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an infectious recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a fluorescent marker protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. however, the dynamics of fmdv infection are still poorly understood. the application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the fmdv life cycle. here, we have used reverse genetics to determine the capsid packaging limitations for a selected insertion site in the fmdv genome. we show th ...201323559477
association of bola drb3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. accordingly, we investigated the association of drb3 exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (o, a and asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut ...201323541924
expanding the spectral palette of fluorescent proteins for the green microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii.fluorescent proteins (fps) have become essential tools for a growing number of fields in biology. however, such tools have not been widely adopted for use in microalgal research. the aim of this study was to express and compare six fps (blue mtagbfp, cyan mcerulean, green crgfp, yellow venus, orange tdtomato and red mcherry) in the popular model microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. to circumvent the transgene silencing that often occurs in c. reinhardtii, the fps were expressed from the nuclear ...201323521393
a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a worldwide problem limiting the trade of animals and their products from affected countries. the rapid isolation, serotyping, and vaccine matching of fmd virus from disease outbreaks is critical for enabling the implementation of effective vaccination programs and to stop the spread of infection during outbreaks. some primary cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to most strains of fmd virus (fmdv) but are difficult and expensive to prepare and maintain. ...201323515553
influence of the leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader (l) protein is produced in two forms, lab and lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. it has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the lab coding sequence is lethal for the virus, whereas loss of the lb coding sequence results in a virus that is viable in bhk cells. in addition, it is now shown that deletion of the 'spacer' region between these two in ...201323515027
evolutionary conserved motifs constrain the rna structure organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rnas initiate translation using a 5' end-independent mechanism based on internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. despite performing similar functions, ires elements present in genetically distant rnas differ in primary sequence, rna secondary structure and trans-acting factors requirement. the lack of conserved features amongst iress represents obstacles for the understanding of the internal initiation process. rna structure is tightly linked to picornavirus ires activity, cons ...201323507141
the effects of the synonymous codon usage and trna abundance on protein folding of the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a conserved amino acid sequence and is responsible for most cleavage in the viral polyprotein. the effects of the synonymous codon usage of fmdv 3c gene and trna abundance of the hosts on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in the 3c protease were analyzed based on the structural information of the fmdv 3c protease from protein data bank (pdb: 2bhg) and 210 genes of 3c for all serotypes of fmdv. the strong co ...201323499709
foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in bos grunniens yaks.the carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. to investigate the carrier status of fmdv in animals that live in high altitude, bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with fmdv o/akesu/58.201323497369
bovine fetal epithelium cells expressing shrna targeting viral vp1 gene resisted against foot-and-mouth disease virus.rnai could protect experimental animals from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but pivotal issue is delivery of rnai. in this study, shrna recombinant lentiviral plasmid rnai-lt6 targeting vp1 of fmdv, which strongly suppressed the transient expression of a flag-tagged vp1 protein in 293t cells and significantly inhibited viral replication in bhk-21 cells, was screened and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells. with subsequent somatic cell cloning, three 4-month-old transgenic fetuse ...201323481248
serological evidence indicates that foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o, c and sat1 are most dominant in eritrea.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in eritrea and in most parts of africa. to be able to control fmd using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in eritrea is needed. in this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from fmd infected and recovered animals in eritrea. these samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against fmd non-structural proteins (nsp) and neutralizing antibodies against six of the seven (all but sat ...201423480728
proof of concept for the inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by the anti-viral drug 2'-c-methylcytidine in severe combined immunodeficient mice.recent european contingency plans envisage emergency vaccination as an animal-friendly control strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). anti-viral drugs may be used as an alternative or complementary measure. we here demonstrate that the nucleoside analogue 2'-c-methylcytidine (2'cmc) protects severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice against lethal fmd virus infection. in brief, scid mice were inoculated with serotype a fmd virus and treated for five consecutive days with 2'cmc. all 15 trea ...201423480064
influence of conjugation chemistry and b epitope orientation on the immune response of branched peptide antigens.multimeric presentation, a well-proven way of enhancing peptide immunogenicity, has found substantial application in synthetic vaccine design. we have reported that a combination of four copies of a b-cell epitope with one of a t-cell epitope in a single branched construct results in a peptide vaccine conferring total protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, a natural host (cubillos et al. (2008) j. virol. 82, 7223-7230). more recently, a downsized version of this prototype with ...201323458489
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus intra-sample sequence diversity during serial transmission in bovine hosts.rna virus populations within samples are highly heterogeneous, containing a large number of minority sequence variants which can potentially be transmitted to other susceptible hosts. consequently, consensus genome sequences provide an incomplete picture of the within- and between-host viral evolutionary dynamics during transmission. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus that can spread from primary sites of replication, via the systemic circulation, to found distinct sites of loca ...201323452550
