[erratum: the following article was subsequently withdrawn by the authors. yarim gf, ciftci g (2011): investigation of serum protein profiles in sheep naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus berl munch tierarztl wochenschr (5/6):194-197]. 201222550766
experimental foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in white tailed deer.white tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001 and monitored for the development of clinical signs, histopathological changes and levels of virus replication. all fmdv-infected deer developed clinical signs starting at 2 days post inoculation and characterized by an increase in body temperature, increased salivation and lesions in the mouth and on the feet. virus spread to various tissues was determined by quantifying the amount ...201222520809
insertion of type o-conserved neutralizing epitope into the foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia1 vp1 g-h loop: effect on viral replication and neutralization phenotype.previously, we finely mapped the neutralizing epitopes recognized by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia1-specific mab 3e11 and fmdv type o-specific mab 8e8. in this study, we engineered recombinant fmdvs of the serotype asia1 (rfmdvs) displaying the type o-neutralizing epitope recognized by the mab 8e8. these epitope-inserted viruses were genetically stable and exhibited growth properties that were similar to those of their parental virus. importantly, the recombinant virus rfmdv-c sh ...201222513388
experimental infection of wild boar and domestic pigs with a foot and mouth disease virus strain detected in the southeast of bulgaria in december of 2010.foot and mouth disease (fmd) was detected in a wild boar in southeastern bulgaria in december 2010. the occurrence and spread of the disease in wild cloven-hoofed animals may pose an unexpected and significant threat to fmd virus (fmdv)-free areas within and outside the european union. so far, only one well documented experimental infection with fmd in wild boar has been published. in order to obtain more epidemiologically relevant data regarding the disease in wild boar we conducted an experime ...201222503391
upconversion nanoparticles modified with aminosilanes as carriers of dna vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.the potential of the upconversion nanoparticles nayf(4):yb/er@silica(ucps)/plasmid dna (pcdna3.1/vp1-gfp) complex in inducing immune responses was evaluated using the ucps as carriers of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv asiai/jiangsu2005) dna vaccine. the ucps protection against dnasei degradation was measured using an in vitro inhibition assay. the expression of the plasmid in vivo was determined via confocal microscopy. its biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity assay. based ...201222476264
evolutionary trend of foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong.foot-and-mouth disease is an endemic animal disease in hong kong. in this study, a total of 70 clinical specimens were collected from locally infected pigs from 2001 to 2010. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 sequences reveal that all hong kong fmdv serotype o isolates are classified into three lineages: hk-a and hk-b in cathay topotype, and hk-c in sea topotype. regression analysis projects that the time of divergence from the most recent common ancestor of hk-a and hk-b are 1964 ± 12 and 1987 ± 9 y ...201222472703
emergence of antigenic variants with in serotype a foot and mouth disease virus in india and evaluation of a new vaccine candidate panel.emergence of genetically and antigenically divergent lineages/genotypes and poor intergenotypic antigenic coverage is a major concern in serotype a foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) in india. in 2009, to cover antigenic diversity emerged in serotype a virus field isolates, ind40/2000 was selected as the new vaccine strain for incorporation in the trivalent fmd vaccine formulation used in india. although current vaccine strain (ind40/2000) covers most isolates antigenically, a few vp3(59)-delet ...201222445197
inclusion of a specific t cell epitope increases the protection conferred against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs by a linear peptide containing an immunodominant b cell site.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd control in endemic regions is implemented using chemically inactivated whole-virus vaccines. currently, efforts are directed to the development of safe and marked vaccines. we have previously reported solid protection against fmdv conferred by branched structures (dendrimeric peptides) harbouring virus-specific b and t-cell epitopes. in order to gain insights into the ...201222416886
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in south america.a databank of 78 vp(1) complete sequences of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from south american isolates was constructed. forty-nine samples corresponded to fmdv that circulated between the years 1999-2008, mainly in venezuela, where most type a outbreaks have occurred lately and twenty-nine to strains historically relevant for the continent. the phylogenetic analysis showed that all south american fmdv belonged to the euro-sa topotype. sixteen subgenotypes could be identified, based ...201222397938
recombinant viral capsid protein vp1 suppresses migration and invasion of human cervical cancer by modulating phosphorylated prohibitin in lipid rafts.recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits invasion/metastasis of cancer cells. here we studied its mechanism of action on human cervical cancer cells. the inhibition of cell invasion by rvp1 was accompanied with reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (pip3), phospho-akt s473, phosphorylated prohibitin (phospho-phb) t258 in lipid rafts, dissociation of phospho-phb t258 with raf-1 and the inactivation of raf-1/erk. addition of pip3 or overexpres ...201222388104
foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a decrease in spleen dendritic cells and the early release of ifn-α in the plasma of mice. differences between infectious and inactivated virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. from an economical point of view, it is the most important disease of livestock worldwide. it is known that the virus interacts with dendritic cells, both in the natural host and in mice, but the impact of this interaction on the adaptive immune response is controversial. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated forms of the fmd virus. little is known about the differences between i ...201222387627
an alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. one of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly acting vaccines. needle inoculation of killed virus vaccine is an efficient method of swiftly vaccinating large numbers of animals, either in eradication efforts or in outbreak situations in disease fre ...201222387223
application of the ceditest® fmdv type o and fmdv-ns enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock and wildlife species in uganda.diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests. two antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, ceditest® fmdv-ns for the detection of antibodies against the nonstructural proteins of all fmdv serotypes and ceditest® fmdv type o for the detection of antibodies against serotype o, were evaluated under african endemic conditions where the presence of multiple serotypes and the use of nonpurified vaccines complicate serologica ...201222379044
modelling the influence of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine antigen stability and dose on the bovine immune response.foot and mouth disease virus causes a livestock disease of significant global socio-economic importance. advances in its control and eradication depend critically on improvements in vaccine efficacy, which can be best achieved by better understanding the complex within-host immunodynamic response to inoculation. we present a detailed and empirically parametrised dynamical mathematical model of the hypothesised immune response in cattle, and explore its behaviour with reference to a variety of ex ...201222363437
direct contact transmission of three different foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in swine demonstrates important strain-specific differences.a novel direct contact transmission model for the study of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of swine was utilized to investigate transmission characteristics of three fmdv strains belonging to serotypes a, o and asia1. each strain demonstrated distinct transmission characteristics and required different exposure times to achieve successful contact transmission. while a 4h exposure was sufficient for strain a24 cruzeiro (a24cru), both o1 manisa and asia1 shamir transmission required ...201222342891
a dna vaccination regime including protein boost and electroporation protects cattle against foot-and-mouth against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using dna technology has been documented for sheep and pigs but not for the highly susceptible species of cattle. twenty-five holstein friesian cross-bred cattle were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with a dna vaccine containing the capsid coding region (p1) along with the non-structural proteins 2a, 3c and 3d (pcdna3.1/p1-2a3c3d) of o(1) kaufbeuren alone or coated onto plg (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. in some pcdna3.1/p1-2a3c3d was ...201222330893
adenovirus-vectored shrnas targeted to the highly conserved regions of vp1 and 2b in tandem inhibits replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus both in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) can be used as a rapid and specific antiviral approach. it was shown that treatment with recombinant adenovirus (ad(vp1-2b)) carrying shrnas targeted to the vp1 and 2b genes of fmdv expressed in tandem had marked antiviral effects against fmdv both in ibrs-2 cells and guinea pigs. treatment with ad(vp1-2b) both before and after fmdv infection was most effective in ib ...201222327142
chimeric calicivirus-like particles elicit specific immune responses in pigs.virus-like particles (vlps) have received considerable attention due to their potential application in veterinary vaccines and, in particular, vlps from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) have successfully shown to be good platforms for inducing immune responses against an inserted foreign epitope in mice. the aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of chimeric rhdv-vlps as vaccine vectors in pigs. for this purpose, we have generated chimeric vlps containing a well-known t epito ...201222306796
bovine type iii interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.interferons (ifns) are the first line of defense against viral infections. although type i and ii ifns have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in swine, a similar approach had only limited efficacy in cattle. recently, a new family of ifns, type iii ifn or ifn-λ, has been identified in human, mouse, chicken, and swine. we have identified bovine ifn-λ3 (boifn-λ3), also known as interleukin 28b (il-28b), and demonstrated that expression of this molecule usi ...201222301155
correlation between efficacy and structure of recombinant epitope vaccines against bovine type o foot and mouth disease develop recombinant epitope vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), genes coding for six recombinant proteins (rp1–rp6) consisting of different combinations of b cell and t cell epitope from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of type o fmdv were constructed and the 3d structure of these proteins analyzed. this revealed a surface-exposed rgd sequence of b cell epitopes in all six recombinant proteins as that in vp1 of fmdv and rp1, rp2 and rp4 globally mimicked the backbone conformation of ...201222286179
serosurveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock on the eastern steppe of mongolia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species, and periodic outbreaks on mongolia's eastern steppe affect mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock. during 2005-08, we collected sera from 36 and 57 calf and adult gazelles, respectively, and from adult domestic animals sympatric with the gazelles, including 138 sheep (ovis aries), 140 goats (capra aegagrus hircus), 139 bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus), and 138 cat ...201222247371
early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues.recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against fmdv in cattle. however, basic mechanisms of ad5-fmdv vaccine function including virus tropism, transgene expression, and antigen presentation, remain incompletely understood. the current study characterized the dynamics of ad5 viral vector ( ...201222227230
