PMID(sorted descending)
orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors.sensitivity of biosensors depends on the orientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface. the objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. vhh proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used for making biosensors, and azides were introduced in the vhh to function as bioorthogonal reactive groups. the importance of the orientation of bio-receptors was addressed by comparing sens ...201424793095
pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in south korea, 2010-12.water deer (hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. we collected 305 water deer from gangwon (n=168), south chungcheong (n=89), and gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used pcr and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. in 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), rotavirus, and brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. in 2010, the water dee ...201424779466
diagnostic potential of recombinant nonstructural protein 3b to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in bovines.detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins (nsp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is the preferred diagnostic method to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. in india, an endemic region practising preventive biannual vaccination, 3ab3 indirect elisa (r3ab3 i-elisa) has been employed as the primary screening test for serosurveillance. however, because of the variability observed in the immune response to the nsps, the likelihood of detecting or confirming an infected animal is inc ...201424777827
exploration of sequence space as the basis of viral rna genome segmentation.the mechanisms of viral rna genome segmentation are unknown. on extensive passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in baby hamster kidney-21 cells, the virus accumulated multiple point mutations and underwent a transition akin to genome segmentation. the standard single rna genome molecule was replaced by genomes harboring internal in-frame deletions affecting the l- or capsid-coding region. these genomes were infectious and killed cells by complementation. here we show that the point mutations i ...201424757055
single amino acid substitution of vp1 n17d or vp2 h145y confers acid-resistant phenotype of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is triggered by the acidic ph in endosomes after virus uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. however, dissociation of the fmdv 146s particle in mildly acidic conditions renders inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines much less effective. type asia1 fmdv mutants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were selected to study the molecular basis of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly and improve the acid stability of fmdv ...201424752763
evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples.a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) method was previously developed for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral antigen detection. here we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two fmd viral antigen detection msd-elisas and compared them with conventional indirect sandwich (is)-elisa. the msd-elisas were able to detect the antigen in saliva samples of experimentally-infected pigs for a longer term compared to the is-elisa. we also used 178 rt-pcr-positive field sample ...201424736560
serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of cameroon.little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because fmd vaccination is not practiced. we carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of fmd virus (fmdv) infections among different livestock production systems in the far north of cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. ...201624735162
genome sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage from outbreaks in libya, saudi arabia, and bhutan during 2013.the complete genomes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered in libya and saudi arabia in 2013 are described here. these viruses belong to an fmd virus lineage (ind-2001, topotype middle east-south asia, serotype o) which is normally endemic in the indian subcontinent. a contemporary virus sequence from bhutan is also reported here.201424723708
first isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in benin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. in west africa, where constant circulation of fmd virus (fmdv) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. this study describes the first isolation and characterization of fmdv in benin. fmdv was isolated from 42 samples. antigen capture elisa (ag-elisa) and vp1 coding ...201424720890
construction of self-replicating subgenomic dengue virus 4 (denv4) replicon.dengue virus serotypes 1-4 are members of mosquito-borne flavivirus genus of flaviviridae family that encode one long open reading frame (orf) that is translated to a polyprotein. both host and virally encoded proteases function in the processing of the polyprotein by co-translational and posttranslational mechanisms to yield 10 mature proteins prior to viral rna replication. to study cis- and trans-acting factors involved in viral rna replication, many groups [1-8] have constructed cdnas encodi ...201424696335
a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to rapidly diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus c.a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was developed to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv c). by testing 10-fold serial dilutions of fmdv c samples, sensitivity of the fmdv c rt-lamp was found to be 10 times higher than that of conventional reverse transcription- pcr (rt-pcr). no cross-reactivity with a, asia 1, or o fmdv or swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) indicated that fmdv c rt-lamp may be an exciting novel method for det ...201424690607
dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs.we evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (gb) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to this aim, we measured the total fmdv-specific antibody responses and igm production after vaccination against fmd both experimentally and in the field. gb supplementation with fmdv vaccination stimulated the production of anti-fmdv antibodies, and effectively increased ifn-γ and tnf-α levels. these results suggest that gb may be a novel alter ...201424690605