biological activity of ovine il-23 expressed using a foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a self-cleaving peptide.hetero-dimeric cytokines often require equi-molar expression of both subunits to achieve biological activity. previously, we expressed ovine il-12 p40 and p35 linked using a self-cleaving 2a peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we now generated a new improved vector for the expression of hetero-dimeric cytokines and demonstrate the more general applicability of this strategy by cloning and expressing ovine il-23 using the 2a peptide to link il-12/il-23 p40 and p19. the resulting pro ...201323419450
growth kinetics and immune response of chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype 'o' produced through replication competent mini genome of serotype asia 1, 63/72, in bhk cell lines.regular vaccinations with potent vaccine, in endemic countries and vaccination to live in non-endemic countries are the methods available to control foot-and-mouth disease. selection of candidate vaccine strain is not only cumbersome but the candidate should grow well for high potency vaccine preparation. alternative strategy is to generate an infectious cdna of a cell culture-adapted virus and use the replicon for development of tailor-made vaccines. we produced a chimeric 'o' virus in the back ...201323384973
observing micro-evolutionary processes of viral populations at multiple scales.advances in sequencing technology coupled with new integrative approaches to data analysis provide a potentially transformative opportunity to use pathogen genome data to advance our understanding of transmission. however, to maximize the insights such genetic data can provide, we need to understand more about how the microevolution of pathogens is observed at different scales of biological organization. here, we examine the evolutionary processes in foot-and-mouth disease virus observed at diff ...201323382425
development of a universal rt-pcr for amplifying and sequencing the leader and capsid-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals with debilitating and devastating consequences for livestock industries throughout the world. key antigenic determinants of the causative agent, fmd virus (fmdv), reside within the surface-exposed proteins of the viral capsid. therefore, characterization of the sequence that encodes the capsid (p1) is important for tracking the emergence or spread of fmd and for selection and development of new vaccines. r ...201323380590
low levels of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease expression are required to achieve optimal capsid protein expression and processing in mammalian cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) is processed by the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to produce vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. within the virus-encoded polyprotein, the p1-2a and 3c(pro) can be expected to be produced at equivalent concentrations. however, using transient-expression assays, within mammalian cells, it is possible to modify the relative amounts of the substrate and protease. it has now been shown that optimal production of the processed capsid pr ...201323364188
epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in nigeria 2008-2009.the epidemiological situation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is uncertain in nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. control measures for fmd in nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban on vaccine importation. this study summarizes the findings of a 3-year study aimed at quantifying the seroprevalence of fmd, its distribution in susceptible species and the genetic diversity of fmdv i ...201423347819
comparative evaluation of three commercial elisa kits for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, we validated three commercial elisa (nsp-elisa) kits that detect antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in terms of their specificities and sensitivities. although the specificities of the nsp-elisa kits were as high as that of liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) in non-infected, non-vaccinated animals, the sensitivities of the nsp-elisa kits were significantly lower than those of the present lpbe and did not agree with the findings of a previo ...201323328606
development of an inactivated 3c(pro)-3abc (mu3abc) elisa to differentiate cattle infected with foot and mouth disease virus from vaccinated cattle.foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is still endemic in asia, africa, and a few countries in south america. subclinical and persistent infections usually occur in vaccinated cattle exposed to fmdv. successful control and eradication measures need a diagnostic assay that can distinguish between immune responses to infection and vaccination. the non-structural 3abc elisa is the most reliable differential diagnostic assay. however, expression of the native ...201323305815
neuroattenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus through picornaviral internal ribosome entry sites.vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) is potent and a highly promising agent for the treatment of cancer. however, translation of vsv oncolytic virotherapy into the clinic is being hindered by its inherent neurotoxicity. it has been demonstrated that selected picornaviral internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements possess restricted activity in neuronal tissues. we therefore sought to determine whether the picornavirus ires could be engineered into vsv to attenuate its neuropathogenicity. we have u ...201323283963
examination of soluble integrin resistant mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection via recognition of one of at least four cell-surface integrin molecules αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, or αvβ8 by a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) amino acid sequence motif located in the g-h loop of vp1. within the animal host, the αvβ6 interaction is believed to be the most relevant. sub-neutralizing levels of soluble secreted αvβ6 (ssαvβ6) was used as a selective pressure during passages in vitro to explore the plasticity of that interaction.201323282061
early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wild biungulate species. this acute disease, caused by the fmd virus (fmdv), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract for up to 72 h postinfection, followed by hematogenous dissemination and vesicular lesions at oral and foot epithelia. the role of the early local adaptive immunity of the host in the outcome of the infection is not well understood. here we report the kin ...201323255811
use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide co-expression system to study intracellular protein trafficking in arabidopsis.a tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2a peptide technology. in this system, the 16-20 amino acid 2a peptide from rna viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. however, so far the use of the 2a technology in plant systems has been limited.201223251667
first confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype sat-1 in cattle and small ruminants in ethiopia in 2007/08.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and the southern nations nationalities and people regional state from august 2007 to april 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in the region. two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of ethiopia. serotype o fmdv was identified in girar jarso, yabello, and ankes ...201323250672
development of a liquid-phase blocking elisa based on foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid antigen for seromonitoring vaccinated animals.in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is widely used to assay vaccine-induced seroconversion. currently, the assay utilizes inactivated fmd virus antigen for the detection of antibodies in serum samples. to develop a non-infectious substitute for the antigen in lpbe, we expressed the structural polypeptide of fmdv (serotype a) using a baculovirus expression system, and show that inclusion of viral 3c with reduced protease activity resulted in a hig ...201323242775
molecular dissection of a viral quasispecies under mutagenic treatment: positive correlation between fitness loss and mutational load.low fidelity replication and the absence of error-repair activities in rna viruses result in complex and adaptable ensembles of related genomes in the viral population, termed quasispecies, with important implications for natural infections. theoretical predictions suggested that elevated replication error rates in rna viruses might be near to a maximum compatible with viral viability. this fact encouraged the use of mutagenic nucleosides as a new antiviral strategy to induce viral extinction th ...201323239576
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with a stable flag epitope in the vp1 g-h loop as a new tool for studying fmdv pathogenesis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 g-h loop contains the major antigenic site. by replacing the sequence upstream of the rgd motif with a flag epitope, a marker virus for pathogenesis studies was generated. in cell culture, the recombinant virus containing flag (a24-flag) exhibited similar plaque phenotypes and growth kinetics to parental virus. a24-flag was distinguished, neutralized, and immunoprecipitated by flag anti-sera. a24-flag infected cattle exhibited fmd and an antibody response ...201323228860
the analysis of codon bias of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the adaptation of this virus to the hosts.the synonymous codon usage patterns of open reading frame (orf) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the similarity degree of the synonymous codon usage between this virus and the hosts and the genetic diversities of fmdv orfs and the viral functional genes in viral orf have been investigated by some simply statistical analyses. as for the synonymous codon usage of fmdv, some over-represented and under-represented codons have a similar usage in all seven serotypes. 33 out of 59 synonymous cod ...201323220329
poly(i:c) combined with multi-epitope protein vaccine completely protects against virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge in pigs.we designed a series of epitope proteins containing the g-h loops of three topotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o and promiscuous artificial th sites and selected one epitope protein (designated as b4) with optimal immunogenicity and cross-reactivity. three out of five pigs immunized intramuscularly with this b4 were protected against virulent fmdv challenge after a single inoculation, while all pigs co-immunized with b4 and polyinosinic-cytidylic acid [poly(i:c)] conferred ...201323219974
an efficient colorimetric assay for rna synthesis by viral rna-dependent rna polymerases, using thermostable pyrophosphatase.rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is essential for the replication of rna genome-containing positive-strand rna viruses. we developed a simple colorimetric assay to quantify the rna synthesis activity of rdrp by measuring the pyrophosphates released during nascent rna synthesis. rna polymerase reaction was quenched by heating at 70 °c for 5 min, during which thermostable inorganic pyrophosphatase converted the accumulated pyrophosphates into inorganic phosphates. subsequently, the amount of in ...201323219564
time-dependent biodistribution and transgene expression of a recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5-luciferase vector as a surrogate for rad5-fmdv vaccines in cattle.replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5 (rad5) vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) transgenes elicit a robust immune response to fmdv challenge in cattle; however mechanistic functions of vaccine function are incompletely understood. recent efforts addressing critical interactions of rad5 vectors with components of the bovine immune system have elucidated important aspects of induction of protective immunity against fmdv. in the current study, a rad5-luciferase (rad5-luc) ...201323219159
mapping of antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 and relationships with sites described in other serotypes.knowledge of the antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has relevance in the development of diagnostic assays, in the evaluation of the antigenic variability and in the selection of appropriate vaccine strains. antigenic sites have been investigated only in fmdvs of serotypes o, a and c, while it would be valuable to extend studies also to other serotypes. this paper reports the identification of antigenic sites involved in virus neutralization in the fmdv serotype asia 1 by ...201323197575
characterization of a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the southern cone of south america and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type o virus isolated during the outbreak in september 2011 in san pedro, paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. the phylogenetic tree derived from complete vp(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the so ...201323182909
efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3c protease activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of artiodactyla. current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. capsids self-assemble from the p ...201323174161
quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important disease agent that can be difficult to effectively eradicate from herds. because it is an obligate intracellular parasite, the virus has multiple effects on the host cell during infection. here, a high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to develop an unbiased holistic overview of the protein changes in ibrs-2 cells infected with fmdv. stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (silac) combined with lc-ms/ms was pe ...201323170859
