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development of anti-bovine iga single chain variable fragment and its application in diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.recombinant antibody fragments like single chain variable fragments (scfvs) represent an attractive yet powerful alternative to immunoglobulins and hold great potential in the development of clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. structurally, scfvs are the smallest antibody fragments capable of retaining the antigen-binding capacity of whole antibodies and are composed of an immunoglobulin (ig) variable light (vl) and variable heavy (vh) chain joined by a flexible polypeptide linker. in the ...201424678404
influence of hydrophilic amino acids and gc-content on expression of recombinant proteins used in vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.epitope-based protein expression in escherichia coli can be improved by adjusting its amino acid composition and encoding genes. to that end, we analyzed 24 recombinant epitope proteins (reps) that carry multiple epitopes derived from vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus. high level expression of the reps was attributed to a high content of arg, asn, asp and thr, a low content of gln, pro and lys, a high content of hydrophilic amino acids and a higher isoelectric point value resulting fro ...201424375229
adjuvant effects of l. acidophilus lw1 on immune responses to the foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine in mice.the adjuvant effects of lactobacillus acidophilus on dna vaccination are not fully understood. it has been hypothesized that swine-derived lactobacillus acidophilus sw1 (lasw1) could function as an immune adjuvant to enhance antigen-specific immune responses after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccination in mice. to evaluate the effect of oral lasw1 on the immune response to a dna vaccine (prc/cmv-vp1) harboring fmd vp1 gene, anti-fmdv antibody and its isotypes, t-cell proliferation, and cyt ...201425119375
induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses.the family picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand rna viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis a virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. picornavirus infections activate a cytosolic rna sensor, mda5, which in turn, induces a type i interferon response, a crucial component of antiviral immunity. moreover, picorn ...201425086453
rna structure disrupting g320-t transversion within the short fragment of the 5' untranslated region prevents rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.a full-length cdna clone of an indian foot-and-mouth disease virus strain, asia 1 ind 491/1997 was assembled downstream of the t7 promoter in the pbluescript ii sk (+) vector by sequential ligation of four pcr-generated subgenomic fragments. rna transcribed from that construct were transfected into bhk-21 and lfbk cells to rescue infectious virus. the in vitro growth kinetics, plaque morphology, infectivity titer, antigenic profile and virulence characteristics in unweaned mice infected with the ...201424269793
all-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution.small viruses that belong, for example, to the picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded rna (ssrna) genome. the capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10(6) all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. first, we found e ...201425362342
l protease from foot and mouth disease virus confers eif2-independent translation for mrnas bearing picornavirus ires.the leader protease (l(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has the ability to cleave eif4g, leading to a blockade of cellular protein synthesis. in contrast to previous reports, our present findings demonstrate that fmdv l(pro) is able to increase translation driven by fmdv ires. additionally, inactivation of eif2 subsequent to phosphorylation induced by arsenite or thapsigargin in bhk cells blocks protein synthesis directed by fmdv ires, whereas in the presence of l(pro), significant ...201425268112
capsid protein vp4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. the mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. during picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein vp4 is released from the virus, interacts wi ...201425102288
ribavirin-resistant variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence.mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate rna virus high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. however, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rdrp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between rdrp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of fmdv, and 4 amino acid substitutions (d5n, a38v, m194i, and m296v) ...201424453363
strategies for purifying variants of human rhinovirus 14 2c protein.the positive strand rna genome of picornaviruses, including human rhinovirus (hrv), poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus, is translated immediately into a polyprotein that is cleaved by virally encoded proteinases into 10-13 mature proteins. these include the four proteins required to assemble the viral particle as well as 3d(pol) (the viral rna polymerase) and 2c, an atpase and putative helicase. 2c is a protein which is responsible, together with 2b and 3a, for anchoring the replic ...201424316192
a universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated rna viruses using the illumina miseq.next-generation sequencing (ngs) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (wgs) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during pcr amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. we describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genom ...201425269623
modification of picornavirus genomic rna using 'click' chemistry shows that unlinking of the vpg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral rna.picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. a unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (vpg) as primer for viral rna synthesis. as a consequence, all newly formed viral rna molecules possess a covalently linked vpg peptide. it is known that vpg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral rna by a host p ...201424243841