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o of ethiopian isolates.a total of 13 serotype o and 5 serotype a fmd ethiopian isolates and some isolates from other countries (six for serotype a and four for serotype o) were sequenced on the structural protein (p1) coding region. the deduced amino acid sequences were aligned and investigated in an attempt to determine the amino acid variation. differences were observed at 115 (15.6%) and 119 (16.1%) amino acid positions for serotype o and serotype a, respectively. the variation in the derived amino acid sequences i ...201424684893
establishment and evaluation of stable cell lines inhibiting foot-and-mouth disease virus by rna interference.rna interference (rnai) has been proved to be a powerful tool for foot-and-mouth disease virus fmdv inhibition in vitro and in vivo. we established five stable baby hamster kidney 21 cell lines (bhk-21) containing five short hairpin rnas (shrnas) expression plasmids (p3d1shrna, p3d2shrna, p3d3shrna, p3d4shrna, and p3d5shrna) targeting 3d gene of fmdv. immunofluorescent assay, virus titration, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-rt-pcr) were conducted to ...201424683539
development of anti-bovine iga single chain variable fragment and its application in diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.recombinant antibody fragments like single chain variable fragments (scfvs) represent an attractive yet powerful alternative to immunoglobulins and hold great potential in the development of clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. structurally, scfvs are the smallest antibody fragments capable of retaining the antigen-binding capacity of whole antibodies and are composed of an immunoglobulin (ig) variable light (vl) and variable heavy (vh) chain joined by a flexible polypeptide linker. in the ...201424678404
identification and analysis of differential mirnas in pk-15 cells after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the alterations of micrornas(mirnas) in host cell after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is still obscure. to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of fmdv at the post-transcriptional regulation level, solexa high-throu micrornas (mirnas) play an important role both in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and host-virus interactions. despite investigations of mirna expression ghput sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify differentially exp ...201424675746
hsv-1 amplicon vectors as genetic vaccines.hsv-1 amplicon vectors have been used as platforms for the generation of genetic vaccines against both dna and rna viruses. mice vaccinated with such vectors encoding structural proteins from both foot-and-mouth disease virus and rotavirus were partially protected from challenge with wild-type virus (d'antuono et al. vaccine 28: 7363-7372, 2010; laimbacher et al. mol ther 20: 1810-1820, 2012), indicating that hsv-1 amplicon vectors are attractive tools for the development of complex and safe gen ...201424671679
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus: structure-function relationships in a proteolytic virulence factor.the leader proteinase (lpro) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the host innate immune response by at least three different mechanisms. the most well-characterised of these is the prevention of the synthesis of cytokines such as interferons immediately after infection, brought about by specific proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4g. this prevents the recruitment of capped cellular mrna; however, the viral rna can be translated under these conditions. the two other ...201424670358
immunological evaluation of mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles based foot and mouth disease virus dna vaccine, pvac fmdv vp1-ompa in guinea pigs.a dna vaccine for foot and mouth disease (fmd) based on mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated in guinea pigs. the dna construct was comprised of fmd virus full length-vp1 gene and outer membrane protein a (omp a) gene of salmonella typhimurium as a toll-like receptor (tlr)-ligand in pvac vector. groups of guinea pigs immunized either intramuscularly or intra-nasally were evaluated for induction of virus neutralizing antibodies, th1(igg2) and th2 (igg1) responses, lymphocyte prolifera ...201424656961
early protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle using an inactivated vaccine formulated with montanide essai ims d 12802 vg pr adjuvant.foot and mouth disease is an acute disease of cattle with a broad distribution around the world. due to the fast spread of fmdv infections, control measures must be applied immediately after an outbreak, such as the use of vaccines that induce fast protection. previously, it was shown that mice vaccinated with fmd inactivated virus (ifmdv) formulated with montanide™ essai ims d 12802 vg pr adjuvant (802-ifmdv) were protected when they were challenged 4 and 7 days post-vaccination (dpv) with homo ...201424631088
emergence of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador and preliminary evaluation of a field strain as a vaccine candidate.foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o has been circulating regularly throughout most provinces of ecuador, one of the two south american countries that still remain endemic, although satisfactory vaccination coverage was reported. this study concentrates in the characterization of isolates collected during 2008-2011, focusing particularly on the antigenic and immunogenic relationships of the field viruses with the o1/campos vaccine strain in use in the region and with an experimental vaccine f ...201424625343
comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a vaccine matching.vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. the impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. to determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis. in this study, we performed three in vitro test methods to determine which one gives the lowest variability and the highest discriminatory capacity. binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepare ...201424623625
determination of cattle foot-and-mouth disease virus by micro-elisa method.the development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) detection methods is crucial for animal food security, tackling regional fmdv epidemic, and global fmdv prognostic control. for these purposes, a fast and sensitive analysis method is required. in this study, we developed a microchip-based elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), micro-elisa, to realize fmdv detection. nickel(ii) chelating chemistry was utilized to immobilize recombinant protein (antigen) on polystyrene micro-beads in orde ...201424614730
foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection.early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (iel) inoculations of a cdna-derived fmdv-a24 wild type virus (fmdv-wt) or a mutant derived from the same clone (fmdv-mut). after aerosolization of fmdv-wt, primary infection sites had significantly greater quantities of fmdv, viral rna, and type i/iii interferon (ifn) activity compared to corresponding tissues from cattle infected with fmdv-mu ...201424606678
