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fixation of mutations in the viral genome during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease: heterogeneity and rate variations.rates of fixation of mutations during the evolution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c1 in nature have been estimated by hybridization of viral rna to cloned cdnas representing defined fmdv genome segments, and comparison of the selected rnas by t1 rnase oligonucleotide fingerprinting. values ranged from less than 0.04 x 10(-2) to 4.5 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide per year (s/nt/yr), depending on the time period and the genomic segment considered. rates for viral structural pro ...19863034729
immune response to uncoupled peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus.uncoupled synthetic peptide representing the sequence of amino acids 141-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein vp1 induced a virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea-pigs. this response required incomplete freund's adjuvant (ifa) for the primary inoculation and was dependent on the presence of an added cysteine residue with an unblocked sulphydryl group at the carboxy-terminus. secondary immunization could be carried out in the absence of adjuvant. a study of the relative acti ...19873034769
relationship of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses to the cardiovirus genus of picornaviruses.sequence analysis of vp1 in the da strain of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (tmev) showed that 13 of the first 23 n-terminal amino acids were identical to those in the corresponding protein of encephalomyocarditis virus. there was little similarity to the corresponding vp1 sequences of poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3, coxsackievirus b3, human rhinoviruses 2 and 14, human hepatitis a virus or foot-and-mouth disease virus. these results, as well as serological relationships detected by imm ...19863034822
surface structure and rna-protein interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the surface structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and the interaction of the individual capsid proteins with the virus rna have been examined using modification reagents. by measuring the extent of modification of the lysine residues of intact and disrupted virus particles and the 12s protein subunit with bolton & hunter reagent it was found that 54% of the residues of vp1, 15% of the residues of vp2 and 37% of the residues of vp3, equivalent to five, two and four lysine residues resp ...19873035064
effect of lysosomotropic compounds on early events in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the effect of three lysosomotropic compounds, chloroquine, monensin and nh4cl, on the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a12 was studied. viral replication was almost totally inhibited by 0.5 mm chloroquine, 50 microm monensin, or 25 mm nh4cl. monensin and nh4cl affected replication when added either before or within the first hour of infection. chloroquine, however, still inhibited viral replication when added up to 2.5 h after infection. assays of binding of radiolabeled v ...19873037820
proteolytic processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus polyproteins expressed in a cell-free system from clone-derived transcripts.all picornaviral genes are expressed as a single, large polyprotein, which is proteolytically processed into the system produces functional proteins, including viral protease 3c, which plays a major role in processing the precursor proteins. to study the function of the two putative proteases 3c and leader (l) in processing, we constructed several cdna plasmids encoding various regions of the fmdv type a12 genome. these plasmids, containing fmdv cdna segments under the control of the t7 promoter ...19873041041
role of epidermal langerhans cells in viral infections.langerhans cells function as highly potent antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis. in the last few years, their role in viral infections has been studied in various experimental systems. they have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of a number of infections of viral origin. these include vaccinia virus, human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus, foot and mouth disease virus and human retrovirus infections. studies on the effect of various factors, that are known to modulate the a ...19883063231
gtp-binding domain: three consensus sequence elements with distinct spacing.a sequence comparison of nine functionally different gtp-binding protein families has yielded further information on the general characterization of the conservation and importance of amino acid sequences in the gtp-binding domain, including a consensus sequence composed of three consensus elements gxxxxgk, dxxg, and nkxd with consensus spacings of either 40-80 or approximately equal to 130-170 amino acid residues between the first and second elements and approximately 40-80 amino acid residues ...19873104905
3d gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus. conservation by convergence of average sequences.the nucleotide sequence of the 3d (polymerase) gene of eight epidemiologically related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c1 is reported. the genetic heterogeneity of 3d rna is compared with that of the vp1-coding rna of the same viruses. regression lines of substitutions per nucleotide that distinguish any pair of viruses as a function of the time interval between the corresponding isolations show: (1) the slope (substitutions/nucleotide per month) is 2.1 times larger for the ...19883225850
