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establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in mdbk cells.in addition to acute infection and disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause persistent infection in ruminants. such "carrier" animals represent a potential risk for fmdv transmission to susceptible animals. however, the mechanisms and the factors that determine fmdv persistence remain unknown. we describe here the establishment of fmdv type o persistent infection in a bovine epithelial cell line (madin-darby bovine kidney; mdbk). preliminary experiments to assess the permissivity o ...201526215440
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of dendritic cells triggers phosphorylation of erk1/2 inducing class i presentation and apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this pathology is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). over time, the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of this illness became essential. vaccines currently used contain the inactivated form of the virus. however, vaccination generates an immune response different to that induced by the infection. we investigated whether these differences are related to intracellular mechanisms on de ...201526212005
development of protective immunity against inactivated iranian isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 using gamma ray-irradiated vaccine on balb/c mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. the aim of this research was the inactivation of fmdv type o/irn/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (gri) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs.201526202581
clonality and intracellular polyploidy in virus evolution and pathogenesis.in the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. however, despite abundant recombination that may be linked to molecular events essential for genome replication, herein we provide evidence that generation of recombinants with altered biological properties is not essential for the completion of the replic ...201526195777
a malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6pd50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant fmdv a sea-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) due to their ability to amplify the virus. it is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. in this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion a malaysia 97 vaccine (>6pd50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the a sea-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). in a ...201526192355
influence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/chn/mya98/33-p strain leader protein on viral replication and host innate immunity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/chn/mya98/33-p strain was isolated from the esophageal-pharyngeal fluid sample of cattle, and was shown to cause persistent infection. its leader protein contains 200 amino acids with one amino acid deletion, which is upstream and next to the second initiation codon compared with the majority of fmdv mya98 strains. the fmdv genome includes two initiation codons that can produce two different leader proteins, lab (from the first aug) and lb (from the second a ...201526186028
quantitative proteomic analysis of bhk-21 cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (silac) was used to quantitatively study the host cell gene expression profile, in order to achieve an unbiased overview of the protein expression changes in bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv serotype asia 1. the silac-based approach identified overall 2,141 proteins, 153 of which showed significant alteration in the expression level 6 h post fmdv infection (57 up-regulated and 96 down-regulated). among these proteins, six cellular proteins, ...201526161868
systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody-secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic responses upon aerosol infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated fmd virus (fmdv), are regularly used worldwide to control the disease. here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. animals immunized with a high-payload monovalent fmd vaccine developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies at 7 days post ...201526157128
isolation of novel sequences targeting highly variable viral protein hemagglutinin.rapid evolution is a hallmark of the viral kingdom and a major concern for developing universal vaccines. the isolation of substantial numbers of viral sequence variants at highly variable viral protein domains remains a major challenge. we previously developed a combinatorial method for the isolation of novel sequences to cope with rapid viral variations at the g-h loop of foot and mouth disease virus vp1 protein [1]. here we present a modification of that method in its application in the rando ...201526150973
a new lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in india.the complete nucleotide sequence of a new lineage of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was determined. the lineage designated as ind2011 first appeared during 2011 in the southern region of india. excluding the poly c tract and poly a tail, the genome of ind2011 ranged from 8,169 to 8,172 nucleotides. variation in the genome length was due to insertions/deletions in lf-utr. the lineage had a higher sequence identity with lineage panasia-1 at p1 and p2 regions, and with lineage panas ...201526129666
engineering foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o ind r2/1975 for one-step purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.immobilized metal affinity chromatography (imac) allows for the efficient protein purification via metal affinity tag such as hexa-histidine (his6) sequence. to develop a new chromatography strategy for the purification and concentration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles, we inserted the his6-tag at the earlier reported site in the vp1 g-h loop of the fmd virus serotype o vaccine strain ind r2/1975. display of the his6-tag on the capsid surface, endowed the virus with an increased ...201526123433
virus excretion from foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier cattle and their potential role in causing new outbreaks.the role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from fmdv infection. in this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. we col ...201526110772
eradication of transboundary animal diseases: can the rinderpest success story be repeated?a matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (tads). the system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). on that basis, 25 tads that have occurred or do occur in southern africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (inco ...201726104982