a survey on the frequency of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in cattle in north-east of iran by rt-pcr: implications for revising disease control strategy.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in iran. it is essential to timely evaluate the current disease control programme in iran. here, we report the frequency of fmd virus (fmdv) carrier state in cattle slaughtered in mashhad abattoir, mashhad, khorasan razavi, north-east of iran, which contains long common borders with afghanistan and turkmenistan. soft palate samples were collected immediately after slaughter for the detection of fmdv by rt-pcr. the results show that 37.7% of cattle (96 of 2 ...201222222047
experimental infection of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with sat-1 and sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential role of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) sat types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. in two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a sat-1 or sat-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-i ...201126353052
molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from pakistan, 2005-2008.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in pakistan where three virus serotypes are present (o, a and asia 1). fifty-eight clinical samples collected between 2005 and 2008 from animals with suspected fmd in various locations in pakistan were subjected to virus isolation on primary cell culture, antigen elisa and real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). viruses were isolated from 32 of these samples and identified as fmdv type o (n = 31) or type a ( ...201126353051
epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china.this manuscript provides insight into the epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china. the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this serotype, which china reported for the first time after 47 years in 2005, suggests that it may have become endemic in the region.201126353050
preparation of fmd type a87/irn inactivated vaccine by gamma irradiation and the immune response on guinea pig.fmd is one of the most economically damaging diseases that affect livestock animals. in this study fmd virus type a87/irn was multiplied on bhk21 cells. the virus was titrated by tcid50 method, it was 10(7.5)/ml. the fmd virus samples were inactivated by gamma ray from 60co source at -20°c. safety test was done by ibrs2 monolayer cell culture method, also antigenicity of irradiated and un-irradiated virus samples were studied by complement fixation test. the dose/survival curve for irradiated fm ...200823100729
detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.summary two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally, infected with fmdv and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of fmdv by rt-pcr and by virus isolation. fmdv was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. faecal ...199822077296
rt-pcr in foot-and-mouth.summary a rt-pcr assay for the specific detection of rna sequences from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the procedure permits also the detection of sequences that correlate with established fmdv serotypes. a computer program that allows selection of genotype-specific primers for rt-pcr amplification was used for the identification of fmdv specific sequences for pcr amplification on rna replicase (3d) gene regions. specific, rapid and highly sensitive detection was achieve ...199822077295
diagnostic potential of mab-based elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus to differentiate infection from vaccination.abstract this paper summarises the development of monoclonal antibody (mab)-based immunoassays measuring antibodies to non-structural proteins of fmdv to differentiate infection from vaccination. of the three non-structural proteins 2c, 3c and 3abc evaluated in this study, the polypeptide 3abc was the most immunogenic. three elisas for the detection of antibodies to 3abc were developed. two assays rely on the competition of test sera against either a anti-3a mab or against antisera to 3abc raise ...199822077292
cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations.abstract four groups of ten nine-month-old nelore heifers were used for this study. each group received one of four foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) trivalent vaccines for the duration of the experiment. the four vaccine formulations (normal, 2x, 4x and 8x) differed in 140s content to determine the serological reactivities to fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c, 3abc and 3d. vaccination was by the intramuscular administration of vaccine on day 0, 180 and 360. bleedings were done at 30 days po ...199822077290
differentiating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated animals with baculovirus-expressed specific proteins.abstract we had shown in preliminary studies with a small number of animals that antibodies against 2c could be detected in cattle and pigs which had been infected with fmdv but not in animals which had been vaccinated against the disease. to determine whether this test was generally applicable, seta from several hundred animals which had been vaccinated with different products in many countries have been tested in an elisa using baculovirus expressed 2c. our results show that only 1-2% of the s ...199822077289
strong buffering capacity of insect cells. implications for the baculovirus expression system.insect cells are widely used for expression of a variety of different proteins by using the baculovirus expression system. the applicability of this system depends on production of proteins which have biological properties similar to their native counterparts. one application has been the expression of viral capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid structures to provide new viral immunogens which retain complex antigenic sites. an important parameter for efficient folding and assembl ...199522359206
genotypic and phenotypic changes of bhk-21 cells grown in suspension cultures.the propagation of foot-and-mouth disease virus on bhk-21 suspension cells, although economically convenient, may yield a scarcely immunizing antigen. helpful insights were obtained by investigating a few genotypic and phenotypic features of the cell cultures. the appearance of polyploid populations, higher cell concentrations at the end of culturing, the progressive reduction of spreading on surfaces and an abnormal expression of the α5β1 integrin were found to be correlated with the number of ...199322358669