construction of self-replicating subgenomic dengue virus 4 (denv4) replicon.dengue virus serotypes 1-4 are members of mosquito-borne flavivirus genus of flaviviridae family that encode one long open reading frame (orf) that is translated to a polyprotein. both host and virally encoded proteases function in the processing of the polyprotein by co-translational and posttranslational mechanisms to yield 10 mature proteins prior to viral rna replication. to study cis- and trans-acting factors involved in viral rna replication, many groups [1-8] have constructed cdnas encodi ...201424696335
potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. despite this, ...201424810855
pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in south korea, 2010-12.water deer (hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. we collected 305 water deer from gangwon (n=168), south chungcheong (n=89), and gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used pcr and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. in 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), rotavirus, and brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. in 2010, the water dee ...201424779466
cellular micrornas and picornaviral infections.micrornas (mirnas) are a subtype of short, endogenous, and non-coding rnas, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. the mirna-mediated gene silencing mechanism is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. picornaviridae is a large family of rna viruses, which includes a number of causative agents of many human and animal diseases viz., poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and coxsackievir ...201424921242
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
in vitro surrogate models to aid in the development of antivirals for the containment of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus aphthovirus (family picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) and equine rhinitis a virus (erav), phylogenetically most closely related to fmdv, were explored as surrogates for fmdv in antiviral studies. although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so ...201424583031
picornavirus infection leading to immunosuppression.viruses, such as hiv, hepatitis a, poliovirus, coxsackievirus b3 and foot-and-mouth disease virus, use a variety of mechanisms to suppress the human immune system in order to evade clearance by the host. therefore, investigating how a few changes in the viral genome of a nonlethal virus can lead to an alteration in disease, from survivable to immunosuppression and death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. in addition, we propose that gaining a better insight into how the ...201425214881
laboratory animal models to study foot-and-mouth disease: a review with emphasis on natural and vaccine-induced immunity.laboratory animal models have provided valuable insight into foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pathogenesis in epidemiologically important target species. while not perfect, these models have delivered an accelerated time frame to characterize the immune responses in natural hosts and a platform to evaluate therapeutics and vaccine candidates at a reduced cost. further expansion of these models in mice has allowed access to genetic mutations not available for target species, providing a powerf ...201425000962
3cpro of foot-and-mouth disease virus antagonizes the interferon signaling pathway by blocking stat1/stat2 nuclear translocation.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious, debilitating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with devastating economic consequences. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to antagonize the host type i interferon (ifn) response. previous studies have reported that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) and 3c(pro) of fmdv are involved in the inhibition of type i ifn production. however, whether the proteins of fmdv can inhibit type i ifn signaling is less well understood. in this stud ...201424554650
development and evaluation of a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus in india.a simple, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is required for deployment in the field. in this study, development of reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay based on the 3d polymerase gene for specific and rapid detection fmd virus (fmdv) was carried out. the assay was optimised with viral rna extracted from serotype o, a and asia 1 fmdv vaccine strains, which resulted a reliable amplification at 65 °c for 60 min. the amplifi ...201425674604
identification and analysis of differential mirnas in pk-15 cells after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the alterations of micrornas(mirnas) in host cell after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is still obscure. to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of fmdv at the post-transcriptional regulation level, solexa high-throu micrornas (mirnas) play an important role both in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and host-virus interactions. despite investigations of mirna expression ghput sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify differentially exp ...201424675746
first finding of southeast asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in kinmen, taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus aphthovirus within the family picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. the southeast asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype o of the virus, is prevalent in some asian countries, but had not previously been found in taiwan. the topotype was first found in pigs in kinmen island, taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic anal ...201425056674
complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the bovine cd8αα-bola-2*02201 complex.in order to clarify the structural characteristics of the bovine mhc class i molecule (bola-i) complexed with cd8αα (cd8αα-bola-i), bovine cd8αα, bola-i (bola-2*02201) and β2m were expressed and purified, and were then assembled with a peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv-vp1yy9) and crystallized. the crystal diffracted to 1.7 å resolution and belonged to space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a=53.9, b=103.8, c=61.8 å, α=γ=90, β=96°. the asymmetric unit contained one comp ...201424915083
