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efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with a fmdv o mya98 lineage virus in pigs 4 and 7 days post vaccination.early protection with a high potency (>6pd50) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) o1 manisa (middle-east south asia lineage) vaccine against challenge with o/vit/2010 (o mya98 lineage) was tested in pigs. only two pigs that were vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had any demonstrable antibodies as a result of vaccination at the time of challenge. however, 80% and 60% of pigs that were vaccinated seven and four days prior to coronary band challenge were protected. vaccination significantly reduced ...201525917677
viral bimolecular fluorescence complementation: a novel tool to study intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways.the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) accessory protein nef interacts with a multitude of cellular proteins, manipulating the host membrane trafficking machinery to evade immune surveillance. nef interactions have been analyzed using various in vitro assays, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and more recently mass spectrometry. however, these methods do not evaluate nef interactions in the context of viral infection nor do they define the sub-cellular location of these interactions. in t ...201525915798
quantitative single dilution liquid phase blocking elisa for sero-monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in india.three of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus are prevailing in india. a massive vaccination campaign is on to control and eradicate the disease from the country. however, fmd vaccines provide short term immunity, hence regular assessment of antibody level in the vaccinated herds is indispensible for the success of the control programme. the antibodies are quantitatively estimated, either by virus neutralization test or by end-point dilution liquid-phase-blocking elisa (lpbe ...201525911541
a computational study of the interaction of the foot and mouth disease virus vp1 with monoclonal antibodies.foot and mouth disease is caused by a non-enveloped virus (fmdv), which disposes several antigenic sites at the surface of their capsid proteins. the most relevant and immunodominant antigenic site of fmdv (site a or ansa) includes a key virus-cell interaction element (rgd motif) located in the viral protein 1 (vp1), more precisely at the gh loop. ansa includes a set of overlapped and mainly linear epitopes, which are the main targets of the humoral immune response. taking advantage over specifi ...201526093030
transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. a novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. here, we produce transgenic (tg) pigs that constitutively expressed fmdv-specific short interfering rna (sirna) derived from small hairpin rna (shrna). in vitro challenge of tg fibroblasts showed the shrna suppressed viral growth. tg and non-tg pigs were challeng ...201526090904
comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-αvβ6 for foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains. the suitability of zz-r 127 cells for fmdv isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. however, to our knowledge, the suitability of lfbk-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epitheli ...201526082457
sat2 foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in a mixed farm in egypt.a dairy farm keeping holstein cattle and buffaloes in the menoufia governorate was investigated during and after the last foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in egypt (starting february 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. all animals were vaccinated against fmd with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing o1 and a/egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of ...201526054223
evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind2001 lineage.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o ind2001 lineage within the middle east-south asia topotype is the major cause of recent fmd incidences in india. a sub-lineage of ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from libya. in this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of ind2001 lineage. phylogenetic analysis of ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three ...201526049591
expression of porcine mx1 with fmdv ires enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pk-15 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. due to the rapid replication and spread of fmdv, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block fmdv shedding in cases of disease outbreak. here, we generated an ires-mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of fmdv was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (orf) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (pomx1). this construct provides ...201526047650
robust protection against highly virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine by combination treatment with recombinant adenoviruses expressing porcine alpha and gamma interferons and multiple small interfering rnas.because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. we have developed recombinant aden ...201526041279
[construction and characterization of an epitope-mutated asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus].to generate an epitope-mutated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) as a marker vaccine, the infectious clone pasia 1-fmdv containing the complete genomic cdna of asia 1 type fmdv was used as backbone, the residues at positions 27 and 31 in the 3d gene were mutated (h27y and n31r). the resulting plasmid pasia 1-fmdv-3dm encoding a mutated epitope was transfected into bhk-21 cells and the recombinant virus rasia 1-3dm was rescued. the recombinant virus showed similar biological characteristics com ...201526021083
capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage c foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from india.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first reported in india in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (b, c and d) of this serotype have been described until now. in this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype asia1 viruses (n = 99) from india were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. all of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage c (designated as sublineage c(r) ...201526008211
persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle; tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression.tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of fmdv and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with fmdv serotype a, o or sat2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). fmdv was less frequently detect ...201525996935