peptides as viral vaccines: lessons from experiments with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the highly variable sequence encompassing amino acids 141-160 of vp1, one of the four capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus, elicits neutralizing antibodies in a range of experimental animals. the sequence has been synthesized chemically by merrifield's solid phase method and biochemically as part of different fusion proteins. by incorporating the peptide into the core protein of hepatitis b virus, particles are produced which elicit levels of neutralizing antibody approaching those ob ...199124424921
computational predictions suggest that structural similarity in viral polymerases may lead to comparable allosteric binding sites.the identification of ligand-binding sites is often the first step in drug targeting and design. to date there are numerous computational tools available to predict ligand binding sites. these tools can guide or mitigate the need for experimental methods to identify binding sites, which often require significant resources and time. here, we evaluate four ligand-binding site predictor (lbsp) tools for their ability to predict allosteric sites within the hepatitis c virus (hcv) polymerase. our res ...201627262620
virus-like particles produced in plants as potential vaccines.virus-like particles (vlps) have been produced as candidate vaccines in plants virtually since the introduction of biofarming. even today, vlps remain the best candidates for safe, immunogenic, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines. well-characterized human animal viruses such as hbv, hcv, hiv and hpv, rotaviruses, norovirus, foot and mouth disease viruses and even influenza virus proteins have all been successfully investigated for vlp formation. proteins have been produced in transgenic plants ...201323414411
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage collected in north africa.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa (2013) and the gulf states (2013) of the middle east have been caused by a fmd viral lineage (o/me-sa/ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the indian sub-continent. this study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a fmd virus emergency vaccine type o1 manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (o/alg/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. this widely available vaccine was selected since in vitr ...201728396208
preclinical diagnosis: predicting its ability to improve control of farm-to-farm foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. we used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples ...201728330886
complete genome sequences of three african foot-and-mouth disease viruses from clinical samples isolated in 2009 and 2010.the complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype sat1, sat2 and o) were directly sequenced from rna extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals.201627151795
complete genome sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses recovered from experimental persistently infected cattle.for the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. no consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.201526159521
engineering foot-and-mouth disease viruses with improved growth properties for vaccine licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in china, despite the isolation of a/wh/cha/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells.201323372840
production of japanese encephalitis virus antigens in plants using bamboo mosaic virus-based vector.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is among the major threats to public health in asia. for disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against jev is in urgent need. in this study, we produced a plant-made jev vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (cvp) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) for epitope presentation. the chimeric virus, designated bj2a, was constructed by fusing jev envelope protein domain iii (ediii) at the n-terminu ...201728515719
a bivalent dendrimeric peptide bearing a t-cell epitope from foot-and-mouth disease virus protein 3a improves humoral response against classical swine fever virus.three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (csfv) in domestic pigs. construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a b-cell epitope derived from csfv e2 glycoprotein connected to an also csfv-derived t-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the b-cell epitope, and ...201728571760
development of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus virus type ii (pcv2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (pdns), and necrotizing pneumonia. rapid diagnosis tool for detection of pcv2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (pcv2 real-time rpa assay) and rpa combined with lateral flow dipstick (pcv2 rpa lfd assay) were developed ta ...201728424790
synonymous codon usage analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses: a comparative study on coxsackievirus a6, a10, a16, and enterovirus 71 from 2008 to 2015.enterovirus 71 (ev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) throughout the world for decades. in recent years, coxsackievirus a6 (cva6) and coxsackievirus a10 (cva10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of hfmd. the present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on p1 (encoding capsid proteins) and p2-p3 regions (both encoding non-struct ...201728602802
isolation of single-domain antibody fragments that preferentially detect intact (146s) particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus for use in vaccine quality control.intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdvs) can dissociate into specific (12s) viral capsid degradation products. fmd vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. vaccine quality is dependent on 146s virus particles rather than 12s particles. we earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) that specifically recognize 146s particles of fmdv strain o1 manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of fmd vaccines during manufacturing. these 146s-specific ...201728861080