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus. iii. evaluation of antibodies after infection and vaccination.investigations using a liquid-phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the measurement of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in sera from sheep and from cattle are reported, and results compared with those obtained by virus neutralization (vn) tests. serum antibody titres in sheep after primary vaccination and in cattle challenged with a natural aerosol after vaccination were similar by elisa and vn. however, the antibody levels detected in sera o ...19873428376
immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in a murine experimental model: effective thymus-independent primary and secondary reaction.the immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was studied in a murine model. in untreated control mice, the inoculation of 10,000 suckling mouse 50% lethal doses of ol campos fmdv i.p. was followed by a burst of viraemia that disappeared in less than 4 days, i.e. when the neutralizing antibodies (nab) reached titres above one neutralizing unit. in mice treated with cyclophosphamide, the curves of viraemia and nab were significantly delayed. nu/nu mice injected with fmdv had cur ...19863490436
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the genomic regions encoding protease and genome-linked protein of three picornaviruses.to investigate the degree of similarity between picornavirus proteases, we cloned the genomic cdnas of an enterovirus, echovirus 9 (strain barty), and two rhinoviruses, serotypes 1a and 14lp, and determined the nucleotide sequence of the region which, by analogy to poliovirus, encodes the protease. the nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the genome-linked protein vpg, immediately adjacent to the protease, was also determined. comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with ...19863512851
in vitro immune serum-mediated protection of pig monocytes against african swine fever virus.serum samples from pigs that had recovered from infection with a dominican republic isolate of african swine fever virus (asfv) were mixed with dilutions of the virus, then assayed in microcultures of normal pig mononuclear leukocytes to determine whether the samples contained antibodies that protected monocytes against the virus. protection was determined by the difference in titer (log10) between virus mixed with healthy pig serum and virus mixed with immune pig serum, using 50% cytopathogenic ...19873631688
serologic survey of viral antibodies in the peruvian alpaca (lama pacos).sera from more than 100 alpacas (lama pacos) from the peruvian southern sierra were examined for antibodies to 8 viruses known to infect other domestic animals. on the basis of these serologic findings and previously published serologic or clinical data, it is now known that the alpaca can be infected with the following viruses: parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bluetongue virus, border disease virus, influenza a virus, rotavirus, rabies virus, vesicular ...19873826854
[use of muramyl dipeptides in models of synthetic vaccines].vaccination represents a great success in clinical immunology and new approaches for designing vaccines of the future are now available. protective antigens could be obtained by recombinant dna technology or by synthesis. these new immunogens are likely to be poor immunogens and require the use of carrier and adjuvants. both carrier and adjuvant present some limitations. in this report we consider how synthetic glycopeptides analogous to muramyl dipeptide (mdp) can be used as adjuvants under sui ...19853896261
nonspecific immunostimulation against viruses.a trypsinized preparation from chromogenic selected strain of mycobacterium phlei (nsi) stimulated the recipient immune system non-specifically against a variety of viruses viz. rabies virus (rna virus). marek's disease (dna virus) and foot and mouth disease virus (rna virus) in phylogenetically different hosts like mice, chicks and guinea pigs respectively. investigation into mechanisms of such nonspecific immunostimulation revealed that there was induction of strong cell mediated immune respon ...19854064625
[structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. 1. the buildup of the protein capsule]. 19714104057
further evidence for multiple proteins in the foot-and-mouth disease virus particle. 19714108674
on the architecture of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19714114966
[differences in the antigenic structure of strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19744143073
[detection of antibody-forming cells by means of local hemolysis in gel (lhg) in mice and pigs after immunization with infectious or inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (author's transl)]. 19744143236
antigenic variation of venezuelan strains of foot and mouth disease viruses. 19744143492
serum immunoglobulins in white rats immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. 19734148114
[demonstration of antibody-synthesizing cells in mice and swine by means of local hemolysis in gel following immunization with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccine]. 19744154623
metabolic studies on heart of unweaned rabbits infected with foot-and mouth disease virus. 19744154715
[contribution to clone isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the plaque method]. 19654160239
inhibition of cell-free foot-and-mouth disease virus-ribonucleic acid synthesis by antibody. 19674164645
[a contribution to the preparation of pure virus strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus by means of the plaque method]. 19664168210
[studies on the differentiation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus types o, a and c in cell culture using the direct coons' method]. 19684176180
reactions of intracellular crystals of foot-and-mouth disease virus with ferritin-tagged antibody. 19694182173
activated sepharose as an adsorbent for antibodies of foot-and-mouth disease virus, and its use as an immunoadsorbent for type and subtype differentiation. 19694186898
electron microscopy of the rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19704192488