expression of cry1ab and cry2ab by a polycistronic transgene with a self-cleavage peptide in rice.insect resistance to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) crystal protein is a major threat to the long-term use of transgenic bt crops. gene stacking is a readily deployable strategy to delay the development of insect resistance while it may also broaden insecticidal spectrum. here, we report the creation of transgenic rice expressing discrete cry1ab and cry2ab simultaneously from a single expression cassette using 2a self-cleaving peptides, which are autonomous elements from virus guiding the polycistr ...201425333312
inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. insect adaptation to pi ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of pis. in this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. the two pis were linked using either the proce ...201424237606
antigen targeting to apc: from mice to veterinary species.antigen delivery to receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells (apc) has shown to improve immunogenicity of vaccines in mice. an enhancement of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl), helper t cell or humoral responses was obtained depending on the type of apc and the surface molecule targeted. although this strategy is being also evaluated in livestock animals with promising results, some discrepancies have been found between species and pathogens. the genetic diversity of livestock animals, the dif ...201323648645
immunogenicity of two fmdv nonameric peptides encapsulated in liposomes in mice and the protective efficacy in guinea pigs.it has been predicted that nonameric peptides i (vp1(26-34), rrqhtdvsf), ii (vp1(157-165), rtlptsfny) and iii (vp1(45-53), keqvnvldl) from the vp1 capsid protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are t cell epitopes. to investigate whether these peptides have immunological activity, balb/c mice were immunized with peptide i, ii or iii conjugated with immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). a cytotoxic t lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity induced by peptides along ...201323874709
venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles can induce rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type i interferon gene (poifn-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 1 day later. however, the need of relatively high doses of ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) empty replicon particles (vrps) can induce rapid protection of mice agai ...201323468490
foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an aphthovirus within the picornaviridae family. during infection with fmdv, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. fmdv protein 2c is part of the replication complex and thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. to better understand the role of 2c in the process of virus replication, we have been using a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify host pro ...201323576498
characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis b virus leader proteinase.bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this study examined if the brbv leader proteinase (l(pro) ) could functionally replace that of fmdv. a mutant a24lbrv3dyr fmdv engineered with the brbv l(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3d polymerase exhibited growth properties and eif4g cleavage similar to parental a24wt virus. the a24lbrv3dyr type i interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of a24ll virus ...201324210112
developing country applications of molecular farming: case studies in south africa and argentina.molecular farming is a technology that is very well suited to being applied in developing countries, given the reasonably high level of expertise in recombinant plant development in many centers. in addition, there is an urgent need for products such as inexpensive vaccines and therapeutics for livestock and for some human diseases - and especially those that do not occur or are rare in developed regions. south africa and argentina have been at the fore in this area among developing nations, as ...201323394557
epizootic hemorrhagic disease in yaks (bos grunniens).an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease associated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (ehdv-2) infections in yaks from 5 herds occurred in colorado between august 21 and october 3, 2012. affected yaks presented with fever, lethargy, anorexia, dyspnea, and swollen conjunctivae. ulcerated dental pads, mucoid sanguineous nasal discharge, petechial hemorrhages in multiple organs, pulmonary edema, and serosanguinous fluid in the thorax, abdomen, and pericardial sac were observed at necro ...201323572453
future directions for the development of chlamydomonas-based vaccines.besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. antigens from various pathogens including plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (csfv) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in c. reinhardtii. although some of them have been functionally characterized with prom ...201324053395
a portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. early diagnosis of fmd helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. in this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa) assay for the detection of fmd virus (fmdv). the fmdv rt-rpa design targeted the 3d gene of fmdv and ...201323977101
rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza a virus and classical swine fever virus by high-speed real-time rt-pcr.high sensitivity, minor risk of cross-contamination and in particular the rapid reaction time make quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) assays well suited for outbreak investigations as well as for monitoring epidemics of pathogens. in this study qpcr assays for three highly contagious animal diseases, namely foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd), influenza a (ia) and classical swine fever (csf) have been developed. furthermore, an amplification control targeting 18s ribosomal rna was ...201323702025
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal antibody.an elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, and a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. furthermore, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable ...201323600506
identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral ns4b protein and restricts genomic rna replication.dengue virus (denv) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. we therefore screened the nih clinical collection (ncc), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of denv replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating denv serotype 2 (denv2) subgenomic replicon. the most potent denv inhibitor in the ncc was δ opioid receptor antagonist sdm25n. this compoun ...201323735301
crystal structure of 2a proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.ev71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. the 2a proteinase (2a(pro)) of ev71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. we determined the crystal structure of ev71 2a(pro) at 1.85å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. the active site is composed of the catalytic triads c110a, h ...201323973886
equine picornaviruses: well known but poorly understood.of the many members that comprise the family picornaviridae, only two species are known to infect horses: equine rhinitis a virus (erav) and equine rhinitis b virus (erbv). each species now occupies a distinct phylogenetic branch within the family, with the single serotype of erav grouping with the aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and the three serotypes of erbv as the sole members of the genus erbovirus. the high seroprevalence of equine picornaviruses in horse popula ...201323820049
persistence and chronic urinary shedding of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis a virus.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a member of the aphthovirus genus, and has many physical and structural similarities to the prototype aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the pathogenesis of fmdv has been extensively studied, however, the similarities in the pathogenesis of erav and fmdv disease has not been well documented. this study describes and compares the pathogenesis of erav both in the natural host and a small animal model alternative (cba mice). distinct parallels in the ...201323183058
display of the vp1 epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus on bacteriophage t7 and its application in diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century. in recent years, the development of diagnostic assays for fmd has benefited considerably from the advances of recombinant dna technology. in this study, the immunodominant region of the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was fused to the t7 bacteriophage and expressed on the surface of the bacteriophage capsid protein. the recombinant protei ...201323933075
rescue of infective virus from a genome-length cdna clone of the fmdv serotype o (ind-r2/75) vaccine strain and its characterization.we report here the construction and characterization of an infectious cdna clone of the indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, ind-r2/75. viral genome was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in five fragments and subsequently assembled sequentially in a plasmid vector to generate a complete cdna clone, flanked by the t7 rna polymerase promoter and poly (a) tail at 5' and 3' ends, respectively. transfection of bhk-21 cells with t ...201323465777
co-expression of the bcl-xl antiapoptotic protein enhances the induction of th1-like immune responses in mice immunized with dna vaccines encoding fmdv b and t cell epitopes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most devastating animal diseases, affecting all cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animal species. previous studies from our group using dna vaccines encoding fmd virus (fmdv) b and t cell epitopes targeted to antigen presenting cells, allowed demonstrating total protection from fmdv homologous challenge in those animals efficiently primed for both humoral and cellular specific responses (borrego et al. antivir res 92:359-363, 2011). in this study, a new d ...201323483312
theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus contrasts with encephalomyocarditis and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in its functional utilization of the stopgo non-standard translation mechanism.the picornaviruses' genome consists of a positive-sense ssrna. like many picornaviruses, cardioviruses synthesize two distinct polyprotein precursors from adjacent but non-overlapping genome segments. both the [l-1abcd-2a] and the [2bc-3abcd] polyproteins are proteolytically processed to yield mature capsid and non-structural proteins, respectively. an unusual translational event, known as 'stopgo' or 'stop-carry on', is responsible for the release of the [l-1abcd-2a] polyprotein from the riboso ...201323100365
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a sumo fusion protein system in escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. the format of fmd virus-like particles (vlp) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines. in this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the fmd vlp and validated the potential of vlp as an fmdv vaccine candidate. vlp composed entirely of fmdv (asia1/jiangsu/china/2005) capsid proteins (vp0, vp1 and ...201323826638
sequence analysis of the foot and mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 vp1 gene from iranian isolate.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a vesicular and contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, the virus was isolated from vesicles of the infected cattle using cell culture and serotyped by elisa test. the extracted rna from the infected cells was reverse transcribed and amplified using vp1 gene-specific primer pairs by means of one-step rt-pcr. the purified vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the uniqe kpni and bamhi cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ vector. the dh5α strain o ...201323746175
characterization of asia 1 sdab from camels bactrianus (c. bactrianus) and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging fmdv in bhk-21 cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdab or vhh) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. we screened and characterized five sdabs against fmdv by immunized library from c. bactrianus with asia 1 virus-like particles (vlps). three of five recombinant sdabs were stably expressed in e.c ...201323737944