a computational study of the interaction of the foot and mouth disease virus vp1 with monoclonal antibodies.foot and mouth disease is caused by a non-enveloped virus (fmdv), which disposes several antigenic sites at the surface of their capsid proteins. the most relevant and immunodominant antigenic site of fmdv (site a or ansa) includes a key virus-cell interaction element (rgd motif) located in the viral protein 1 (vp1), more precisely at the gh loop. ansa includes a set of overlapped and mainly linear epitopes, which are the main targets of the humoral immune response. taking advantage over specifi ...201526093030
transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. a novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. here, we produce transgenic (tg) pigs that constitutively expressed fmdv-specific short interfering rna (sirna) derived from small hairpin rna (shrna). in vitro challenge of tg fibroblasts showed the shrna suppressed viral growth. tg and non-tg pigs were challeng ...201526090904
comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-αvβ6 for foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains. the suitability of zz-r 127 cells for fmdv isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. however, to our knowledge, the suitability of lfbk-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epitheli ...201526082457
sat2 foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in a mixed farm in egypt.a dairy farm keeping holstein cattle and buffaloes in the menoufia governorate was investigated during and after the last foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in egypt (starting february 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. all animals were vaccinated against fmd with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing o1 and a/egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of ...201526054223
evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind2001 lineage.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o ind2001 lineage within the middle east-south asia topotype is the major cause of recent fmd incidences in india. a sub-lineage of ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from libya. in this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of ind2001 lineage. phylogenetic analysis of ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three ...201526049591
expression of porcine mx1 with fmdv ires enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pk-15 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. due to the rapid replication and spread of fmdv, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block fmdv shedding in cases of disease outbreak. here, we generated an ires-mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of fmdv was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (orf) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (pomx1). this construct provides ...201526047650
robust protection against highly virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine by combination treatment with recombinant adenoviruses expressing porcine alpha and gamma interferons and multiple small interfering rnas.because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. we have developed recombinant aden ...201526041279
[construction and characterization of an epitope-mutated asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus].to generate an epitope-mutated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) as a marker vaccine, the infectious clone pasia 1-fmdv containing the complete genomic cdna of asia 1 type fmdv was used as backbone, the residues at positions 27 and 31 in the 3d gene were mutated (h27y and n31r). the resulting plasmid pasia 1-fmdv-3dm encoding a mutated epitope was transfected into bhk-21 cells and the recombinant virus rasia 1-3dm was rescued. the recombinant virus showed similar biological characteristics com ...201526021083
capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage c foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from india.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first reported in india in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (b, c and d) of this serotype have been described until now. in this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype asia1 viruses (n = 99) from india were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. all of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage c (designated as sublineage c(r) ...201526008211
persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle; tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression.tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of fmdv and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with fmdv serotype a, o or sat2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). fmdv was less frequently detect ...201525996935
review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus affects livestock worldwide. there are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. the objective of this study was to review the most significant fmd epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. severe epidemics were caused by fmd virus (fmdv) lineage o/asia/mya-98 in ja ...201725996568
different functional sensitivity to mutation at intersubunit interfaces involved in consecutive stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus assembly.small spherical viruses are paradigms of supramolecular self-assembly. identifying the specific structural determinants for virus assembly provides guidelines to develop new antiviral drugs or engineer modified viral particles for medical or technological applications. however, very few systematic studies have been carried out so far to identify those chemical groups at interfaces between virus capsid subunits that are important for viral assembly and function. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...201525979732
development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. a rapid and specific test for fmd diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. this project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-lfi) for the rapid detection and serotyping of fmd viruses. the monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against serotypes o, a, and asia 1 were used as cap ...201525977185
a hydrophobic interaction chromatography strategy for purification of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus.a purification scheme based on hydrophobic interaction chromatography was developed to separate inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from crude supernatant. about 92% recovery and 8.8-fold purification were achieved on butyl sepharose 4 ff. further purification on superdex 200 resulted in another 29-fold purification, with 92% recovery. the columns were coupled through an intermediate ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the virus. the entire process was completed in about 3.5h, with 7 ...201525957800
clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype o 2010 south east asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o, topotype south east asia, lineage myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. all four exposure systems were ef ...201525937316