redistribution of demethylated rna helicase a during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: role of jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 in rha demethylation.previously, rna helicase a (rha) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of rha methylated arginine residues at its c-terminus. the potential interaction between rha and jumonji c-domain (jmjc) protein 6 (jmjd6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. treatment with n-oxalylglycine (nog) inhibitor of jmjc demethylases prevented fmdv-induced rha demethylation and re-localization, and a ...201424606677
novel antibody binding determinants on the capsid surface of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus.five neutralizing antigenic sites have been described for serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) based on monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies. however, a mutant virus selected to escape neutralization of mab binding at all five sites was previously shown to confer complete cross-protection with the parental virus in guinea pig challenge studies, suggesting that amino acid residues outside the mab binding sites contribute to antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of fmdv. ...201424584474
in vitro surrogate models to aid in the development of antivirals for the containment of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus aphthovirus (family picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) and equine rhinitis a virus (erav), phylogenetically most closely related to fmdv, were explored as surrogates for fmdv in antiviral studies. although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so ...201424583031
the expression of il6 and 21 in crossbred calves upregulated by inactivated trivalent fmd vaccine.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease and a whole-virus inactivated trivalent virus vaccine is the mainstay for controlling the disease in india. the protective humoral immune response to fmd vaccination is a complex, but, tightly regulated process mediated by the interplay of interleukins (il). based on the specific role of il6 and 21 in adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that inactivated trivalent fmd vaccine would stimulate il6 and 21 expression in the circu ...201424555796
3cpro of foot-and-mouth disease virus antagonizes the interferon signaling pathway by blocking stat1/stat2 nuclear translocation.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious, debilitating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with devastating economic consequences. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to antagonize the host type i interferon (ifn) response. previous studies have reported that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) and 3c(pro) of fmdv are involved in the inhibition of type i ifn production. however, whether the proteins of fmdv can inhibit type i ifn signaling is less well understood. in this stud ...201424554650
infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. intra-oropharyngeal (iop) and intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions. there were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. iop inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas inp ...201424548596
neutralizing antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent (type o, a, c and asia 1) vaccines in growing calves with pre-existing maternal antibodies.the presence of maternal antibodies is a major obstacle for eliciting protective immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in young, growing animals. in this report, we analyzed the ability of inactivated quadrivalent oil emulsified and aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted fmd vaccines to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in growing calves that had maternal antibodies. our results demonstrate that oil emulsified vaccines but not aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted fmd vaccines could su ...201424508311
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolated from bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious enzootic disease caused by fmd virus. the complete genome sequence of a circulatory fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o isolated from natore, bangladesh, is reported here. genomic analysis revealed antigenic heterogeneity within the vp1 region, a fragment deletion, and insertions at the 5' untranslated region (utr) and 3a region compared to the genome of the available vaccine strain.201424503997
a recombinant adenovirus bicistronically expressing porcine interferon-α and interferon-γ enhances antiviral effects against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a virulent and economically costly disease in domestic livestock. since the current vaccine available against fmd provides no protection until 7days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is by the application of anti-viral agents. the combination of recombinant adenovirus expressing type i interferon (ifn-α) and adenovirus expressing type ii ifn (ifn-γ) has been reported to be an effective anti-vir ...201424485895
immunogenicity of the capsid precursor and a nine-amino-acid site-directed mutant of the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus coexpressed by a recombinant goatpox virus.the myristoylated capsid precursor mp1-2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), when expressed in mammalian cells and processed by the fmdv 3c protease, can self-assemble into virus-like particles (vlps). in the present study, nine amino acids of the 3c protease were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis to create a mutant 3c protease, 9m3c. to coexpress mp1-2a and 9m3c and test the resulting proteolytic processing and vlp assembly, two recombinant goatpox viruses (rgtpvs) were constructed by ...201424473707
interconversion between parallel and antiparallel conformations of a 4h rna junction in domain 3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus ires captured by dynamics simulations.rna junctions are common secondary structural elements present in a wide range of rna species. they play crucial roles in directing the overall folding of rna molecules as well as in a variety of biological functions. in particular, there has been great interest in the dynamics of rna junctions, including conformational pathways of fully base-paired 4-way (4h) rna junctions. in such constructs, all nucleotides participate in one of the four double-stranded stem regions, with no connecting loops. ...201424461020