development of duplex pcr for differential detection of goatpox and sheeppox viruses.clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. a cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.201728859636
emergence of an exotic strain of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001d in south-east asia in 2015.the o/middle east-south asia (me-sa)/ind-2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in the indian subcontinent and has been reported in the middle east and north africa, but it had not been detected in south-east asia (sea) before 2015. this study reports the recent incursions of this viral lineage into sea, which caused outbreaks in vientiane capital of lao people's democratic republic (pdr) in april 2015, in dak nong, dak lak and ninh thuan provinces of vietnam from may to ...201728856846
rnai combining sleeping beauty transposon system inhibits ex vivo expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 in transgenic sheep cells.foot and mouth disease, which is induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), takes its toll on the cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the vp1 gene in fmdv genome encodes the viral capsid, a vital element for fmdv replication. sleeping beauty (sb) is an active dna-transposon system responsible for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates. in this study, a conserved vp1-shrna which specifically targets the ovine fmdv-vp1 gene was constructed and combined with sb trans ...201728855524
cross-species hybridization of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-21 cells using human and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a dual capacity to induce either acute or persistent infection in host animals. establishment of an in vitro cell model of fmdv persistent infection facilitates the study of the mechanism underlying this type of infection. in this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of both acute and persistent infections using cross-species microarrays. our data suggest that human microarrays are more efficient than mouse microarrays in hybridization with cdna fro ...201728854794
enrichment of viral nucleic acids by solution hybrid selection with genus specific oligonucleotides.despite recent advances, our knowledge of potential and rare human pathogens is far from exhaustive. current molecular diagnostic tools mainly rely on the specific amplification of marker sequences and may overlook infections caused by unknown and rare pathogens. using high-throughput sequencing (hts) can solve this problem; but, due to the extremely low fraction of pathogen genetic material in clinical samples, its application is only cost-effective in special, rather than routine, cases. in th ...201728852181
genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in vietnam.several foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle were identified in vietnam by the recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses from sequential samples from one carrier animal collected over the course of 1 year. the characterization of within-host viral evolution has implications for fmdv control strategies.201728839030
defining the relative performance of isothermal assays that can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study describes the first multiway comparison of portable isothermal assays for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), benchmarked against real-time reverse transcription rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). the selected isothermal chemistries included reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) and reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa). the analytical sensitivity of rt-lamp was comparable to rrt-pcr (10(1) rna copies), while rt-rpa was o ...201728837842
adaption of fmdv asia-1 to suspension culture: cell resistance is overcome by virus capsid alterations.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. bhk21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of fmdv vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. serotype asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. in this study, the asia-1 strain shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infe ...201728820470
galectin-8 activates dendritic cells and stimulates antigen-specific immune response elicitation.galectin-8 (gal-8) is a mammalian β-galactoside-binding lectin, endowed with proinflammatory properties. given its capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, we investigated whether gal-8 was also able to promote apc activation to sustain t cell activation after priming. both endogenous [dendritic cells (dcs)] and bone marrow-derived dcs (bmdcs) treated with exogenous gal-8 exhibited a mature phenotype characterized by increased mhc class ii (mhcii), cd80, and cd86 surface ex ...201728811319
protective effects of high-potency fmdv o1 manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with fmdv o/skr/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus belonging to the sea topotype continues to be a significant problem in the eastern asia region, with outbreaks in japan and south korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. high-potency o1 manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, o/skr/2010. this study tested the ability of the o1 manisa vaccine to protect ...201728789849
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of o/sea/mya-98 lineage in sheep.potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. however, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. to determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6pd50) fmd virus (fmdv) o1manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a het ...201728780422
direct detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa using a field-ready real-time pcr platform.effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by the world organisation for animal health (oie). however, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during fmd outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in fmd-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple di ...201728758346
g3bp1 interacts directly with the fmdv ires and negatively regulates translation.rna-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the function of picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we analysed the impact of ras gtpase sh3 domain binding protein 1 (g3bp1) in the ires activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we found that g3bp1 interacts directly with three distinct sequences of the ires element using rna electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. analysis of the interaction with domain 5 indicated that the g3bp1 binding-site is placed at the si ...201728755480