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides improve the immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in mice.water-soluble polysaccharides from chuanminshen violaceum (cvps) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, monosaccharide composition, and adjuvant potential to specific cellular and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination. the average molecular weight (mw) of the cvps was 968.31 kda. the monosaccharide components of the cvps was rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a relative mass of 6.29%, 21.87%, 16.5 ...201525934108
intra-serotype sat2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against fmdv challenge.the genetic diversity of the three southern african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each sat-specific topotype may be needed. this has serious implications for control of fmd using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vsat2(zim14)-sat2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed ...201525930116
quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. to quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of fmdv, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. in direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. in indirect contact expe ...201525928658
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with a fmdv o mya98 lineage virus in pigs 4 and 7 days post vaccination.early protection with a high potency (>6pd50) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) o1 manisa (middle-east south asia lineage) vaccine against challenge with o/vit/2010 (o mya98 lineage) was tested in pigs. only two pigs that were vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had any demonstrable antibodies as a result of vaccination at the time of challenge. however, 80% and 60% of pigs that were vaccinated seven and four days prior to coronary band challenge were protected. vaccination significantly reduced ...201525917677
viral bimolecular fluorescence complementation: a novel tool to study intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways.the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) accessory protein nef interacts with a multitude of cellular proteins, manipulating the host membrane trafficking machinery to evade immune surveillance. nef interactions have been analyzed using various in vitro assays, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and more recently mass spectrometry. however, these methods do not evaluate nef interactions in the context of viral infection nor do they define the sub-cellular location of these interactions. in t ...201525915798
quantitative single dilution liquid phase blocking elisa for sero-monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in india.three of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus are prevailing in india. a massive vaccination campaign is on to control and eradicate the disease from the country. however, fmd vaccines provide short term immunity, hence regular assessment of antibody level in the vaccinated herds is indispensible for the success of the control programme. the antibodies are quantitatively estimated, either by virus neutralization test or by end-point dilution liquid-phase-blocking elisa (lpbe ...201525911541
foot-and-mouth disease in red deer - experimental infection and test methods performance.the aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) test methods for use in red deer. ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the fmd virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). it tested ...201725907028
multifunctionality of a picornavirus polymerase domain: nuclear localization signal and nucleotide recognition.the n-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d polymerase contains the sequence mrktklapt (residues 16 to 24) that acts as a nuclear localization signal. a previous study showed that substitutions k18e and k20e diminished the transport to the nucleus of 3d and 3cd and severely impaired virus infectivity. these residues have also been implicated in template binding, as seen in the crystal structures of different 3d-rna elongation complexes. here, we report the biochemical and ...201525903341
serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs (bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.we report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. bannerghatta biological park (bbp), a national park located in the outskirts of bengaluru city, karnataka, india, is bordered by several villages. these villages witnessed massive outbreaks of fmd which spread rapidly to the herbivores at bbp. post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two india ...201525894817
impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in kenya.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into fmd-free countries. information on the impact of the disease in fmdv-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. a fmd (virus serotype sat2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in nakuru county, kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of fmd o ...201525889460
development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control rna for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. for high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks asso ...201525864934
the impact of within-herd genetic variation upon inferred transmission trees for foot-and-mouth disease virus.full-genome sequences have been used to monitor the fine-scale dynamics of epidemics caused by rna viruses. however, the ability of this approach to confidently reconstruct transmission trees is limited by the knowledge of the genetic diversity of viruses that exist within different epidemiological units. in order to address this question, this study investigated the variability of 45 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences (from 33 animals) that were collected during 2007 from eigh ...201525861750
an appraisal on the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a livestock disease that has serious economic repercussions. here, we report the laboratory results for samples from suspected outbreaks that were sent for confirmation of fmd in pakistan. from january 2010 to december 2011, 132 suspected outbreaks were investigated, and samples from 58 out of the 76 outbreaks sent to the national veterinary laboratory (nvl) were positive. the highest proportion of positives were of serotype o (65.52 %), followed by serotype a (24 ...201525850759
stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine.most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. intact (146s) fmdv particles can dissociate into 12s degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. we therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed elisas to separately quantify 12s and 146s particles. virions completely dissociated into 12s particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. dissociation occur ...201525843267