high-yield production of the vp1 structural protein epitope from serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the development of rapid diagnostic systems and vaccines are required against its etiological agent, fmd virus (fmdv). to accomplish this, efficient large-scale expression of the fmdv vp1 protein, with high solubility, needs to be optimized. we attempted to produce high levels of a serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope in escherichia coli. we identified the subtype-independent serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope sequence and used it to construct a glutathione ...201323619971
an adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. the oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of fmdv, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help prevent initial infection and viral spread. e. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) has been described as one of the few molecules that have adjuvant activity at mucosal surfaces. the objective of this study ...201323499593
vp1 b-c and d-e loops of bovine enterovirus cluster b can effectively display foot-and-mouth disease virus type o-conserved neutralizing epitope.on the basis of generation of an infectious cdna clone for the bhm26 strain of bovine enterovirus cluster b (bev-b), 22 sites on different loops of the bhm26 capsid were selected according to an alignment of its sequence with the structural motifs of bev-a strain vg-5-27 for insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o-conserved neutralizing epitope 8e8. two recombinant viruses, rbev-a1 and rbev-de, in which the fmdv epitope was inserted into the vp1 b-c or d-e loops, were rescued ...201324077365
construction of a bovine enterovirus-based vector expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope.a recombinant infectious bovine enterovirus (bev) vector was constructed to express a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein (vp1) epitope. sequences encoding the vp1 epitope (amino acid residues 141-160) of fmdv (vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69) were inserted into pblubev at the vp1/2a junction. the growth characteristics of the parental virus and viruses derived from recombinant plasmids (pblubev, pblubev-manisa-epi) were determined by plaque assay and one-step growth curve anal ...201323391822
co-inoculation of baculovirus and fmdv vaccine in mice, elicits very early protection against foot and mouth disease virus without interfering with long lasting immunity.baculoviruses (bvs) potentiate the immune response against soluble antigens. we investigated whether bv could be used as immunoactivator in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines using the balb/c mouse model. mice were vaccinated with a single dose of inactivated fmdv (ifmdv), ifmdv+bv, bv, or culture medium. humoral and cellular immune responses were higher in animals immunized with ifmdv+bv than in mice vaccinated with ifmdv alone. animals receiving ifmdv+bv had significantly lower viremia at 2 ...201323588086
development and evaluation of multiplex rt-lamp assays for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this paper describes the evaluation of four novel real-time multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in order to overcome the genetic diversity of fmd viruses (fmdv), these multiplex rt-lamp assay pairs were established by combining four newly designed primer sets with two primer sets that had been previously published. using a real-time turbidimeter to detect amplification products ...201323583488
repeated exposure to 5d9, an inhibitor of 3d polymerase, effectively limits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in host cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus (fmdv) that has seven serotypes and more than sixty subtypes. both prophylactic and post-infection means of controlling the disease outbreak, including universally applicable vaccines and emergency response measures such as therapeutic treatments, are on high demand. in this study, we analyzed the long-term exposure outcome to a previously identified inhibitor of 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dp ...201323578728
regulation of porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells by cytokines.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc) are the most potent producers of type-i interferon (ifn) and represent the main interferon (ifn)-α source in response to many viruses. considering the important roles played by type i ifn's, not only as antiviral effectors but also as potent alarming cytokine of the immune system, we investigated how such responses are regulated by various cytokines. to this end, we stimulated enriched pdc in the presence or absence of particular cytokines with a strong activat ...201323577175
vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) impairs baculovirus surface display.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes important economical losses in livestock farming. in order to develop a novel subunit vaccine against fmdv, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that display the protein vp1 of fmdv on their surface, with either polar (fused to gp64) or nonpolar (fused to anchor membrane from vsv-g protein) distribution. insect cells infected with the different recombinant baculoviruses expressed vp1 fusion protein to high levels. however, the recombinant vp1 pr ...201323566950
an infectious recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a fluorescent marker protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. however, the dynamics of fmdv infection are still poorly understood. the application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the fmdv life cycle. here, we have used reverse genetics to determine the capsid packaging limitations for a selected insertion site in the fmdv genome. we show th ...201323559477
association of bola drb3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. accordingly, we investigated the association of drb3 exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (o, a and asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut ...201323541924
expanding the spectral palette of fluorescent proteins for the green microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii.fluorescent proteins (fps) have become essential tools for a growing number of fields in biology. however, such tools have not been widely adopted for use in microalgal research. the aim of this study was to express and compare six fps (blue mtagbfp, cyan mcerulean, green crgfp, yellow venus, orange tdtomato and red mcherry) in the popular model microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. to circumvent the transgene silencing that often occurs in c. reinhardtii, the fps were expressed from the nuclear ...201323521393