evaluating the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour against foot-and-mouth disease virus within a bsl4 biosafety evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a biosafety facility. biological indicators (bis) were produced using three serotypes of fmdv, all with a titre of ≥10(6) tcid50 per ml. fifteen bis of each serotype were distributed across five locations, throughout a 30-m(3) airlock chamber, producing a total of 45 bis. thirty-five percent hpv was generated and applied using a bioquell vaporization module located in the c ...201728736948
uncleaved 2a-peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus can display foreign epitope-tag at the virion surface.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein p1-2a is cleaved by viral-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a proteins. it was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2a peptide sequence (l2p) blocked the 3c(pro) mediated vp1/2a cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' fmdv particles containing uncleaved 2a-peptide. to determine whether the uncleaved 2a-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogen ...201728734763
adjuvantation of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine with il-15 expressing plasmid improves the immune response in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. as the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. inclusion of adjuvant which enhances b and t cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine whi ...201728734743
antigenic variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o during serial cytolytic passage.the emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. in the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype o fmdv during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype o vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship v ...201728718047
development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.goatpox virus (gtpv) and sheeppox virus (sppv), which belong to the capripoxvirus (capv), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of gtpv and sppv is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases.201728716095
emergence and whole-genome sequence of senecavirus a in 2015 and 2016, senecavirus a (sva) emerged as an infectious disease in brazil, china and the united states (us). in a colombian commercial swine farm, vesicles on the snout and coronary bands were reported and tested negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but positive for sva. the whole-genome phylogenetic analysis indicates the colombian strain clusters with the strains from the united states, not with the recent sva strains from brazil.201728714178
identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the vp1 protein of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and protect against future pandemics. in this study, we generated a serotype a fmdv-specific pot ...201728711695
isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected mithun (bos frontalis) in north-eastern india.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the fmd virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. the mithun (bos frontalis), popularly called the "cattle of mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east india: arunachal pradesh, nagaland, manipur and mizoram. despite the geographical inaccessibility, ...201728707820
negative regulation of hepatic inflammation by the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein via signal transducer and activator of transcription immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibited tnf-α- and sev-induced type i interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). conversely, tnf-α- or sev-induced type i interferon respon ...201728706517
adoption of the 2a ribosomal skip principle to tobacco mosaic virus for peptide display.plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. the monomeric non-oxygen-dependent fl ...201728702043
enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids.analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. while measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. determining the immunoglobulin (ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will fa ...201728689695
inhibition of viral replication by small interfering rna targeting of the foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor integrin β animals, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes symptoms such as fever, limping and the development of blister spots on the skin and mucous membranes. rna interference (rnai) may be a novel way of controlling the fmd virus (fmdv), specifically by targeting its cognate receptor protein integrin β6. the present study used rnai technology to construct and screen plasmids that expressed small interfering rna molecules (sirnas) specific for the integrin β6 subunit. expression of green fluorescence pr ...201728672992
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces lysosomal degradation of host protein kinase pkr by 3c proteinase to facilitate virus replication.the interferon-induced double-strand rna activated protein kinase (pkr) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection. here we demonstrate the significant antiviral role of pkr against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and report that fmdv infection inhibits pkr expression and activation in porcine kidney (pk-15) cells. the viral nonstructural protein 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) is identified to be responsible for this inhibition. however, it is independent of the well-known protei ...201728662438
molecular mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus targeting the host antiviral response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. the aim of the host interferon (ifn) response is to limit viral replication and spread. detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type i- and type iii-ifns and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative ...201728660175
differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine c57bl/6j mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) biology. in this work, two variants of an fmdv a/arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (a01nl) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (a01l) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. virus a01l reached higher viral ...201728647507
comparison of different inactivation methods on the stability of indian vaccine strains of foot and mouth disease this study, the efficiency of binary ethyleneimine (bei) in combination with formaldehyde (fa) and glutaraldehyde (gta) in inactivating the indian fmdv vaccine strains is compared. the acceptable safety of virus inactivation was faster and the inactivation rates were increased many-folds with combination of inactivants than bei alone. fmdv a was inactivated rapidly than the other two serotypes with bei + fa combination. inactivation plots were linear for all the serotypes irrespective of inac ...201728645721
t135i substitution in the nonstructural protein 2c enhances foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. it has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the c-terminal half of 3a attenuate serotype o and c fmdvs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the c-terminal half of 3a is not essential for serotype asia1 fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells. in this study, we constructed a 3a deletion fmdv mutant based ...201728634750
immunogenicity of t7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. the g-h loop of the fmdv vp1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. however, a fully protective g-h loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous th sites from a source outside vp1. thus, we demonstrated the potential of t7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused g-h loop peptide (t7-gh) as a fmdv vaccine can ...201728622860
inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic capability in germany.germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for fmdv exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. a proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. a panel of two identical samples of fmdv genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), four lyophilize ...201728619169
single-round infectious particle antiviral screening assays for the japanese encephalitis virus.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome that contains a big open reading frame (orf) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (utrs). nearly 30,000 je cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in east asia. although the jev genotype iii vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other genotypes. moreover, no effective treatment for a je case is developed. this study constructed a pbr322- ...201728394283
a naturally occurring recombinant enterovirus expresses a torovirus deubiquitinase.enteroviruses (evs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. in this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species g [evg]) (evg 08/nc_usa/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. the viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic evg strain (pev9 ukg/410/73). remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3c(pro) cleavage sites at the 5' and 3 ...201728490584
development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on hsp70 for the rapid detection of echinococcus granulosus in sheep.echinococcus granulosus is the causative pathogen of cystic echinococcosis, a serious disease endangering human and animal health. in this study, an immunochromatographic strip was developed based on the recombinant protein heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) for the serological detection of e. granulosus. the protocol completes within 20min requiring no specialized equipment or chemical reagents, while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with positive serum of fasciola hepatica, haemonchu ...201728576342
preserved immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles with improved stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. vaccines based on inactivated fmdv virions provide a useful tool for the control of this pathogen. however, long term storage at 4°c (the temperature for vaccine storage) or ruptures of the cold chain, provoke the dissociation of virions, reducing the immunogenicity of the vaccine. an fmdv mutant carrying amino acid replacements vp1 n17d and vp2 h145y isolated pre ...201728619156
recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (ad5- fmd) were made for three indian vaccine virus serotypes o, a and asia 1. constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and viral 3c protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (bos indicus). purified ad5-fmd viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal per serotype) vaccin ...201728619144
evaluation of gaussia luciferase and foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter chimeras as polycistronic reporters for transgene expression.the gaussia princeps luciferase is used as a stand-alone reporter of transgene expression for in vitro and in vivo expression systems due to the rapid and easy monitoring of luciferase activity. we sought to simultaneously quantitate production of other recombinant proteins by transcriptionally linking the gaussia princeps luciferase gene to other genes of interest through the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter sequence.201728606077
first detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/ind-2001d in recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, topotype middle east-south asia (me-sa), lineage ind-2001d has spread from the indian subcontinent to the middle east, north africa, and southeast asia. in the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in vietnam in may, 2015 in đắk nông province. three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between may-october, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for ...201728599321
chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against the 2c and 3abc nonstructural proteins induced by infecting pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (clias) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics has not been reported. full-length 3abc and 2c proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated pigs. the recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two clias ...201728592628