phylogenetic analysis of the leader proteinase (lpro) region of indian foot and mouth disease serotype o isolates.in this study, the nucleotide sequences of the complete leader proteinase (lpro) region of 21 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o collected during various outbreaks in india were sequenced and compared with vaccine strains. the phylogenetic analysis of these lpro sequences showed a difference in the clustering of the isolates based on the vp1 capsid coding region sequences. the comparison of amino acid sequences at the n terminus end of the lpro region showed very high var ...201525842211
risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. recurrence of fmd outbreaks in israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of fmd among ...201525841998
apigenin restricts fmdv infection and inhibits viral ires driven translational activity.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by fmd virus (fmdv). fmd outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. results show that apigenin can inhibit fmdv-mediated cytopathogenic effect and fmdv replication in vitro. further studie ...201525835532
determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-saharan africa.the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for rna replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine fmdv isolates of sat1, sat2, sat3, a and o serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. the leader protease (l(pro)) and 3a ...201525818579
comparison of stabilisers for development of a lyophilised multiplex reverse-transcription pcr mixture for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus serotypes.multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (mrt-pcr) assay is a sensitive and rapid method for the detection and serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). however, the method has not been used to its full potential, because of factors such as cost, a lack of infrastructure and the complexity of the reaction mixture. this study was undertaken to optimise and validate a thermostable, lyophilised, ready-to-use mrt-pcr kit for the rapid detection of fmdv in field laboratories ...201425812209
risk factors for infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in iran.in this study, we estimated the level of foot-and-mouth (fmd) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of islamic republic of iran and analyzed putative risk factors for fmd infection. calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of west azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsp-ab) of fmd virus. a proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. within ...201525805320
evolutionary analysis of structural protein gene vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 was mostly endemic in asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. in this study, we characterized 377 isolates from asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups i-viii) or were ...201525793223
transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an fmdv infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep.we wanted to quantify transmission of fmdv asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an fmdv infection in sheep. for this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. in each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2 pen-mates. viral excretion was detected for a long period (>21 days post-inoculation, dpi). transmission of fmdv occurred in the non-vaccinated groups (r0=1.14) but only in the first week after infection ...201525790732
immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. there is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (vlps), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. the vlps are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. the objective of the present study was to express the vlps of f ...201525790055
pan-serotype diagnostic for foot-and-mouth disease using the consensus antigen of nonstructural protein 3b.an amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven fmdv serotypes are described. the amino acid consensus sequence of the 3b protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3b. the consensus 3b (c3b) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-bindi ...201525788546
construction and characterization of yeast two-hybrid cdna library derived from lfbk cell line.the cdna libraries are indispensable and critical tools for performing protein-protein interaction studies. in this study, a high quality yeast two-hybrid cdna library from the lfbk cell line was constructed and characterized. lfbk cell line was originally derived from the swine kidney cells and is highly susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. the total rna was extracted from the lfbk cells and the switching mechanism at the 5' end of rna template (smart) technique was emp ...201525787111
local rna flexibility perturbation of the ires element induced by a novel ligand inhibits viral rna translation.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located at the 5'untranslated genomic region of various rna viruses mediates cap-independent initiation of translation. picornavirus ires activity is highly dependent on both its structural organization and its interaction with host factors. small molecules able to interfere with rna function are valuable candidates for antiviral agents. here we show that a small molecule based on benzimidazole (irab) inhibited foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) i ...201525775053
the ph stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is modulated by residues located at the pentameric interface and in the n terminus of vp1.the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. in this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of fmdv acid-induced disassembly by isolating an ...201525762735
expression of multiple taenia solium immunogens in plant cells through a ribosomal skip mechanism.taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. while several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein expl ...201525761936
detection of replication competent adenovirus upon serial passaging of recombinant adenovirus expressing fmdv capsid proteins.replication deficient human adenovirus type 5 (had5) is an important gene delivery vehicle and has been used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as gene therapy, cancer therapy and vaccination. inspite of its various useful features, emergence of replication competent adenovirus (rca) in recombinant virus stocks is a great concern. in the present study, recombinant adenovirus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype-o capsid proteins was propagated in hek-293 cells and purified ...201525748638
a simple method for measuring porcine circovirus 2 whole virion particles and standardizing vaccine formulation.porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) is involved in porcine circovirus-associated disease, that causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. vaccination against pcv2 proved to be very effective in reducing disease occurrence and it is currently performed on a large scale. starting from a previous model concerning foot-and mouth disease virus antigens, we developed a rapid and simple method to quantify pcv2 whole virion particles in inactivated vaccines. this procedure, based on sucro ...201525687800