a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a worldwide problem limiting the trade of animals and their products from affected countries. the rapid isolation, serotyping, and vaccine matching of fmd virus from disease outbreaks is critical for enabling the implementation of effective vaccination programs and to stop the spread of infection during outbreaks. some primary cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to most strains of fmd virus (fmdv) but are difficult and expensive to prepare and maintain. ...201323515553
influence of the leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader (l) protein is produced in two forms, lab and lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. it has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the lab coding sequence is lethal for the virus, whereas loss of the lb coding sequence results in a virus that is viable in bhk cells. in addition, it is now shown that deletion of the 'spacer' region between these two in ...201323515027
evolutionary conserved motifs constrain the rna structure organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rnas initiate translation using a 5' end-independent mechanism based on internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. despite performing similar functions, ires elements present in genetically distant rnas differ in primary sequence, rna secondary structure and trans-acting factors requirement. the lack of conserved features amongst iress represents obstacles for the understanding of the internal initiation process. rna structure is tightly linked to picornavirus ires activity, cons ...201323507141
the effects of the synonymous codon usage and trna abundance on protein folding of the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a conserved amino acid sequence and is responsible for most cleavage in the viral polyprotein. the effects of the synonymous codon usage of fmdv 3c gene and trna abundance of the hosts on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in the 3c protease were analyzed based on the structural information of the fmdv 3c protease from protein data bank (pdb: 2bhg) and 210 genes of 3c for all serotypes of fmdv. the strong co ...201323499709
foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in bos grunniens yaks.the carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. to investigate the carrier status of fmdv in animals that live in high altitude, bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with fmdv o/akesu/58.201323497369
bovine fetal epithelium cells expressing shrna targeting viral vp1 gene resisted against foot-and-mouth disease virus.rnai could protect experimental animals from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but pivotal issue is delivery of rnai. in this study, shrna recombinant lentiviral plasmid rnai-lt6 targeting vp1 of fmdv, which strongly suppressed the transient expression of a flag-tagged vp1 protein in 293t cells and significantly inhibited viral replication in bhk-21 cells, was screened and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells. with subsequent somatic cell cloning, three 4-month-old transgenic fetuse ...201323481248
[evaluation of synthetic peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease type a].we developed a synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type a.201324028062
targeted delivery of vp1 antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus to m cells enhances the antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune response.application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. in particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from fmdv transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where fmdv infection ...201324009543
multiple introductions of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses into east asia in 2010-2011.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. sporadic introductions of this virus into fmd-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. in 2010 and 2011, incursions of the fmdv o/sea/mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland southeast asia, caused extensive outbreaks across east asia. in this study, 12 full genome fmdv sequences for representative samples collected from the people's republic of china (pr china) ...201324007643
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease induces fragmentation of the golgi compartment and blocks intra-golgi transport.picornavirus infection can cause golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. in this study, we show that golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3c(pro) and that this requires the protease activity of 3c(pro). 3c(pro) caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late golgi com ...201323986596
antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein vp1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. the serotype asia1 occurs mainly in asian regions. an in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein vp1 of asia1. a total of 47 vp1 sequences of asia1 isolates from different countries of south asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. the structure of vp1 protein was modeled using a homo ...201323983476
transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated fmd virus (fmdv). the use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. in this report, we explored transient gene expression (tge) in serum-fr ...201323977353
novel immunogenic baculovirus expressed virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.vaccination is a well accepted strategy for control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in endemic countries. currently, chemically inactivated virus antigens are used for preparation of fmd vaccine. to develop a non-infectious and safe recombinant vaccine, we expressed structural polypeptide of fmdv (o/ind/r2/75) using baculovirus expression system. we show that inclusion of mutated viral 3c protease in frame with the polypeptide (p1-2a), enhanced the yield of structural proteins. the structural pr ...201323969204
optimisation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a co-expression system for biomedical applications.many biomedical applications require the expression or production of therapeutic hetero-multimeric proteins/protein complexes: in most cases only accomplished by co-ordinated co-expression within the same cell. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) and '2a-like' sequences are now widely used for this purpose. since 2a mediates a co-translational 'cleavage' at its own c-terminus, sequences encoding multiple proteins (linked via 2as) can be concatenated into a single orf: a single transgene. it ha ...201323968294