a bayesian inference framework to reconstruct transmission trees using epidemiological and genetic data.the accurate identification of the route of transmission taken by an infectious agent through a host population is critical to understanding its epidemiology and informing measures for its control. however, reconstruction of transmission routes during an epidemic is often an underdetermined problem: data about the location and timings of infections can be incomplete, inaccurate, and compatible with a large number of different transmission scenarios. for fast-evolving pathogens like rna viruses, ...201223166481
outbreaks and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o in the republic of korea, april-june 2010.thirteen outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) were reported in pigs and cattle in korea between 8 april and 4 june 2010. the fmd virus (fmdv) isolates were of serotype o, indicating that they were related to the virus strains of the southeast asia topotype that are circulating in east asian countries. animals carrying the viruses were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) during a 29-day period between 8 april and 6 may, 2010. prior to this outbreak, these f ...201423164336
sequential administration of cytokine genes to enhance cellular immune responses and cd4 (+) t memory cells during dna vaccination.antigen specific memory t cells (tm) have shown to be an important factor in protecting hosts against subsequent infection by previously encountered pathogens. during t-cell activation, several cytokines including il-6, il-7 and il-15, play crucial roles in the development of t cells into memory t cells. with the aim of generating specific tm, we examined a strategy of sequential administration of molecular adjuvants. in this strategy a dna vaccine encoding the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mou ...201223151452
characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat2 in egypt.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during february-march 2012. to investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (utr) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. only fmdv-sat2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. complete vp1- and leader-p ...201323132412
foot-and-mouth disease virus strains and examination of exposure factors associated with seropositivity of cattle herds in nigeria during 2007-2009.new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in cattle herds in nigeria during 2007-2009. the objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify current fmd virus strains circulating in cattle herds and (ii) to identify exposure factors associated with a seropositive diagnosis of fmd in cattle herds. this study provides evidence that fmd virus serotypes o, a and sat-2 were co-circulating in cattle herds in nigeria during 2007-2009. cattle herds in a neighborhood affected with ...201323127691
genetic and antigenic characterization of indian foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolates collected during the period 2001 to 2012.the phylogenetic analysis of vp1 sequences of the 39 type o foot and mouth virus (fmdv) isolates collected from different regions of india during the year of 2001-12 revealed that all isolates belonged to the middle east - south asia (me-sa) topotype. based on the amount of divergence among the isolates, the viruses were further classified into three distinct lineages namely ind 2001, panasia and panasia-2 as well as a minor, unnamed group. ind 2001 lineage viruses accounted for most of the curr ...201323123825
sequence analysis of capsid coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial passages in bhk-21 adherent and suspension cells.sequence variability within the capsid coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial in vitro passage was investigated. specifically, two methods of virus propagation were utilized, a monolayer and suspension culture of bhk-21 cells. at three positions (vp2(131) e-k in both monolayer and suspension passages, vp3(85) h-r in late monolayer passages and vp3(139) k-e in only suspension passages), all mapped to surface exposed loops, amino acid substitutions we ...201223084588
spatial trend of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.the present study describes the frequency of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus serotypes (o, a and asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of pakistan using indirect sandwich elisa. also, spatial distribution of various fmd serotypes and their comparison is discussed. a total of 590 samples (epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009). out of 590 samples, 180 were found positive, giving an overall confirmation of fmdv about 33.2 %. of the prevalent serotypes ...201223055008
generation of monoclonal antibodies against non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease virus.to identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), babl/c mice were immunized with the 3ab protein and splenocytes of balb/c mice were fused with myeloma sp2/0 cells. two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mabs) cell lines against the 3ab protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were obtained, named c6 and e7 respectively. the microneutralization titer was 1:1024 for mab c6, and 1:512 for e7. both mabs contain kappa light chains, and were of ...201223055007
recombinant protein rvp1 upregulates becn1-independent autophagy, mapk1/3 phosphorylation and mmp9 activity via wipi1/wipi2 to promote macrophage migration.the monocyte/macrophage is critical for regulating immune and antitumor responses. recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus induces apoptosis and inhibits migration/metastasis of cancer cells. here, we explored the effects of rvp1 on macrophages. our results showed that rvp1 increased lc3-related autophagosome formation via wipi1 and wipi2 in a becn1-independent manner. rvp1 treatment increased macrophage migration that was attenuated by knockdown of atg5, atg7, wipi ...201323051912
humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. d9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. humanization of d9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. the humanized d9 (hd9) variable regions were further grafte ...201223049820
development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o virus-like-particles (vlps) vaccine and evaluation of its potency.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant viral disease that rampage dairy and other livestock industries in many countries. the disease is being controlled by the use of an inactivated vaccine. however, a recombinant marker vaccine, which avoids the use of live virus, may be an option for the unambiguous differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. a recombinant baculovirus clone containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) seroty ...201223043941