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania between 1967 and 2009.this paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. a total of 44 fmdv isolates, containing representatives of serotypes o, a, sat 1 and sat 2 from 13 regions of tanzania, were selected from the fao world reference laboratory for fmd (wrlfmd) virus collection. vp1 nucleotide sequences were determined for rt-pcr amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum l ...201524460931
b epitope multiplicity and b/t epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.synthetic peptides incorporating protective b- and t-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines. we have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a b-cell epitope (vp1 136 to 154) linked to a t-cell epitope (3a 21 to 35) of fmd virus (fmdv) elicit potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. to assess the relevan ...201324454475
ribavirin-resistant variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence.mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate rna virus high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. however, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rdrp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between rdrp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of fmdv, and 4 amino acid substitutions (d5n, a38v, m194i, and m296v) ...201424453363
evolution of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid under neutralizing antibody pressure in this study, the indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strain (a ind 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (bcs) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. a considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the bcs for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. t143k substitution preceding the integrin binding 'rgd' ...201424452141
a serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in kenya.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in fmd-free areas. this study investigated the presence of antibodies against fmd virus (fmdv) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for fmd in cattle coinciding with sat 1 fmdv outbreaks in cattle. a total of 191 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs in 17 districts. forty-two of the 191 sera were from pigs vaccinated against ...201424442573
characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle.previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a a serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the vp1 g-h loop (termed a(-)). since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspartate (rgd) motif required for virus attachment to the host cell in vivo, it was hypothesised that this virus would be attentuated in naturally susceptible animals. the a(-) virus was passaged three times ...201424438986
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important global animal disease. to control fmd virus (fmdv) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. in this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) as a replicon vector to express fmdv structural protein.201424427767
peptides as viral vaccines: lessons from experiments with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the highly variable sequence encompassing amino acids 141-160 of vp1, one of the four capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus, elicits neutralizing antibodies in a range of experimental animals. the sequence has been synthesized chemically by merrifield's solid phase method and biochemically as part of different fusion proteins. by incorporating the peptide into the core protein of hepatitis b virus, particles are produced which elicit levels of neutralizing antibody approaching those ob ...199124424921
detection of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus infection using indirect elisa based on recombinant nonstructural protein 2b.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of transboundary importance. in india, since the launch of the fmd control programme, there has been a substantial increase in the vaccinated bovine population. in this scenario, there is a need for additional locally developed non-structural protein (nsp)-based immnoassays for efficient identification of fmd virus (fmdv)-infected animals in the vaccinated population. the 2b nsp of fmdv, lacking the transmembrane domain (δ2b), was ...201424420160
artificial micrornas as antiviral strategy to fmdv: structural implications of target selection.rna interference (rnai) appears as a promising strategy to control virus replication. while the antiviral power of short-hairpin rnas or small-interfering rnas against fmdv has been demonstrated widely, safer rnai effectors such as artificial micrornas (amirs) have not been evaluated extensively. in this work, transgenic monoclonal cell lines constitutively expressing different amirs targeting fmdv 3d-coding region or 3'utr were established. certain cell lines showed an effective, sequence-speci ...201424406623
application of a cell-based protease assay for testing inhibitors of picornavirus 3c proteases.proteolytical cleavage of the picornaviral polyprotein is essential for viral replication. therefore, viral proteases are attractive targets for anti-viral therapy. most assays available for testing proteolytical activity of proteases are performed in vitro, using heterologously expressed proteases and peptide substrates. to deal with the disadvantages associated with in vitro assays, we modified a cell-based protease assay for picornavirus proteases. the assay is based on the induction of expre ...201424393668
detection and seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats in punjab, pakistan.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of ruminants that causes huge economic losses around the globe. however, the prevalence of fmdv in small ruminants has been overlooked in pakistan. a seroepidemiological study was conducted in chakwal, faisalabad and khanewal districts of punjab, pakistan to determine the prevalence of fmd in sheep and goats. a total 1200 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 180) and goats (n = 920) and were subjected to 3abc non-structural prot ...201424393420
multiple micrornas targeted to internal ribosome entry site against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a severe vesicular disease in domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. because of the limited early protection induced by current vaccines, emergency antiviral strategies to control the rapid spread of fmd outbreaks are we constructed multiple micrornas (mirnas) targeting the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element of fmdv and investigated the effect of ires-specific mirnas on fmdv replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells and su ...201424393133