promising ms2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. in this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (ep141-160) of vp1 were inserted into the coat protein (cp) genes of ms2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (vlp). results showed that the cp-ep141-160 vlp had a strong immunoreaction with the fmd virus (fmdv) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice ...201525676866
a colorimetric bioassay for high-throughput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal viruses. this virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type i interferons. currently, a bioassay based on plaque reduction is used to measure anti-fmdv activity of porcine ifns. the plaque reduction assay is tedious and difficult to utilize for high-throughput analysis. using available fmdv susceptible bovine and porcine cells, we developed and tested a colorimetric assay based on cytopathic effect reduction for its ability ...201525669593
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) from ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.to investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (op)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported fmd outbreaks in seven different ugandan districts. overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against fmdv by priocheck fmdv ns elisa ...201525664876
robust expression of heterologous genes by selection marker fusion system in improved chlamydomonas strains.chlamydomonas is a very attractive candidate plant cell factory. however, its main drawback is the difficulty to find the transformants that robustly express heterologous genes randomly inserted in the nuclear genome. we previously showed that domestic squalene synthase (sqs) gene of chlamydomonas was much more efficiently overexpressed in a mutant strain [uv-mediated mutant (uvm) 4] than in wild type. in this study, we evaluated the possibility of a new mutant strain, met1, which contains a tag ...201525660568
development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the 3b protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most highly contagious and economically devastating diseases, and it severely constrains the international trade of animals. vaccination against fmd is a key element in the control of fmd. however, vaccination of susceptible animals raises critical issues, such as the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. the current study developed a reliable and rapid test to detect antibodies against the conserved, nonstructural proteins (nsps) ...201525651918
antigenic properties and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus rescued from full-length cdna clone of serotype o, typical vaccine strain.we cloned the full-length cdna of o manisa, the virus for vaccinating against foot-and-mouth disease. the antigenic properties of the virus recovered from the cdna were similar to those of the parental virus. pathogenesis did not appear in the pigs, dairy goats or suckling mice, but neutralizing antibodies were raised 5-6 days after the virus challenge. the utilization of o manisa as a safe vaccine strain will increase if recombinant viruses can be manipulated by inserting or removing a marker g ...201525648340
how foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor mediates foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.this study reviews the fmdv receptor-binding domain, integrin receptors, and heparan sulfate receptors to provide references for studies regarding the mechanisms underlying fmdv infection.201525645358
characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle in kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the sat serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv). large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on fmd in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. this study analysed 47 epithelia col ...201525644407
establishment and evaluation of a murine ανβ3-integrin-expressing cell line with increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.integrin ανβ3 plays a major role in various signaling pathways, cell apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. to examine the functions and roles of ανβ3 integrin, a stable cho-677 cell line expressing the murine ανβ3 heterodimer (designated as "cho-677-mανβ3" cells) was established using a highly efficient lentiviral-mediated gene transfer technique. integrin subunits αν and β3 were detected at the gene and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa), r ...201525643796
development of a novel thermostable newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene.thermostable newcastle disease virus (ndv) vaccines have been used widely to control newcastle disease for village poultry flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. to explore the potential use of thermostable ndv as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of thermostable avirulent ndv strain ts09-c was developed using reverse genetics technology. the gfp gene, along with the self-cleaving 2a gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and ubiquitin monomer (2aubi), were ...201525626679
a multi-species indirect elisa for detection of non-structural protein 3abc specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus.reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the affected countries. non-structural protein (nsp) serology based on the 3abc protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. this report presents the development of a 3abc-antigen-based indirect elisa, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein g secondary antibody ...201525623051
correction for larocco et al., a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201525617444
prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in east africa using site-directed mutagenesis.epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype a fmdv. previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from asia, europe and latin america. in this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in african serotype a fmdvs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to b ...201525614587
construction and characterization of 3a-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most fmdvs examined to date. specific deletion in the fmdv 3a protein has been associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. however, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. in this study, we constructed epitope-tagged fmdvs containing an 8 aa flag epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (ha) ep ...201525584768
kinetics of cytokine expression in bovine pbmcs and whole blood after in vitro stimulation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.the interest in analysing antigen-specific cytokine responses has substantially increased in recent years, in part due to their use in assessing vaccine efficacy. in the present study, the kinetics of il-2, il-4 and ifn-γ expression was determined in bovine pbmcs by real-time pcr and in whole blood by cytokine-release assay after in vitro stimulation with recall foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen. the results showed that the cytokine mrna of il-2 and ifn-γ in pbmcs were induced early (p ...201525574771