accumulation of nucleotide substitutions occurring during experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus.analysis of full-genome sequences was previously used to trace the origin and transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in the uk in 2001 and 2007. interpretation of these data was sometimes at variance with conventional epidemiological tracing, and was also used to predict the presence of undisclosed infected premises that were later discovered during serological surveillance. here we report the genome changes associated with sequential passage of a highly bhk-21-ce ...201323034594
cd4+ t-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.we have performed a series of studies to investigate the role of cd4(+) t-cells in the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) post-vaccination. virus neutralizing antibody titres (vnt) in cattle vaccinated with killed fmd commercial vaccine were significantly reduced and class switching delayed as a consequence of rigorous in vivo cd4(+) t-cell depletion. further studies were performed to examine whether the magnitude of t-cell proliferative responses correlated with the antibody ...201323034593
plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate is required for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, pi(4,5)p(2), is a phospholipid which plays important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. to investigate the possible role of this lipid on viral entry, two viruses important for animal health were selected: the enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) - which uses a well characterized clathrin mediated endocytic route - and two different variants of the non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with distinct receptor specificities. the express ...201223028825
interferon-γ induced by in vitro re-stimulation of cd4+ t-cells correlates with in vivo fmd vaccine induced protection of cattle against disease and persistent infection.the immune defense against fmdv has been correlated to the antibody mediated component. however, there are occasions when some animals with high virus neutralising (vn) antibody are not protected following challenge and some with low neutralising antibody which do not succumb to disease. the importance of cell mediated immunity in clinical protection is less clear and so we investigated the source and production of interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) in re-stimulated whole blood of fmdv immunized cattle an ...201223028529
emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus sat 2 in egypt during 2012.the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic fmd viruses (fmdv), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the middle east and sub-saharan africa. this report describes the molecular characterization of sat 2 fmd viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of fmd in egypt during february and march 2012. phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within ...201223025522
the comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-pcr (qrt-pcr) assays in oral swab and probang samples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype o fmdv. during acute infection, fmdv rna was measurable in oral swabs as well as in probang samples from both species. fmdv rna could be detected in oral swabs and probang samples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas ...201323022683
global transcriptional analysis of model of persistent fmdv infection reveals critical role of host cells in persistence.with the aid of ammonium chloride, we established a model for persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of bhk-21 cells (huang et al., 2011). distinctive to a previously established model, the persistently infected cell line acquired new features including more rounded morphology, resistance to wild type fmdv infection, consistent replication efficiency in late passages, etc. to elucidate the mechanism of establishment of persistence, we performed systematically microarray analysi ...201323022682
comparison of immune responses against fmd by a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly contagious and responsible for huge outbreaks among cloven hoofed animals. the aim of the present study is to evaluate a plasmid dna immunization system that expresses the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and compare it with the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model. the vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the unique kpn i and bamh i cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ and pegfp-n1 vectors to construct the vp(1) gene cassettes. the transfected bhkt7 cells ...201223001482
enhanced inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combinations of porcine interferon-α and antiviral agents.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. the current fmd vaccine provides no protection until 7days after the vaccination, which reduces its effectiveness in the case of an outbreak. therefore, to find an alternative method of applying antiviral agents for rapid and enhanced inhibition of the fmd virus (fmdv), we compared the antiviral effects of promising antiviral agents and attempted to apply them in combination. firs ...201223000495
avidity and subtyping of specific antibodies applied to the indirect assessment of heterologous protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.serological assessment of the heterologous response among foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains is mainly performed by virus neutralization test (vnt), liquid phase blocking elisa and complement fixation assay. in this study two high-throughput elisa techniques, avidity and igg subtype elisa, were developed and used to further characterize heterologous antibody responses in cattle during vaccination and challenge. both assays were applied to a set of previously characterized sera from anim ...201223000129
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. in ecuador, fmdv is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. to unravel the tempo and mode of fmdv spread within the country we conducted a bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time markov chain (ctmc) to model the diffusion of fmdv between ecuadorian provinces. we implement this framework through markov chain monte carlo available i ...201322985683
identification of peptides from foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class i swine leukocyte antigen (sla) alleles, sla-1*0401 and sla-2*0401.characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (sla) class i and ii molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. here, we describe the complete binding motif of the sla-2*0401 molecule based on a positional scanning combinatorial peptide library approach. by combining this binding motif with data achieved by applying the netmhcpan peptide prediction algorithm to both sla-1*0401 and sla-2*0401, we ide ...201322984928
recombinant viral protein vp1 suppresses her-2 expression and migration/metastasis of breast cancer.breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer death. development of new therapeutic agents for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis is therefore an urgent need. we previously demonstrated that recombinant dna-derived viral capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced apoptosis of mcf-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. here, we investigated whether rvp1 exhibits any inhibitory effects on migration/metastasis ...201222983836