bifunctional enzyme jmjd6 contributes to multiple disease pathogenesis: new twist on the old story.jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is a non-heme fe(ii) 2-oxoglutarate (2og)-dependent oxygenase with arginine demethylase and lysyl hydroxylase activities. its initial discovery as a dispensable phosphatidylserine receptor (psr) in the cell membrane of macrophages for phagocytosis was squashed by newer studies which revealed its nuclear localization and bifunctional enzymatic activity. though its interaction with several nuclear and cytoplasmic target proteins has been demonstrated, th ...201728587176
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o strain yntba from yunnan province of china.yntba is a rabbit-passaged attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o. here, we announce the complete genome sequence of yntba, which provides data for further studies on replication, virulence, its determinants, and cell and host tropism of yntba.201728572308
a synonymous mutation at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integrin host receptor (itgav) gene effect the susceptibility of foot-and-mouth disease in crossbred cattle.integrins are one of the major biologically active proteins responsible for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)- host interaction. out of various heterodimeric integrins discovered, αvβ6 heterodimer serves as the chief receptor for fmdv host tropism. earlier studies reported that, snps at beta 6 subunit (itgb6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle. in this study we report the association between a synonymous snp (rs719257875) at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integri ...201728567614
rapid engineering of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine and challenge viruses.there are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), each of which has intratypic variants. in the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. the capsid-encoding gene (p1) of the vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the o, a, asia1, c, sat1, sat2, and sat3 serotypes. viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. each ch ...201728566375
rules of engagement between αvβ6 integrin and foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvβ6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif in the exposed, antigenic, gh loop of capsid protein vp1. infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with heparin sulphate (hs); this virus is attenuated in natural infections. hs interaction has been visualized at a conserved site in two serotypes ...201728534487
a replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a luciferase reporter.bioluminescence is a powerful tool in the study of viral infection both in vivo and in vitro. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a small rna genome with a limited tolerance to foreign rna entities. there has been no success in making a reporter fmdv expressing a luciferase in infected cell culture supernatants. we report here for the first time a replication-competent fmdv encoding nanoluciferase, named as nano-fmdv. nano-fmdv is genetically stable during serial passages in cells and exhibi ...201728532601
attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) (3d(pol)) catalyzes viral rna synthesis. its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow fmdv to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. in this study, we used the structure of fmdv 3d(pol) in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. in particular, we targeted trp237 within conserved ...201728515297
spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in north central nigeria.this study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of fmdv serotypes, and the spatial distribution of fmdv among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the north-central nigeria.201728507418
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o lineage ind-2001d collected in vietnam in 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus lineage ind-2001 was detected for the first time in southeast asia. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequence of a viral isolate from this lineage collected from an outbreak in vietnam. this novel incursion has substantial implications for regional fmd control measures.201728473375
pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.understanding the mechanisms of attenuation and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the natural host species is critical for development of next-generation countermeasures such as live-attenuated vaccines. functional genomics analyses of fmdv have identified few virulence factors of which the leader proteinase (lpro) is the most thoroughly investigated. previous work from our laboratory has characterized host factors in cattle inoculated with virulent fmdv and attenuated mutant s ...201728464897
molecular and functional bases of selection against a mutation bias in an rna virus.the selective pressures acting on viruses that replicate under enhanced mutation rates are largely unknown. here, we describe resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus to the mutagen 5-fluorouracil (fu) through a single polymerase substitution that prevents an excess of a to g and u to c transitions evoked by fu on the wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus, while maintaining the same level of mutant spectrum complexity. the polymerase substitution inflicts upon the virus a fitness loss during ...201728460010
laboratory validation of two real-time rt-pcr methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3d and 5utr real-time rt-pcr assays (rt-qpcr) from callahan et al. (2002) and reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for an optimal detection of fmdv in clinical samples, it is advised to use both assays simultaneously (king et al., 2006). recently, vandenbussche et al. (2016) showed that the addition of 5'-tails to the fmdv-specific primers enhances the detection of fmdv in both the 3d and the 5utr rt-qpcr assay. to v ...201728457784
separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eif4g cleavage.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its rna genome encodes a large polyprotein. the n-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed lpro. the virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. this results from the lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eif4g. lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the l/p1 junction. using site-dir ...201728452293
Displaying items 4301 - 4400 of 4409