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 in long-horned ankole calf, uganda.after a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in uganda. the emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding vp1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in uganda.201525531186
protective immune response to liposome adjuvanted high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in indian cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines applied for prophylactic use in endemic areas provide short-lived immunity requiring regular boosters. indian fmd control program recommends twice a year vaccination. development of high potency vaccines that provide better immune response can singificantly contribute to control programme by reducing the frequency of vaccination. the present study explores new adjuvants to enhance the protective efficacy of inactivated trivalent fmd vaccines.201525528522
genetic and immunologic relationships between vaccine and field strains for vaccine selection of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in east asia.of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), type a has the most diverse variations. genetic variations also occur frequently at vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. the structural proteins of fmdv, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. in this study we analyzed the type a vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find ...201525528521
genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o responsible for outbreaks in india during 2013.in recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in india are caused by serotype o ind2001 lineage. the lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (ind2001a, b, c and d). we report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during april 2013-march 2014 in india. the length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. of the nine isolates anal ...201525511252
induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles.the aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type a fmd were designed: (1) chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (plga) loaded with plasmid dna (chi-plga-dna) and (2) chitosan-trehalos ...201425506214
antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75 against currently circulating viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o is the most common cause of fmd outbreaks in india and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely ind2001, panasia and panasia 2. we report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype o viruses isolated from india between 2002 and 2012. all these viruses belong to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype. the serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current ind ...201525500306
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination induces cross-reactive ifn-γ responses in cattle that are dependent on the integrity of the 140s particles.interferon-γ (ifn-γ) recall responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in fmd vaccinated cattle are utilized to study t-lymphocyte immunity against this virus. here, a recall ifn-γ assay based on a commercial elisa was set up using 308 samples from naïve and vaccinated cattle. the assay was used to study cross-reactive responses between different fmdv vaccine strains. blood samples from cattle immunized with monovalent vaccines containing a24/cruzeiro/brazil/55, a/argentina/2001 or o1 ...201525496826
outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in libya and saudi arabia during 2013 due to an exotic o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage virus.foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the vp1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from libya and saudi arabia has revealed a lineage, o-ind-2001, normally found in the indian subcontinent. this paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time rt-pcr assay that can be used ...201625483996
early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency vaccine.in 2009-2011, spread of a serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) belonging to the south east asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in japan and korea. the o1 manisa vaccine (belonging to the middle east-south asian topotype) was used at high potency in korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. however, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the o1 manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. in this study, the early protecti ...201525483241
vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop fmdv transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.we quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. the (partial) reproduction ratios (r) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. a 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (ngm) was constructed using these estimates. the dominant eigenvalue of the ngm, the r for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different prop ...201525464822
swine leukocyte antigen (sla) class i allele typing of danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.the swine major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genomic region (sla) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct mhc class i molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating t cells of the immune system. upon recognition of such peptide-mhc complexes (pmhc) naïve t cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. hence sla plays a crucial role in main ...201425457547
evolutionary analysis and prediction of peptide vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth-disease virus types a and o in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an endemic disease of cloven-hoofed animals, causes an annual economic loss of us$60-150 million in bangladesh. there is no cross-protection among the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes and vaccination escape mutation may happen. peptide vaccine is a safer alternative. the aim of this study is to predict and map the b and t cell epitopes of vp1 proteins of fmdv serotypes o and a that were circulating in bangladesh from 2011 to 2013. using evolutionary and ...201425452681
a thiazepino[4,5-a]benzimidazole derivative hampers the rna replication of eurasian serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the stamping-out policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in countries that are free from fmd without vaccination has a dramatic socio-economic impact, huge animal welfare issues and may result in the loss of farm animal genetic resources. as an alternative to pre-emptive culling or emergency vaccination we further explore the possibility to use antiviral drugs in the event of an fmd outbreak. in the present study, we tested the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-fmdv activity o ...201425446115