adenovirus-vectored type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid proteins as a vehicle to display a conserved, neutralising epitope of type o fmdv.the objective of this study was to explore the immunogenicity of an adenovirus construction expressing a type o foot and mouth disease virus neutralising epitope (8e8) in the context of heterologous capsid proteins. adenoviruses expressing four chimeric type asia1 fmdv capsid proteins were constructed by inserting the type o fmdv 8e8 epitope into the g-h loop from the type asia1 vp1 at amino acid residues 139/140, 150/151, 134/140 or at both 139/140 and 150/151. these recombinant proteins were r ...201322981982
a critical role of n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c-induced apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c, is one of the most highly-conserved viral proteins among the serotypes of fmdv. however, its effect on host cells is not very clear. using yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation approaches, we found that fmdv 2c interacted with the n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) protein. when expressed in cells, fmdv 2c is mainly associated with endoplasmic reticulum in the forms of speckles. in the absence of fmdv 2c, nmi was distributed diffusely in the cytopla ...201222974759
effects of amino acid substitutions in the vp2 b-c loop on antigenicity and pathogenicity of serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability. studies of the antigenic diversity and determination of amino acid changes involved in this diversity are important to the design of broadly protective new vaccines. although extensive studies have been carried out to explore the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of serotype o and serotype a fmdv, there are few reports on asia1 serotype fmdv.201222963009
development and evaluation of a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a one-step, real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection and serotyping of indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is described. the rt-lamp assay was found to be 10(3)-10(5) fold more sensitive in comparison with rt-pcr, with a detection limit ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-5) tcid(50) of virus samples of all three serotypes. the rt-lamp assay and qrt-pcr could detect 100 percent of clinical samples of three serotypes, whereas the rt- ...201322960423
effectiveness of vaccines and vaccination programs for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, 2001-2010.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in uganda, fmd outbreaks are mainly controlled by ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements. vaccination stimulates immunity and prevents animals from developing clinical signs which include lameness, inappetence, and decreased production. ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements have, however, not successfully controlled fmd in uganda and outbreaks reoccur annually. the objective of this ...201322956440
development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (bombyx mori) pupae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. in 2009, fmdv serotype a caused outbreaks of fmd in cattle in china. although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control fmd, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. here, we expressed the p1-2a and the 3c coding regions of a serotype a fmdv ...201222952788
robust expression and secretion of xylanase1 in chlamydomonas reinhardtii by fusion to a selection gene and processing with the fmdv 2a peptide.microalgae have recently received attention as a potential low-cost host for the production of recombinant proteins and novel metabolites. however, a major obstacle to the development of algae as an industrial platform has been the poor expression of heterologous genes from the nuclear genome. here we describe a nuclear expression strategy using the foot-and-mouth-disease-virus 2a self-cleavage peptide to transcriptionally fuse heterologous gene expression to antibiotic resistance in chlamydomon ...201222937037
interplay of foot-and-mouth disease virus, antibodies and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: virus opsonization under non-neutralizing conditions results in enhanced interferon-alpha responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly infectious member of the picornaviridae inducing an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. vaccine-induced immune protection correlates with the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies but also opsonising antibodies have been proposed as an important mechanism of the immune response contributing to virus clearance by macrophages and leading to the production of type-i interferon (ifn) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc). the present s ...201222934974
foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 2c interacts with beclin1, modulating virus replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an apthovirus within the picornaviridae family. replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. the largest viral protein in the replication complex, 2c, is thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. however, studies examining the function of fmdv 2c have been rather limited. to better understand the role of 2c in the ...201222933281
novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. vaccines require ∼7 days to induce protection; thus, before this time, vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1×10(11) focus forming units (ffu) of a replication-defective human adenovirus containing the gene for porcine interferon alpha (adt-pifn-α) are sterilely protected from fmdv serotypes a24, o1 manisa, or asia 1 when t ...201222924938
a safe foot-and-mouth disease vaccine platform with two negative markers for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is widely practiced to control fmd. currently, fmd vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent fmdv in biocontainment-level facilities. here, two marker fmdv vaccine candidates (a(24)ll3d(yr) and a(24)ll3b(pvkv)3d(yr)) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (l(pro)) and one of the 3b proteins were constructed and evaluated. these vaccine candidates also contain e ...201222915802
identification of short hairpin rna targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.although it is known that rna interference (rnai) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), it has not been previously investigated whether shrnas targeting fmdv in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against fmdv challenge.201222905125