immunofluorescent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the esophageal-pharyngeal fluids of inoculated cattle. 19704194347
isolation of variants during passage of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus in partly immunized cattle. 19654283920
[on testing the efficiency of foot-and-mouth disease hyperimmune serum in guinea pigs by injecting myotropic foot-and-mouth disease virus strains]. 19654283976
morphological transformation of calf kidney cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19654284100
[on the development of myotropic foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in guinea pigs]. 19644284150
[experimental increase of nonspecific resistance to infection of the mouse with foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19644284151
production of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen from bhk 21 clone 13 cells grown and infected in deep suspension cultures. 19654284162
[subtypes of the foot-and-mouth disease virus type o. their antigenic and immunologic properties and mutual relationships]. 19644284199
[evaluation of the immunogenic capacity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus by measurement of complement fixing capacity after treatment by a fluorocarbon]. 19654285035
typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19654285040
comparison of the inactivation and antigenicity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus by acetylethyleneimine and by combined effect of ultraviolet light and beta-propiolactone. 19654285068
actinomycetes activity against foot and mouth disease virus determined by a new method. 19654285352
[study of mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus obtained by cultivation at low temperature. selection of strains non-pathogenic in swine]. 19664285751
[trial filtration on "millipore vm and vf" membranes of a type a7 foot-and-mouth disease virus adapted to mice by intramuscular inoculation]. 19664286217
comparative assay of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle, mice, and cell cultures. 19654286221
sensitivity of cell cultures, cattle, mice, and guinea-pigs for detection of nineteen foot-and-mouth disease viruses. 19654286222
cross-protection product in an attempt of quantitative antigenic differentiation of two foot-and-mouth disease virus strains type o in cattle. 19654286223
typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19654286224
activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus antiserum after treatment with beta-propiolactone to inactivate a contaminating virus. 19654286245
some surface-active agents and their virucidal effect on foot-and-mouth disease virus.selected cationic and anionic surface-active compounds were tested to determine their virucidal effect on the foot-and-mouth disease virus, type o, strain m11, propagated in primary calf kidney cells. the chemical inactivation of the virus was tested with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0% concentrations of the selected compounds. virus controls with ph adjusted to cover the expected range of the mixtures of the chemicals and virus were also tested. the absence of virus from the mixtures of chemical and vi ...19654286396
foot and mouth disease virus rna as an antigenic factor in the complement-fixation reaction applied to the examination of human tumors. 19654286460
growth of foot and mouth disease virus in organ cultures of mouse pancreas. 19654286947
isolation of variant strains from foot-and-mouth disease virus propagated in cell cultures containing antiviral sera. 19654286959
observations on pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a cell-culture-modified foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19654287070
[observations on the chemical composition of cultures of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in relation to some phases of purification of the viral suspension]. 19664287155
effect of chemical agents on foot-and-mouth disease virus production in cell cultures. 19654287298
presence and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine skin.gailiunas, peter (plum island animal disease laboratory, greenport, n. y.), and george e. cottral. presence and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine skin. j. bacteriol. 91:2333-2338. 1966.-this study established that the seven known antigenic types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have consistent affinity to all areas of bovine skin, even though gross cutaneous lesions usually are found only in the pedal area. considerable amounts of fmdv were present in skin of 13 differe ...19664287587
[the variability of the size of plaques of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19654287821
hydroxylamine as an inactivating agent for foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19664288021
[reaction of plaque-purified and non-purified foot-and-mouth disease virus strains of the subtypes o-1, o-2, and o-3 and of the corresponding immune sera in cross-neutralization tests]. 19664288046
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by interaction of dye and visible light.the inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus was studied by means of the interaction of neutral red, toluidine blue, and methylene blue with visible light. the virus, type a, strain 1, canefa of argentine origin, was grown in tissue culture and tested in the crude and clarified state. virus and dye were mixed and incubated together at 4 c for 45 min in the dark, or were mixed and immediately exposed to the visible light source without prior incubation together. mixtures of crude virus and dy ...19664288063
growth of foot-and mouth disease virus in monolayer cultures of calf thyroid cells. 19664288087
studies on foot-and-mouth disease virus ribonucleic acid synthesis. 19664288419
effect of merthiolate on agar gel diffusion precipitin reactions with foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19664288764