processing of the vp1/2a junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by 3c(pro) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1, and the peptide 2a. the capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2a. in a cell culture-adapted strain of fmdv (o1 manisa [lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (e83k, s134c, and k210e) were identified within the vp1 region of the p1-2a precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). expression of the o1 ...201323966400
a role for endoplasmic reticulum exit sites in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.picornaviruses replicate their genomes in association with cellular membranes. while enteroviruses are believed to utilize membranes of the early secretory pathway, the origin of the membranes used by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for replication are unknown. secretory-vesicle traffic through the early secretory pathway is mediated by the sequential acquisition of two distinct membrane coat complexes, copii and copi, and requires the coordinated actions of sar1, arf1 and rab proteins. sar1 ...201323963534
development of a luminex assay for the detection of swine antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and mouth disease (fmd), swine vesicular disease (svd), and vesicular stomatitis (vs) are highly contagious vesicular diseases of swine but are not easy to differentiate clinically. for the purpose of instant detecting of fmd and differentiating it from the other vesicular diseases, a luminex assay was developed. sera from 64 infected, 307 vaccinated, and 280 naïve pigs were tested by the luminex assay. diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 100%. diagnostic specificity of the assay was 98 ...201323962586
two new flavonol glycosides and biological activities of diplotaxis harra (forssk.) boiss.two new flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-o-β-glucopyranoside-4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-o-β-glucopyranoside -4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (2), were isolated from the defatted aqueous methanol extract of the whole plant diplotaxis harra along with 12 known flavonols (3-14). they were characterised by chemical and spectral methods. the 70% aqueous methanol, chloroform and defatted aqueous methanol plant extracts exhibited significant antioxidant effects (nitroblue tetrazolium reduction ...201323962320
co-administration of flagellin augments immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal virus known that affects livestock health and production. this study aimed to investigate the effect of flagellin, a toll-like receptor 5 agonist, on the immune responses to inactivated fmdv antigen in guinea pig model. our results showed that the co-administration of flagellin with fmdv antigen through intradermal route induces earlier and higher anti-fmdv neutralizing antibody responses as compared to fmdv antigen alone. ...201323941960
cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection: a unique landscape of innate immunity.pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. viruses that cause acute disease tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chronicity of infection, but spread of disease throughout the herd. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses known. upon infection of susceptible species, cloven-hoofed animals, the virus prolif ...201323727070
mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions) and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. although integrin αvβ6 receptor has been identified as primary fmdv receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tiss ...201323724025
recombinant adenovirus expression of fmdv p1-2a and 3c protein and its immune response in mice.the purpose of this research was to develop a new type of recombinant adenovirus vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and confirm whether both 2a and 3c proteases can fully process fmdv p1 polyprotein into vp1 protein. we constructed and characterized recombinant adenoviruses, designated as rad-p1, rad-p1-2a, rad-l-p1, rad-l-2a, and rad-3c. the construct was further confirmed by the enzyme digestion, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing, sequencing, and transfection. the infecti ...201323722010
immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. here we present study using a sublingual (sl) route with the killed serotype asia 1 fmdv vaccine. guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. animals were challenged with homologous fmdv asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. all control guinea pigs ...201323717497
analysis of sat type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. in this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric sat2 and sat3 virus particles to various conditions including low ph, mild temperatur ...201323717387
the effects of the codon usage and translation speed on protein folding of 3d(pol) of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201323715863
rogue taxa phenomenon: a biological companion to simulation analysis.to provide a baseline biological comparison to simulation study predictions about the frequency of rogue taxa effects, we evaluated the frequency of a rogue taxa effect using viral data sets which differed in diversity. using a quartet-tree framework, we measured the frequency of a rogue taxa effect in three data sets of increasing genetic variability (within viral serotype, between viral serotype, and between viral family) to test whether the rogue taxa was correlated with the mean sequence div ...201323707704
diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exists as multiple serotypes and strains that infect a range of cloven-hoofed animals with variable severity. clinical diagnosis reinforced by diagnostic tests support timely intervention, whilst virus characterisation helps trace routes of spread and select appropriate vaccine strains. to speed up and simplify diagnosis, penside tests have recently been developed. serology is used to identify undisclosed infection and substantiate freedom from infection and s ...201323689889
evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding fmdv capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of fmdv, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable balb/c mice model. additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. for this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (ad), herpesvirus amplicons (hs) and/or killed virus (kv) vaccine ...201323683999
evaluation and use of in-silico structure-based epitope prediction with foot-and-mouth disease virus.understanding virus antigenicity is of fundamental importance for the development of better, more cross-reactive vaccines. however, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3d structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in bot ...201323667434
emergence of a novel lineage genetically divergent from the predominant ind2001 lineage of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in india.in india, emergence of ind2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was recorded in the year 2001. after causing sporadic incidences, the ind2001 lineage that re-surged in 2008 out-competed panasia from the field during 2009 and continued its dominance during 2010 and 2011 as well. the lineage has diversified in due course of time, leading to two sub-lineages (ind2001a and ind2001b). the sub-lineage ind2001a include isolates collected during 2001-2002 and sub-lineage ind2001 ...201323643555
comparison of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for orf virus with quantitative real-time pcr.orf virus (orfv) causes orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. therefore, a rapid, highly specific and accurate method for the diagnosis of orfv infections is essential to ensure that the appropriate treatments are administered and to reduce economic losses.201323634981
control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, south korea.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype o virus occurred in cattle and pigs in south korea during november 2010-april 2011. the highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program.201323632094
comparative analysis of cloned cdnas encoding chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine integrin receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus.to analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cdnas encoding the integrin αν, β1, β3, β6 and β8 subunits from chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. the lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin β subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative n-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine ...201323620003
nucleotide mismatches of foot-and-mouth disease virus during replication.as there is a lack of error correction mechanisms during rna replication, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a very high mismatch rate, which leads to a high mutation rate, in the range of 10(-3) to 10(-5) per nucleotide site per genome replication. we examined the nucleotide mismatch of fmdv during replication, based on the whole genomes of the 7 serotypes retrieved from ncbi. with the mega bio-software, spss, and microsoft excel, we studied the nucleotide differences compared to the seque ...201323613248
development of a quick and simple detection methodology for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 using a generic rapidassay device.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have resulted in tremendous economic losses. thus, the development of a rapid and easily performed test for fmd detection is important for controlling a fmd outbreak and containing its spread. the purpose of this project is to develop a lateral flow immunochromatographic (lfi) strip test for rapid detection of fmd virus serotypes o, a and asia 1.201323607273
induction of partial protection against foot and mouth disease virus in guinea pigs by neutralization with the integrin β6-1 subunit.the mechanism by which the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection of cells is thought to involve the attachment of the viral capsid to host integrins on the surface of target cells. however, the role of integrins in fmdv infection still needs to be fully understood, although it has been demonstrated that integrin αvβ6 interferes with fmdv in vitro and results in neutralization of its infectivity. in the present study, we describe the cloning and sequencing of suckling mouse inte ...201323604096
enhancement of the immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice by oral administration of a novel polysaccharide from the roots of radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rc).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a kind of the important animal infectious disease caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of the polysaccharide from the radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rcps) for its adjuvant potential on the fmdv-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. in this study, our findings shows that oral administration of rcps significantly enhanced the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, sple ...201323603047
influence of conjugation chemistry and b epitope orientation on the immune response of branched peptide antigens.multimeric presentation, a well-proven way of enhancing peptide immunogenicity, has found substantial application in synthetic vaccine design. we have reported that a combination of four copies of a b-cell epitope with one of a t-cell epitope in a single branched construct results in a peptide vaccine conferring total protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, a natural host (cubillos et al. (2008) j. virol. 82, 7223-7230). more recently, a downsized version of this prototype with ...201323458489
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus intra-sample sequence diversity during serial transmission in bovine hosts.rna virus populations within samples are highly heterogeneous, containing a large number of minority sequence variants which can potentially be transmitted to other susceptible hosts. consequently, consensus genome sequences provide an incomplete picture of the within- and between-host viral evolutionary dynamics during transmission. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus that can spread from primary sites of replication, via the systemic circulation, to found distinct sites of loca ...201323452550
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