[validation of a real time rt-pcr assay to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus and assessment of its performance in acute infection].a specific real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcrrt) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus was validated using the lightcycler thermocycler 2.0 and its reagents as recommended by the world organization for animal health and was assessed for the detection of the virus in acute infection of cattle experimentally vaccinated and challenged with virus a argentina/2001 or a24 cruzeiro. the technique proved to be robust, showing coefficients of variation lower tha ...201425444126
a positively charged lysine residue at vp2 131 position allows for the enhanced adaptability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in bhk-21 cells.field outbreak strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infect host cells through certain arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent integrin family of cellular receptors. in contrast, fmdv adapted in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to infect cells via heparin sulphate (hs) or other unidentified cell surface molecules. it has been reported that during the serial passage of fmdv serotype a in bhk-21 cell culture, vp2 e131k (e2131k) substitution was fixed within the heparin sulph ...201525439090
a virus that can take the heat.foot-and-mouth disease virus shows remarkable thermal lability, a property that is a particular problem for vaccine preparations. in this issue of structure, rincón and colleagues show that electrostatic repulsion within the capsid is responsible for this lability, and they present rationally designed mutants with increased thermostability.201425438667
evolutionary non-linear modelling for selecting vaccines against antigenically variable viruses.in vitro and in vivo selection of vaccines is time consuming, expensive and the selected vaccines may not be able to provide protection against broad-spectrum viruses because of emerging antigenically novel disease strains. a powerful computational model that incorporates these protein/dna or rna level fluctuations can effectively predict antigenically variant strains, and can minimize the amount of resources spent on exclusive serological testing of vaccines and make wide spectrum vaccines poss ...201525414361
viquas: an improved reconstruction pipeline for viral quasispecies spectra generated by next-generation sequencing.the combined effect of a high replication rate and the low fidelity of the viral polymerase in most rna viruses and some dna viruses results in the formation of a viral quasispecies. uncovering information about quasispecies populations significantly benefits the study of disease progression, antiviral drug design, vaccine design and viral pathogenesis. we present a new analysis pipeline called viquas for viral quasispecies spectrum reconstruction using short next-generation sequencing reads. vi ...201525398613
modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.a salmonid alphavirus (sav) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. in this study, we have compared several modifications to a sav replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. we found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the n-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease ...201525395591
genomic changes in an attenuated zb strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 and comparison with its virulent parental strain.the molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 zb strain remains unknown. to understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated zb strains (zb/cha/58(att), zbrf168, and zbrf188) and their virulent parental strains (zbcf22 and ynbs/58). the results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutati ...201425386556
efficacy of synthetic peptide candidate vaccines against serotype-a foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains a major threat to livestock worldwide, especially in developing countries. to improve the efficacy of vaccination against fmd, various types of vaccines have been developed, including synthetic peptide vaccines. we designed three synthetic peptide vaccines, 59 to 87 aa in size, based on immunogenic epitopes in the vp1, 3a, and 3d proteins of the a/hubwh/cha/2009 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), corresponding to amino acid positions 129 to 16 ...201525381487
cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions.in this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a strains during propagation in cell monolayers. viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (bhk-21, lfbk and ib-rs-2) consistently gained positively charged amino acids in the putative heparin-sulfate-binding pocket (vp2 βe-βf loop, vp1 c-terminus and vp3 β-b knob) surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis (vp1 βf-βg loop) and at other discrete sites on the capsid (vp3 βg-βh lo ...201525381054
three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its biological functions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an acute, violent, infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, remains widespread in most parts of the world. it can lead to a major plague of livestock and an economical catastrophe. structural studies of fmd virus (fmdv) have greatly contributed to our understanding of the virus life cycle and provided new horizons for the control and eradication of fmdv. to examine host-fmdv interactions and viral pathogenesis from a structural perspective, the structures of vir ...201525377637
re-emergence of circulatory foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes asia1 in bangladesh and vp1 protein heterogeneity with vaccine strain ind 63/72.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in bangladesh; however serotype asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. the present investigation reports the detection of serotype fmdv asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. the farms were located in jessore and gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. phylogenetic analysis of the complete vp1 gene revealed tha ...201525370946
effect of amino acid mutation at position 127 in 3a of a rabbit-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 on viral replication and infection.an amino acid mutation (r127→i) in the 3a non-structural protein of an fmdv serotype asia1 rabbit-attenuated zb strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. to explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (i) was changed to arginine (r) in the infectious cdna clone of the rabbit-attenuated zb strain by sitedirected mutagenesis, and the r127-mutated virus was rescued. bhk monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated ...201425326348
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