[immunobiologic properties of the asia-1 type strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19654288812
[growing of foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue culture]. 19654288813
isolation of a variant strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (type o) during passage in partly immunized cattle. 19664288864
the infectivity assay of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs. 19664288865
the assay, extraction and storage of infective ribonucleic acid from foot and mouth disease virus. 19664288963
electron microscopic observation of crystalline arrays of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19664289361
immunization of guinea pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus subjected to photodynamic inactivation. 19664289502
ribonucleic acid of foot-and-mouth disease virus: an ultrasensitive plaque assay. 19664289530
influence of salts on foot-and-mouth disease virus.the effect of sodium and magnesium chloride in 1 and 2 m concentration at temperatures of 37 and 50 c on type c, strain 149, foot-and-mouth disease virus during storage for 6 days was studied. the exclusively passaged cattle strain and its tissue culture-adapted line were compared. preparations of the various chemicals and their concentrations were made directly in suspensions of the virus, which, together with untreated control virus suspensions, were stored at indicated temperatures and tested ...19664289623
amino acid composition of three immunological types of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19674289716
the effect of heat on the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the viral ribonucleic acid. 19664289840
[typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19664290033
[immunological variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. definition. method of determination. application to "o flanders" (1947) and "o lausanne" (1965) strains]. 19664290045
[typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. cumulative quarterly report]. 19664290158
the inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus at ionic-strength dependent isoelectric points. 19674290172
foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced ribonucleic acid polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells. 19674290193
[further cases of foot-and-mouth disease virus infections in man]. 19654290196
reactivation of antibody-neutralized foot-and-mouth disease virus by organic chemicals and inhibition by 1-butanol. 19664290880
multiplication of an attenuated rv11 strain (type sat12) of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep. 19664290897
[antigenic and immunological relationships between the a sub-types of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. 1. after inoculation of guinea-pigs with active virus]. 19664290978
a study of the kinetics of protein and rna synthesis induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19664291133
quantitative evaluation of immunological reactivity of carriers of malignant tumours against foot and mouth disease virus rna by the complement fixation reaction. 19664291338
susceptibility of tissue culture cells to foot-and-mouth disease virus: concentration of bovine serum in culture medium. 19674292080
[the antigenic and immunologic properties and relations of a subtypes of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. after vaccination of guinea pigs with formalin-adsorbate]. 19664292121
[typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, nong-sarai (thailand). results of diagnosis and typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19664292262
[a thermostabile inhibitor in pig serum against foot-and-mouth disease virus. 1. occurrence and properties determinable in vitro]. 19664292381
chemically characterized media for study of foot-and-mouth disease virus in baby hamster kidney cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus can be grown in baby hamster kidney cells with a chemically characterized medium containing only tris(hydroxymethyl)-amino-methane (tris) buffer, glucose, glutamine, and salts. virus infectivity was only 0.5 log unit less than in a complex cell growth medium containing serum, tryptose phosphate, and lactalbumin hydrolysate. at high multiplicity of infection, production was maximal in 5 hr, with the virus remaining largely intracellular. glucose and glutamine appeared ...19674292530
studies on the relationship of the thermosensibility and sensibility to the acidic ph of certain cliones of foot and mouth disease virus obtained at infra-optimal temperature of 29 degrees c. 19664292588
[modification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by passage in tissue culture; relationship between virulence for mice and rat characteristics]. 19674292612
[thermostable inhibitors against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig serum. 3. electrophoretic and chromatographic studies]. 19674292613
effect of incubation temperature and serum content in agar overlay on plaque production by foot-and-mouth disease virus.the numbers of plaques produced by foot-and-mouth disease virus in primary cultures of calf kidney cells conditioned to 24, 30, and 37 c were essentially the same if virus was absorbed at 37 c. adsorption was as effective at 30 as at 37 c in cultures conditioned to the respective temperature, but 24 c was less effective under this condition. however, when the adsorption temperature for cultures conditioned to 37 c was decreased to 30 or 24 c, fewer plaques were produced than in cultures conditio ...19674292899
some experiences with chemical inactivants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19674293089
increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus of bovine lung cells transformed by polyoma virus. 19674293237
comparison of a bovine enterovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19674293282
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