human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing.next generation, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of fmd capsid genes (adfmd) are being developed by the united states dept. of homeland security and industry partners. the strategic goal of this program is to develop adfmd licensed vaccines for the usa national veterinary stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an fmd outbreak. this vaccine platform provides a unique opport ...201222888605
the effect of uniform capture molecule orientation on biosensor sensitivity: dependence on analyte properties.uniform orientation of capture molecules on biosensors has been reported to increase sensitivity. here it is investigated which analyte properties contribute to sensitivity by orientation. orientation of capture molecules on biosensors was investigated using variable domains of llama heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs) as capture molecule, and a surface plasmon resonance (spr) chip as biosensor. two vhhs were tested in this study: one recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and another recogni ...201322878083
modulation of foot-and-mouth disease virus ph threshold for uncoating correlates with differential sensitivity to inhibition of cellular rab gtpases and decreases infectivity in vivo.the role of cellular rab gtpases that govern traffic between different endosome populations was analysed on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. changes of viral receptor specificity did not alter rab5 requirement for infection. however, a correlation between uncoating ph and requirement of rab5 for infection was observed. a mutant fmdv with less acidic uncoating ph threshold was less sensitive to inhibition of rab5, whereas another mutant with more acidic requirements was more sensiti ...201222875255
expression and stability of foreign epitopes introduced into 3a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an aphthovirus that belongs to the picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. the capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about fmdv. to explore the potential of fmdv as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa) hsv epitope and an 8 aa flag epitope were introduced into the c-terminal different regions of 3a protein of fmdv full-length infectio ...201222848509
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o phylodynamics: genetic variability associated with epidemiological factors in pakistan.one of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control is the high genetic variability of the fmd virus (fmdv). in endemic settings such as the indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating outbreaks in disease-free areas. in countries trying to control and eradicate fmd using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field fmdv strains is an obstacle for iden ...201322846206
genome sequences of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from egypt and palestinian autonomous territories (gaza strip).two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in north africa (egypt) and the middle east (palestinian autonomous territories). these data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the fmdv sat 2 topotype vii, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the sahara desert. further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links be ...201222843860
characteristics of serology-based vaccine potency models for foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine potency testing involves hundreds of animals each year. despite considerable efforts during the past decades, a challenge-free alternative vaccine potency test to replace the european protective dose 50% test (pd(50)) has not been implemented yet. the aim of the present study was to further characterize the properties of serological vaccine potency models.201222824343
characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. conventional fmd vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of fmd from europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processe ...201222815275
synergistic effects of 2a-mediated polyproteins on the production of lignocellulose degradation enzymes in tobacco plants.cost-effective bioethanol production requires a supply of various low-cost enzymes that can hydrolyse lignocellulosic materials consisting of multiple polymers. because plant-based enzyme expression systems offer low-cost and large-scale production, this study simultaneously expressed β-glucosidase (bglb), xylanase (xylii), exoglucanase (e3), and endoglucanase (cel5a) in tobacco plants, which were individually fused with chloroplast-targeting transit peptides and linked via the 2a self-cleaving ...201222798663
double candida antarctica lipase b co-display on pichia pastoris cell surface based on a self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide.to develop a high efficiency candida antarctica lipase b (calb) yeast display system, we linked two calb genes fused with sacchromyces cerevisiae cell wall protein genes, the sed1 and the 3'-terminal half of sag1, separately by a 2a peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a single open reading frame. the calb copy number of recombinant strain kcse2acsa that harbored the orf was identified, and the quantity of calb displayed on the cell surface and the enzyme activity of the strain were ...201222797600
improved neutralising antibody response against foot-and-mouth-disease virus in mice inoculated with a multi-epitope peptide vaccine using polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid as an adjuvant.a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was designed. the peptide immunogen had a g-h loop domain optimised for immunogenicity and broad-spectrum antigenicity to different lineages of serotype-o fmd viruses (fmdvs). polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid [poly (i:c)] was used as the adjuvant to overcome the low humoral antibody levels often observed in association with peptide-based vaccines. the multi-epitope peptide alone induced the secretion of a certain level of neutralising ...201222766183
mutagenesis-mediated decrease of pathogenicity as a feature of the mutant spectrum of a viral population.rna virus populations are heterogeneous ensembles of closely related genomes termed quasispecies. this highly complex distribution of variants confers important properties to rna viruses and influences their pathogenic behavior. it has been hypothesized that increased mutagenesis of viral populations, by treatment with mutagenic agents, can induce alterations in the pathogenic potential of a virus population. in this work we investigate whether mutagenized foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pop ...201222761933
connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.to effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. to test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.201222761900
increased plasma cardiac troponin i concentration in lambs with myocarditis.cardiac troponin i (ctni) is a blood biomarker of myocardial injury. a human ctni assay may be useful for measuring ctni concentrations in lambs with naturally occurring myocarditis.201222747688
