbp insertion in the replicase open reading frame (orf) of the resistant plants was shown by dna sequencing to b ...19938274774
tobamovirus helper specificity of satellite tobacco mosaic virus involves a domain near the 5' end of the satellite genome.the molecular basis of the interactions between plant virus satellites and their helper viruses is not understood. the features of the satellite tobacco mosaic virus (stmv) genome that determine tobamovirus helper specificity were investigated using two independent strategies. the first tested the possible significance of regions of nearly identical sequence within the 3'-terminal 150 bases of the genomes of stmv and its natural helper virus, tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv). a chimeric s ...19938336115
the complete nucleotide sequence of odontoglossum ringspot virus (cy-1 strain) genomic rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of odontoglossum ringspot virus cy-1 strain (orsv cy-1) was determined using cloned cdna. this sequence is 6611 nucleotides long containing four open reading frames, which correspond to 126 k, 183 k, 31 k, and 18 k proteins. its genomic organization is similar to other tobamoviruses, tmv-v(vulgare), tmv-l (tomato strain), tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (cgmmv). the 5' non-coding regions of orsv cy ...19958789059
replication of wild-type and mutant clones of satellite tobacco mosaic virus in nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts.rna transcribed from cloned satellite tobacco mosaic virus (stmv) cdna replicated in nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts when co-inoculated with tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) genomic rna, but degraded when inoculated alone. stmv genomic rna extracted from wild-type virions replicated in protoplasts when co-inoculated with tmgmv, tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) or tomato mosaic virus (tomv). transcripts from clones of two stmv coat protein (cp) mutants accumulated to the same level as wild-typ ...19979191918
specific sequence changes in the 5'-terminal region of the genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus are required for adaptation to tobacco mosaic virus.the genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (stmv) adapted to tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), tomato mosaic virus or green tomato atypical mosaic virus consistently had two single base deletions at positions 1 and 61, corresponding to bases a and g, respectively, as compared to the type-strain genome which is naturally adapted to tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv). transcript rnas (stmv(tmv)) from clone pstmv(tmv) which captured the deletions at positions 1 and 61 were infectious when co-inocu ...19989568987
heterologous sequences greatly affect foreign gene expression in tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors.a series of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based hybrid vectors for transient gene expression were constructed with similar designs but differing in the source of heterologous tobamovirus sequence: odontoglossum ringspot virus, tobacco mild green mosaic virus variants u2 and u5, tomato mosaic virus, and sunn-hemp mosaic virus. these vectors contained a heterologous coat protein subgenomic mrna promoter and coat protein open reading frame (orf) and either tmv or heterologous 3' nontranslated region. ...199910069957
[conservative nucleotide sites in promoters of tobamoviral subgenomic rna].a computer search for position-linked identical nucleotide sites in sequences of promoter regions of subgenomic rna and coat protein of fifteen tobamoviruses was performed. it was discovered that promoters of three tmv strains tested as well as of tobacco mild green mosaic virus and turnip vein-clearing virus contain the nine-nucleotide sites gattcgttt or ggttcgttt. these sites are localized at 14-77 nucleotide upstream from the translation start codons of coat or movement protein genes and are ...200616869146
detection and characterization of tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) large type isolate from trailing petunia in france.during 2003 and 2004, unusual viral symptoms were observed on surfinia trailing petunias in protected cultivations of southern france. symptoms consisted in yellow mosaic and distortion of the leaves accompanied by vein necrosis in some samples. the flowers were deformed and showed light colour break of the petals. electron microscope observation of negatively stained leaf-dip from symptomatic leaves showed straight rod-shaped virus particles of about 300 nm in length. sap extracts reacted in do ...200617390885
natural incidence of mixed infections and experimental cross protection between two genotypes of tobacco mild green mosaic virus.abstract isolates of tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv), a member of the genus tobamovirus, from nicotiana glauca in southern california fall into two major genotypes, large (tmgmv-l) and small (tmgmv-s), distinguishable by the size of the coat protein (cp) subgenomic rna. mixed infections in the field were rare (1.6%), even at sites where both genotypes were common in single infections (62% for tmgmv-s; 37% for tmgmv-l). when plants experimentally protected by tmgmv-l were challenged by tm ...200418943704
an inhibitory interaction between viral and cellular proteins underlies the resistance of tomato to nonadapted tobamoviruses.any individual virus can infect only a limited range of hosts, and most plant species are "nonhosts" to a given virus; i.e., all members of the species are insusceptible to the virus. in nonhost plants, the factors that control virus resistance are not genetically tractable, and how the host range of a virus is determined remains poorly understood. tomato (solanum lycopersicum) is a nonhost species for tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) and pepper mild mottle virus (pmmov), members of the g ...200919423673
gaining replicability in a nonhost compromises the silencing suppression activity of tobacco mild green mosaic virus in a host.natural isolates of tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv) fail to infect tomato because the tomato tm-1 protein binds to the replication proteins of tmgmv and prevents rna replication. previously, we isolated a tmgmv mutant that overcomes tm-1-mediated resistance and multiplies in tomato plants. here, we show that the causal mutations in the replication protein gene that abolish the interaction with tm-1 reduce its ability to suppress rna silencing in host plant nicotiana benthamiana. the resu ...201021106731
plant-based vaccines: novel and low-cost possible route for mediterranean innovative vaccination strategies.a plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (vlps), and vaccines. foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. the broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. engineered virus-based ...201424751193
amino acids in tobamovirus coat protein controlling pepper l(1a) gene-mediated pepper plants (genus capsicum), the resistance against tobamovirus spp. is conferred by l gene alleles. the recently identified l variant l(1a) can recognize coat proteins (cps) of tobacco mild green mosaic virus japanese strain (tmgmv-j) and paprika mild mottle virus japanese strain (pammv-j), but not of pepper mild mottle virus (pmmov), as the elicitor to induce resistance at 24 °c. interestingly, l(1a) gene-mediated resistance against tmgmv-j, but not pammv-j, is retained at 30 °c. this ob ...201222574719
a novel sec14 phospholipid transfer protein from nicotiana benthamiana is up-regulated in response to ralstonia solanacearum infection, pathogen associated molecular patterns and effector molecules and involved in plant elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant immune responses, we isolated genes whose expression was regulated by inoculation with ralstonia solanacearum. here, we report the characterization of nicotiana benthamiana belonging to the sec14-gene superfamily designated as nicotiana benthamiana sec14 (nbsec14). nbsec14 rescued growth defects and impaired invertase secretion associated with the yeast sec14p temperature-sensitive mutant, while recombinant nbsec14 protein had phospholipids transfer ...201222542247
subcellular localization and detection of tobacco mosaic virus orf6 protein by immunoelectron microscopy.members of the genus tobamovirus represent one of the best-characterized groups of plant positive, single stranded rna viruses. previous studies have shown that genomes of some tobamoviruses contain not only genes coding for coat protein, movement protein, and the cistron coding for different domains of rna-polymerase, but also a gene, named orf6, coding for a poorly conserved small protein. the amino acid sequences of orf6 proteins encoded by different tobamoviruses are highly divergent. the po ...201728320287
delivery of pesticides to plant parasitic nematodes using tobacco mild green mosaic virus as a nanocarrier.plant parasitic nematodes are a major burden to the global agricultural industry, causing a $157 billion loss each year in crop production worldwide. effective treatment requires large doses of nematicides to be applied, putting the environment and human health at risk. challenges are to treat nematodes that are located deep within the soil, feeding on the roots of plants. to attack the problem at its roots, we propose the use of tobacco mild green mosaic virus (tmgmv), an epa-approved herbicide ...201728345874
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