resiquimod and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid formulation with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.toll-like receptor (tlr) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. resiquimod (r848) is an imidazoquinoline compound with potent antiviral activity and functions through the tlr7/tlr8 myd88-dependent signaling pathway. polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(i:c)] is a synthetic analog of double-stranded rna that induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the activation of nf-κb through tlr3. thi ...201424386990
influence of hydrophilic amino acids and gc-content on expression of recombinant proteins used in vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.epitope-based protein expression in escherichia coli can be improved by adjusting its amino acid composition and encoding genes. to that end, we analyzed 24 recombinant epitope proteins (reps) that carry multiple epitopes derived from vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus. high level expression of the reps was attributed to a high content of arg, asn, asp and thr, a low content of gln, pro and lys, a high content of hydrophilic amino acids and a higher isoelectric point value resulting fro ...201424375229
design and synthesis of irreversible inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. the fmdv genome is translated as a single polypeptide precursor that is cleaved into functional proteins predominantly by the highly conserved viral 3c protease, making this enzyme an attractive target for antiviral drugs. a peptide corresponding to an optimal substrate has been modified at the c-terminus, by the addition of a warhead, to produce irreversible inhibitors that react as ...201424374278
adjuvant effect enhancement of porcine interleukin-2 packaged into solid lipid this paper, we investigated the enhancement of adjuvant effects of porcine il-2 (pil-2) by packaging it into a solid lipid nanoparticle (sln) delivery system. sln-pil-2 was prepared using hydrogenated castor oil and polylactide-co-glycolide by double emulsion solvent evaporation methods (w/o/w). in animal trials, balb/c mice were immunized with inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen combined with the sln-pil-2 adjuvant on days 0 and 14. antibody titer, splenocyte proliferatio ...201424374120
genetic diversity of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses in kenya from 1964 to 2013; implications for control strategies in eastern africa.serotype a is the most genetically and antigenically diverse of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes. records of its occurrence in kenya date back to 1952 and the antigenic diversity of the outbreak viruses in this region is reflected by the current use of two different vaccine strains (k5/1980 and k35/1980) and previous use of two other strains (k18/66 and k179/71). this study aimed at enhancing the understanding of the patterns of genetic variation of serotype a fmdv in kenya. the ...201424368254
identification of cytotoxic t lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal t cell vaccine.classical swine fever (csf), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. vaccine induced cd8(+) t cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) epitopes, it is an exc ...201324358361
an increase in acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid is mediated by a tyrosine replacement of the vp2 histidine previously associated with vp0 cleavage.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid is highly acid labile, but introduction of amino acid replacements, including an n17d change in vp1, can increase its acid resistance. using mutant vp1 n17d as a starting point, we isolated a virus with higher acid resistance carrying an additional replacement, vp2 h145y, in a residue highly conserved among picornaviruses, which has been proposed to be responsible for vp0 cleavage. this mutant provides an example of the multifunctionality of picorna ...201424352460
interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 3a with host protein dctn3 is important for viral virulence in cattle.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most fmdvs examined to date. the role of 3a in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular protein dctn3 as a specific host binding partner for 3a. dctn3 is a subunit of the dynactin complex, a cofactor for dynein, a motor protein. the dynactin-dynein duplex has been implicated in several su ...201424352458
evaluation of cross-protection against three topotypes of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs vaccinated with multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c).epitope-based vaccines are always questioned for their cross-protection against the antigenically variable foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we proved the cross-protection effect of a multi-epitope vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c) against three topotypes of o type fmdv. a total of 45 naïve pigs were vaccinated with different doses of multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c). at 28 days post-vaccination, 45 vaccinated and 6 unvaccinated control pigs (two pigs ...201424345411
accuracy of traditional and novel serology tests for predicting cross-protection in foot-and-mouth disease vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigenic-match between vaccine and field viruses has traditionally been estimated in vitro by computing the r1 value using virus neutralization test (vnt) or elisa titers. in this study we compared the accuracy in predicting cross-protection between the r1 value estimated by vnt and two recently developed tests that measure igg subtypes and avidity. data analyzed consisted of 64 serum samples from fmdv a24/cruzeiro vaccinated bovines challenged with the heter ...201424342253
collection of oral fluids using cotton ropes as a sampling method to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in high-density farming practices, it is important to constantly monitor for infectious diseases, especially diseases that have the potential to spread rapidly between holdings. pigs are known to amplify foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by excreting large amounts of virus, and it is therefore important to detect the virus quickly and accurately to minimize the spread of disease. ropes were used to collect oral fluid samples from pigs, and each sample was compared to saliva samples collected from ind ...201524325543