risk factors for infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in iran.in this study, we estimated the level of foot-and-mouth (fmd) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of islamic republic of iran and analyzed putative risk factors for fmd infection. calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of west azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsp-ab) of fmd virus. a proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. within ...201525805320
evolutionary analysis of structural protein gene vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 was mostly endemic in asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. in this study, we characterized 377 isolates from asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups i-viii) or were ...201525793223
transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an fmdv infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep.we wanted to quantify transmission of fmdv asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an fmdv infection in sheep. for this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. in each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2 pen-mates. viral excretion was detected for a long period (>21 days post-inoculation, dpi). transmission of fmdv occurred in the non-vaccinated groups (r0=1.14) but only in the first week after infection ...201525790732
immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. there is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (vlps), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. the vlps are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. the objective of the present study was to express the vlps of f ...201525790055
pan-serotype diagnostic for foot-and-mouth disease using the consensus antigen of nonstructural protein 3b.an amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven fmdv serotypes are described. the amino acid consensus sequence of the 3b protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3b. the consensus 3b (c3b) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-bindi ...201525788546
construction and characterization of yeast two-hybrid cdna library derived from lfbk cell line.the cdna libraries are indispensable and critical tools for performing protein-protein interaction studies. in this study, a high quality yeast two-hybrid cdna library from the lfbk cell line was constructed and characterized. lfbk cell line was originally derived from the swine kidney cells and is highly susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. the total rna was extracted from the lfbk cells and the switching mechanism at the 5' end of rna template (smart) technique was emp ...201525787111
local rna flexibility perturbation of the ires element induced by a novel ligand inhibits viral rna translation.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located at the 5'untranslated genomic region of various rna viruses mediates cap-independent initiation of translation. picornavirus ires activity is highly dependent on both its structural organization and its interaction with host factors. small molecules able to interfere with rna function are valuable candidates for antiviral agents. here we show that a small molecule based on benzimidazole (irab) inhibited foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) i ...201525775053
the ph stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is modulated by residues located at the pentameric interface and in the n terminus of vp1.the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. in this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of fmdv acid-induced disassembly by isolating an ...201525762735
expression of multiple taenia solium immunogens in plant cells through a ribosomal skip mechanism.taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. while several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein expl ...201525761936
detection of replication competent adenovirus upon serial passaging of recombinant adenovirus expressing fmdv capsid proteins.replication deficient human adenovirus type 5 (had5) is an important gene delivery vehicle and has been used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as gene therapy, cancer therapy and vaccination. inspite of its various useful features, emergence of replication competent adenovirus (rca) in recombinant virus stocks is a great concern. in the present study, recombinant adenovirus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype-o capsid proteins was propagated in hek-293 cells and purified ...201525748638
a simple method for measuring porcine circovirus 2 whole virion particles and standardizing vaccine formulation.porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) is involved in porcine circovirus-associated disease, that causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. vaccination against pcv2 proved to be very effective in reducing disease occurrence and it is currently performed on a large scale. starting from a previous model concerning foot-and mouth disease virus antigens, we developed a rapid and simple method to quantify pcv2 whole virion particles in inactivated vaccines. this procedure, based on sucro ...201525687800
promising ms2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. in this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (ep141-160) of vp1 were inserted into the coat protein (cp) genes of ms2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (vlp). results showed that the cp-ep141-160 vlp had a strong immunoreaction with the fmd virus (fmdv) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice ...201525676866
a colorimetric bioassay for high-throughput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal viruses. this virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type i interferons. currently, a bioassay based on plaque reduction is used to measure anti-fmdv activity of porcine ifns. the plaque reduction assay is tedious and difficult to utilize for high-throughput analysis. using available fmdv susceptible bovine and porcine cells, we developed and tested a colorimetric assay based on cytopathic effect reduction for its ability ...201525669593
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) from ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.to investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (op)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported fmd outbreaks in seven different ugandan districts. overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against fmdv by priocheck fmdv ns elisa ...201525664876
robust expression of heterologous genes by selection marker fusion system in improved chlamydomonas strains.chlamydomonas is a very attractive candidate plant cell factory. however, its main drawback is the difficulty to find the transformants that robustly express heterologous genes randomly inserted in the nuclear genome. we previously showed that domestic squalene synthase (sqs) gene of chlamydomonas was much more efficiently overexpressed in a mutant strain [uv-mediated mutant (uvm) 4] than in wild type. in this study, we evaluated the possibility of a new mutant strain, met1, which contains a tag ...201525660568