bola-drb3 gene polymorphism and fmd resistance or susceptibility in wanbei cattle.for the further characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-induced foot-and-mouth disease, we investigated the association between polymorphism of bola-drb3 gene and fmd resistance/susceptibility of wanbei cattle challenged with fmdv. one hundred cattle were challenged with fmdv and exon 2 of bola-drb3 genes was amplified by hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction from asymptomatic animals and from animals with fmd. pcr products were characterized by the rflp technique using restricti ...201222744423
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease cleaves nemo to impair innate immune signaling.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral illness of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals. the causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), replicates rapidly, efficiently disseminating within the infected host and being passed on to susceptible animals via direct contact or the aerosol route. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to block the host interferon (ifn) response. previously, we and others demonstrated that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of fmdv is an ifn anta ...201222718831
field outbreak strains of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus from india with a deletion in the immunodominant βg-βh loop of the vp1 protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o accounts for around 80 % of the outbreaks in india. although indian serotype o isolates belongs to the me-sa topotype, circulation of different lineages has been noted. after its emergence in the year 2001, the 'ind2001' lineage outcompeted the panasia lineage in causing serotype o outbreaks in the year 2009. three isolates had an amino acid deletion at position 139 in the vp1 coding region and grouped with the 'ind2001' lineage. the currently used indian ...201222707045
sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine construct encoding fmdv-specific multivalent epitope gene: studies on its immune responses in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is still a perennial global menace affecting livestock health and production. it is imperative to figure out new ways to curb this disease. in this study, a sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine, psincmv-vac-meg990, encoding a multivalent epitope gene (representing tandemly linked vp1 c-terminal halves of three foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes) was constructed. in vitro transfection studies in bhk-21 cells revealed that the construct was able to expr ...201222702835
mapping of antigenic determinants on a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus using chicken single-chain antibody fragments.recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scfvs) of antibodies make it possible to localize antigenic and immunogenic determinants, identify protective epitopes and can be exploited for the design of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines. a neutralizing epitope, as well as other potential antigenic sites of a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were identified using phage-displayed scfvs. three unique zim/7/83-specific scfvs, designated scfv1, scfv2 and scfv3, were isolated. further cha ...201222698877
investigation of foot and mouth disease hotspots in northern lao pdr.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an endemic transboundary disease in the mekong region, and fmd records of reports to animal health authorities in lao pdr between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed. fmd outbreaks occurred in 2 of 3 years in eight districts in three of the eight northern lao pdr provinces, locations suggested as fmd 'hotspots'. the relatively higher risk of recurrence of fmd in these districts was likely due to the presence of a dense large ruminant population, extensive animal trading i ...201322690839
modelling the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.in this paper we investigate the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle using previously published data for 8 experimentally infected cows. an 8-compartment, 14-parameter differential equation model was fitted to data collected from each cow every 24 h over the course of an infection on: (i) the concentration of fmdv genomes in the blood, (ii) the concentration of infectious virus in the blood, (iii) antibody levels, and (iv) interferon levels. model parameters ...201222664068
diagnosis and control measures of the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease a type in the republic of korea.in january 2010, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred for the first time in 8 years in korea. the outbreaks were because of a serotype, different from the o type, which had occurred previously in 2000 and 2002. the fmd outbreaks were identified in seven farms, consisting of six cattle farms where viruses were detected and one deer farm where only fmdv antibody was detected. the seven farms were within 9.3 km of each other. all susceptible animals within 10 km radius of the outbreak farms were p ...201322630568
capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs.the surface exposed capsid proteins, vp1, vp2 and vp3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus.in the present study we compared the pathogenicity of different fmdvs in young pigs. in total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell cultu ...201222624592
mechanism of nucleic acid unwinding by sars-cov helicase.the non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) is a helicase that separates double-stranded rna (dsrna) or dna (dsdna) with a 5' → 3' polarity, using the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis. we determined the minimal mechanism of helicase function by nsp13. we showed a clear unwinding lag with increasing length of the double-stranded region of the nucleic acid, suggesting the presence of intermediates in the unwinding process. to elucidate the natur ...201222615777
evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. in recent years, a series of outbreaks of type o fmd occurred in china (including chinese taipei, chinese hong kong) posed a tremendous threat to chinese animal husbandry. its causative agent, type o fmdv, has evolved into three topotypes (east-south asia (m ...201222591597
evaluation of the solid phase competition elisa for detecting antibodies against the six foot-and-mouth disease virus non-o serotypes.the solid-phase competition elisa (spce) has been evaluated in both screening and titration assay formats for detecting antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for the six non-o serotypes a, c, sat 1, sat 2, sat 3 and asia 1. cut-off values were determined as a percentage inhibition of 40 for the sat serotypes and 50 for serotypes a, c and asia 1, which gave rise to specificity values ranging from 99.41% to 99.9% for the different serotypes. the relative sensitivity between the sp ...201222561986
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