molecular modeling and analysis of hepatitis e virus (hev) papain-like cysteine protease.the biochemical or biophysical characterization of a papain-like cysteine protease in hev orf1-encoded polyprotein still remains elusive. very recently, we have demonstrated the indispensability of orf1 protease-domain cysteines and histidines in hev replication, ex vivo (parvez, 2013). in this report, the polyprotein partial sequences of hev strains and genetically-related rna viruses were analyzed, in silico. employing the consensus-prediction results of rubv-p(150) protease as structural-temp ...201424321124
strategies for purifying variants of human rhinovirus 14 2c protein.the positive strand rna genome of picornaviruses, including human rhinovirus (hrv), poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus, is translated immediately into a polyprotein that is cleaved by virally encoded proteinases into 10-13 mature proteins. these include the four proteins required to assemble the viral particle as well as 3d(pol) (the viral rna polymerase) and 2c, an atpase and putative helicase. 2c is a protein which is responsible, together with 2b and 3a, for anchoring the replic ...201424316192
enhanced ires activity by the 3'utr element determines the virulence of fmdv isolates.a reverse genetics approach was used to identify viral genetic determinants of the differential virulence displayed by two field foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains (a/arg/00 and a/arg/01) isolated in argentina during the 2000-2001 epidemics. a molecular clone of a/arg/01 strain and viral chimeras containing the s-fragment or the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of a/arg/00 in the a/arg/01 backbone were constructed and characterized. the ires appeared as a determining factor of the lo ...201424314661
foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. it can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. in addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. the disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease viru ...201324308718
expression of bovine mx1 protein inhibits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 proteins belonging to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases inhibit replication of a wide range of rna viruses. in this study, we examined whether bovine mx1 protein could interfere with the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for this purpose we established cloned bhk-21 cells expressing bovine mx1 protein (bm1 cells) and infected them with fmdv serotype o. cloned bhk-21 cells expressing neomycin resistance instead of mx1 protein (bh1 cells) and original bhk-21 cells serve ...201324294956
interaction of paramecium caudatum and our paper we have researched the relationship between picornaviruses (poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus) and ciliata (paramecium caudatum). we show that the number of paramecium in medium sharply increased during coincubation with picornaviruses within 2-5 days. this cannot be explained only by the fact that viruses were nutrient source for paramecium because in case of inactivated viruses the number of infusorians in medium increased a little. at the sam ...201224293830
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein, 3d in insect cells and its application in detection of anti-fmdv antibodies.non-structural proteins (nsps) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in fmd endemic countries like india which aim at disease control through vaccination. these diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. in the present study, non-structural protein rna polymerase (3d gene) of fmd virus (fmdv) was expressed using baculovirus e ...201224293820
rna structure disrupting g320-t transversion within the short fragment of the 5' untranslated region prevents rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.a full-length cdna clone of an indian foot-and-mouth disease virus strain, asia 1 ind 491/1997 was assembled downstream of the t7 promoter in the pbluescript ii sk (+) vector by sequential ligation of four pcr-generated subgenomic fragments. rna transcribed from that construct were transfected into bhk-21 and lfbk cells to rescue infectious virus. the in vitro growth kinetics, plaque morphology, infectivity titer, antigenic profile and virulence characteristics in unweaned mice infected with the ...201424269793
modification of picornavirus genomic rna using 'click' chemistry shows that unlinking of the vpg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral rna.picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. a unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (vpg) as primer for viral rna synthesis. as a consequence, all newly formed viral rna molecules possess a covalently linked vpg peptide. it is known that vpg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral rna by a host p ...201424243841
genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus x (pvx) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the pvx coat protein. when large ...201424243237
efficient rescue of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cultured cells transfected with rna extracted from clinical this study, an rna transfection was used to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus from clinical samples in bhk-21 cell line for diagnosis of fmd. tissue samples (n=190) were subjected to fmd virus isolation by conventional cell culture and also by rna transfection. fmd virus was isolated from 62% of the clinical samples by rna transfection, whereas virus was isolated only from 16% of the clinical samples in conventional cell culture method, suggesting better performance of the ...201424239633
inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. insect adaptation to pi ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of pis. in this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. the two pis were linked using either the proce ...201424237606
2a and the auxin-based degron system facilitate control of protein levels in plasmodium falciparum.analysis of gene function in plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite, is restricted by the lack of robust and simple reverse genetic tools. approaches to manipulate protein levels post-translationally are powerful tools to study protein-off effects especially in the haploid malaria parasite where genetic knockouts of essential genes are lethal. we investigated if the auxin-inducible degron system is functional in p. falciparum and found that degron-tagged yellow fluoresc ...201324236031
genetic heterogeneity in the leader and p1-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o in africa.genetic information regarding the leader (l) and complete capsid-coding (p1) region of fmd serotype a and o viruses prevalent on the african continent is lacking. here, we present the complete l-p1 sequences for eight serotype a and nine serotype o viruses recovered from fmdv outbreaks in east and west africa over the last 33 years. phylogenetic analysis of the p1 and capsid-coding regions revealed that the african isolates grouped according to serotype, and certain clusters were indicative of t ...201424221247
characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis b virus leader proteinase.bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this study examined if the brbv leader proteinase (l(pro) ) could functionally replace that of fmdv. a mutant a24lbrv3dyr fmdv engineered with the brbv l(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3d polymerase exhibited growth properties and eif4g cleavage similar to parental a24wt virus. the a24lbrv3dyr type i interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of a24ll virus ...201324210112
antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a.the current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. one of the difficulties in controlling fmd by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv) and the strains within these serotypes. therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate ...201424187014
identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shed in secretions and excretions by fmdv infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of fmdv shed is related to transmission risk. first, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed that the total amount of fmdv in secretions and excretions from infected animals is highly correlated with maximum titres of fmdv. next, we collected data from 32 published scientific articles in which ...201424182985
efficient foreign gene expression in planta using a plantago asiatica mosaic virus-based vector achieved by the strong rna-silencing suppressor activity of tgbp1.plant virus expression vectors provide a powerful tool for basic research as well as for practical applications. here, we report the construction of an expression vector based on plantago asiatica mosaic virus (plamv), a member of the genus potexvirus. modification of a vector to enhance the expression of a foreign gene, combined with the use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide, allowed efficient expression of the foreign gene in two model plant species, arabidopsis thaliana and nicot ...201424154949
availability of a fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical samples collected from animals experimentally infected with fmdv.the availability of the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. therefore, in the current study, the availability of zz-r 127 cells for the isolation of fmdv was evaluated using clinical samples (e.g., sera, nasal swabs, saliva, feces, and oropharyngeal fluids) collected from animals experimentally infected with an fmdv isolate. virus isolation rates for the zz-r ...201324153031
reconstructing geographical movements and host species transitions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 2.of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus sat serotypes mainly confined to sub-saharan africa, sat 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in north africa and the middle east six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. this study updates the picture of sat 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the vp1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace ...201324149511
selection and characterization of an acid-resistant mutant of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) loses infectivity and immunogenicity due to its disassembly in culture environments below ph 6.8. to study the molecular basis of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly and improve the acid stability of inactivated fmd vaccines during the manufacturing process, type o fmdv mutants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were selected, and the genes encoding their capsid proteins were sequenced. three amino acid substitutions (vp1 n17d, vp2 d86a, a ...201424122111
gene expression profiling reveals the heterogeneous transcriptional activity of oct3/4 and its possible interaction with gli2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.we examined the transcriptional activity of oct3/4 (pou5f1) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mescs) maintained under standard culture conditions to gain a better understanding of self-renewal in mescs. first, we built an expression vector in which the oct3/4 promoter drives the monocistronic transcription of venus and a puromycin-resistant gene via the foot-and-mouth disease virus self-cleaving peptide t2a. then, a genetically-engineered mesc line with the stable integration of this vector was iso ...201324121003
challenges for serology-based characterization of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in endemic areas; identification of two separate lineages of serotype o fmdv in uganda in 2011.control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in uganda by ring vaccination largely depends on costly trivalent vaccines, and use of monovalent vaccines could improve the cost effectiveness. this, however, requires application of highly specific diagnostic tests. this study investigated outbreaks of fmd in seven ugandan districts, during 2011, using the priocheck® fmdv ns elisa, solid-phase blocking elisas (spbes) and virus neutralization tests (vnts), together with virological analyses for characteri ...201524118785
a review of oie country status recovery using vaccinate-to-live versus vaccinate-to-die foot-and-mouth disease response policies i: benefits of higher potency vaccines and associated nsp diva test systems in post-outbreak rapidly return to trade, countries with oie status, fmd-free country where vaccination is not practised, have destroyed emergency vaccinated animals, raising ethical concerns with respect to social values, the environment, animal welfare and global food security. this two-part review explores whether science could support eligibility to return to previous oie status in 3 months irrespective of vaccinate-to-live or vaccinate-to-die policies. here, we examine the benefits of higher potency (≥ 6 ...201524112127
vp1 b-c and d-e loops of bovine enterovirus cluster b can effectively display foot-and-mouth disease virus type o-conserved neutralizing epitope.on the basis of generation of an infectious cdna clone for the bhm26 strain of bovine enterovirus cluster b (bev-b), 22 sites on different loops of the bhm26 capsid were selected according to an alignment of its sequence with the structural motifs of bev-a strain vg-5-27 for insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o-conserved neutralizing epitope 8e8. two recombinant viruses, rbev-a1 and rbev-de, in which the fmdv epitope was inserted into the vp1 b-c or d-e loops, were rescued ...201324077365
a partial deletion in non-structural protein 3a can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.the role of non-structural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. particularly, a characteristic 10-20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in the naturally occurring, porcinophilic fmdv o1 taiwanese strain, and an approximately 20 amino acid deletion found in egg-adapted derivatives of fmdv serotypes o1 and c3. previous reports using chimeric viru ...201324074589
phylogeny and genetic diversity of foot and mouth disease virus serotype asia1 in india during 1964-2012.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first identified in india in 1951 and since then causing significant proportion of fmd outbreaks in the country. in this paper genetic analysis of 219 isolates from india collected over a period of 48 years is described. bayesian approach was used to estimate the date of divergence and evolutionary rate. phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of three lineages (b, c and d) of which lineage b formed one genotype (i) which was prevale ...201324060099
future directions for the development of chlamydomonas-based vaccines.besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. antigens from various pathogens including plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (csfv) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in c. reinhardtii. although some of them have been functionally characterized with prom ...201324053395
molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of the egyptian foot-and-mouth disease virus february 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreak struck egypt. in this work, one-step rt-pcr assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. fmdv sat2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. the complete vp1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. the two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contempor ...201424046086
reconstructing the origin and transmission dynamics of the 1967-68 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the united kingdom.a large epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in the united kingdom (uk) over a seven month period in northwest england from late 1967 to the summer of 1968. this was preceded by a number of smaller fmd outbreaks in the country, two in 1967, in hampshire and warwickshire and one in northumberland during 1966. the causative agent of all four events was identified as fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and the source of the large epidemic was attributed to infected bone marrow in lamb products ...201324035793
genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype a viruses from the middle east.foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) from serotype a exhibit high antigenic diversity. within the middle east, a strain called a-iran-05 emerged in 2003, and subsequently replaced the a-iran-96 and a-iran-99 strains that were previously circulating in the region. viruses from this strain did not serologically match with the established a/iran/96 vaccine, although most early samples matched with the older a22/iraq vaccine. however, many viruses from this strain collected after 2006 had poor sero ...201424035435
[evaluation of synthetic peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease type a].we developed a synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type a.201324028062
targeted delivery of vp1 antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus to m cells enhances the antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune response.application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. in particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from fmdv transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where fmdv infection ...201324009543
multiple introductions of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses into east asia in 2010-2011.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. sporadic introductions of this virus into fmd-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. in 2010 and 2011, incursions of the fmdv o/sea/mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland southeast asia, caused extensive outbreaks across east asia. in this study, 12 full genome fmdv sequences for representative samples collected from the people's republic of china (pr china) ...201324007643
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease induces fragmentation of the golgi compartment and blocks intra-golgi transport.picornavirus infection can cause golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. in this study, we show that golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3c(pro) and that this requires the protease activity of 3c(pro). 3c(pro) caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late golgi com ...201323986596
antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein vp1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. the serotype asia1 occurs mainly in asian regions. an in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein vp1 of asia1. a total of 47 vp1 sequences of asia1 isolates from different countries of south asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. the structure of vp1 protein was modeled using a homo ...201323983476
transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated fmd virus (fmdv). the use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. in this report, we explored transient gene expression (tge) in serum-fr ...201323977353
a portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. early diagnosis of fmd helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. in this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa) assay for the detection of fmd virus (fmdv). the fmdv rt-rpa design targeted the 3d gene of fmdv and ...201323977101
crystal structure of 2a proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.ev71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. the 2a proteinase (2a(pro)) of ev71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. we determined the crystal structure of ev71 2a(pro) at 1.85å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. the active site is composed of the catalytic triads c110a, h ...201323973886
historical perspective on agroterrorism: lessons learned from 1945 to 2012.this article presents a historical perspective on agroterrorism cases from 1945 until 2012. the threat groups and perpetrators associated with bio- and agroterrorism are clustered into several groups: apocalyptic sects, lone wolves, political groups, and religious groups. we used open-source information, and 4 biological agroterrorism cases are described: (1) in 1952, mau mau poisoned cattle in kenya by using a plant toxin from the african milk bush plant; (2) in 1985, the usda claimed that mexi ...201323971803
Displaying items 601 - 700 of 4462