development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the 3b protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most highly contagious and economically devastating diseases, and it severely constrains the international trade of animals. vaccination against fmd is a key element in the control of fmd. however, vaccination of susceptible animals raises critical issues, such as the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. the current study developed a reliable and rapid test to detect antibodies against the conserved, nonstructural proteins (nsps) ...201525651918
antigenic properties and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus rescued from full-length cdna clone of serotype o, typical vaccine strain.we cloned the full-length cdna of o manisa, the virus for vaccinating against foot-and-mouth disease. the antigenic properties of the virus recovered from the cdna were similar to those of the parental virus. pathogenesis did not appear in the pigs, dairy goats or suckling mice, but neutralizing antibodies were raised 5-6 days after the virus challenge. the utilization of o manisa as a safe vaccine strain will increase if recombinant viruses can be manipulated by inserting or removing a marker g ...201525648340
how foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor mediates foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.this study reviews the fmdv receptor-binding domain, integrin receptors, and heparan sulfate receptors to provide references for studies regarding the mechanisms underlying fmdv infection.201525645358
characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle in kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the sat serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv). large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on fmd in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. this study analysed 47 epithelia col ...201525644407
establishment and evaluation of a murine ανβ3-integrin-expressing cell line with increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.integrin ανβ3 plays a major role in various signaling pathways, cell apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. to examine the functions and roles of ανβ3 integrin, a stable cho-677 cell line expressing the murine ανβ3 heterodimer (designated as "cho-677-mανβ3" cells) was established using a highly efficient lentiviral-mediated gene transfer technique. integrin subunits αν and β3 were detected at the gene and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa), r ...201525643796
development of a novel thermostable newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene.thermostable newcastle disease virus (ndv) vaccines have been used widely to control newcastle disease for village poultry flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. to explore the potential use of thermostable ndv as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of thermostable avirulent ndv strain ts09-c was developed using reverse genetics technology. the gfp gene, along with the self-cleaving 2a gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and ubiquitin monomer (2aubi), were ...201525626679
a multi-species indirect elisa for detection of non-structural protein 3abc specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus.reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the affected countries. non-structural protein (nsp) serology based on the 3abc protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. this report presents the development of a 3abc-antigen-based indirect elisa, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein g secondary antibody ...201525623051
correction for larocco et al., a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201525617444
prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in east africa using site-directed mutagenesis.epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype a fmdv. previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from asia, europe and latin america. in this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in african serotype a fmdvs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to b ...201525614587
construction and characterization of 3a-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most fmdvs examined to date. specific deletion in the fmdv 3a protein has been associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. however, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. in this study, we constructed epitope-tagged fmdvs containing an 8 aa flag epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (ha) ep ...201525584768
kinetics of cytokine expression in bovine pbmcs and whole blood after in vitro stimulation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.the interest in analysing antigen-specific cytokine responses has substantially increased in recent years, in part due to their use in assessing vaccine efficacy. in the present study, the kinetics of il-2, il-4 and ifn-γ expression was determined in bovine pbmcs by real-time pcr and in whole blood by cytokine-release assay after in vitro stimulation with recall foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen. the results showed that the cytokine mrna of il-2 and ifn-γ in pbmcs were induced early (p ...201525574771
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 in long-horned ankole calf, uganda.after a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in uganda. the emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding vp1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in uganda.201525531186
protective immune response to liposome adjuvanted high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in indian cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines applied for prophylactic use in endemic areas provide short-lived immunity requiring regular boosters. indian fmd control program recommends twice a year vaccination. development of high potency vaccines that provide better immune response can singificantly contribute to control programme by reducing the frequency of vaccination. the present study explores new adjuvants to enhance the protective efficacy of inactivated trivalent fmd vaccines.201525528522
genetic and immunologic relationships between vaccine and field strains for vaccine selection of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in east asia.of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), type a has the most diverse variations. genetic variations also occur frequently at vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. the structural proteins of fmdv, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. in this study we analyzed the type a vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find ...201525528521
genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o responsible for outbreaks in india during 2013.in recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in india are caused by serotype o ind2001 lineage. the lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (ind2001a, b, c and d). we report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during april 2013-march 2014 in india. the length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. of the nine isolates anal ...201525511252
emergence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh and is predominantly due to fmdv serotype o. in 2012, fmd outbreaks were identified in five different districts of bangladesh. of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic pcr assay based on 5'-urt detected 38 fmdv infections. viral genotyping targeting vp1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, a and o with an abundance of serotype a in chittagong and gazipur districts and serotype o in pabna and far ...201523734722
analysis of recent serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses from livestock in kenya: evidence of four independently evolving lineages.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in kenya where four serotypes (o, a, sat 1 and sat 2) of the virus are currently in circulation. within 2010 and 2011, the national laboratory recorded an increase in the number of fmd outbreaks caused by serotype o virus. the characteristics of these viruses were determined to ascertain whether these were independent outbreaks or one single strain spreading throughout the country. the sequences of the complete vp1-coding region were analysed from viruses ...201523931583
a positively charged lysine residue at vp2 131 position allows for the enhanced adaptability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in bhk-21 cells.field outbreak strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infect host cells through certain arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent integrin family of cellular receptors. in contrast, fmdv adapted in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to infect cells via heparin sulphate (hs) or other unidentified cell surface molecules. it has been reported that during the serial passage of fmdv serotype a in bhk-21 cell culture, vp2 e131k (e2131k) substitution was fixed within the heparin sulph ...201525439090
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania between 1967 and 2009.this paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. a total of 44 fmdv isolates, containing representatives of serotypes o, a, sat 1 and sat 2 from 13 regions of tanzania, were selected from the fao world reference laboratory for fmd (wrlfmd) virus collection. vp1 nucleotide sequences were determined for rt-pcr amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum l ...201524460931
collection of oral fluids using cotton ropes as a sampling method to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in pigs.in high-density farming practices, it is important to constantly monitor for infectious diseases, especially diseases that have the potential to spread rapidly between holdings. pigs are known to amplify foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by excreting large amounts of virus, and it is therefore important to detect the virus quickly and accurately to minimize the spread of disease. ropes were used to collect oral fluid samples from pigs, and each sample was compared to saliva samples collected from ind ...201524325543
challenges for serology-based characterization of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in endemic areas; identification of two separate lineages of serotype o fmdv in uganda in 2011.control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in uganda by ring vaccination largely depends on costly trivalent vaccines, and use of monovalent vaccines could improve the cost effectiveness. this, however, requires application of highly specific diagnostic tests. this study investigated outbreaks of fmd in seven ugandan districts, during 2011, using the priocheck® fmdv ns elisa, solid-phase blocking elisas (spbes) and virus neutralization tests (vnts), together with virological analyses for characteri ...201524118785
a review of oie country status recovery using vaccinate-to-live versus vaccinate-to-die foot-and-mouth disease response policies i: benefits of higher potency vaccines and associated nsp diva test systems in post-outbreak surveillance.to rapidly return to trade, countries with oie status, fmd-free country where vaccination is not practised, have destroyed emergency vaccinated animals, raising ethical concerns with respect to social values, the environment, animal welfare and global food security. this two-part review explores whether science could support eligibility to return to previous oie status in 3 months irrespective of vaccinate-to-live or vaccinate-to-die policies. here, we examine the benefits of higher potency (≥ 6 ...201524112127
heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions worldwide and to limit outbreaks during epidemics. vaccine-induced protection in cattle has been largely correlated with the fmd virus (fmdv)-specific antibodies. genetic control of cattle immune adaptive responses has been demonstrated only for peptide antigens derived from fmdv structural proteins. here, we quantify the heterogeneity in the antibody response of cattle primo-vaccinated against f ...201523895140
effects of germanium biotite supplement on immune responses of vaccinated mini-pigs to foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge.since the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south korea in 2010-2011, a trivalent vaccine has been used as a routine vaccination. despite the high efficacy of the trivalent vaccine, low antibody formation was reported in the pig industry and there is considerable concern about the ability of the vaccine to protect against the andong strain responsible for recent outbreaks in south korea. to overcome these problems, immunostimulators have been widely used to improve vaccine efficacy in ...201525058651
evolutionary non-linear modelling for selecting vaccines against antigenically variable viruses.in vitro and in vivo selection of vaccines is time consuming, expensive and the selected vaccines may not be able to provide protection against broad-spectrum viruses because of emerging antigenically novel disease strains. a powerful computational model that incorporates these protein/dna or rna level fluctuations can effectively predict antigenically variant strains, and can minimize the amount of resources spent on exclusive serological testing of vaccines and make wide spectrum vaccines poss ...201525414361
viquas: an improved reconstruction pipeline for viral quasispecies spectra generated by next-generation sequencing.the combined effect of a high replication rate and the low fidelity of the viral polymerase in most rna viruses and some dna viruses results in the formation of a viral quasispecies. uncovering information about quasispecies populations significantly benefits the study of disease progression, antiviral drug design, vaccine design and viral pathogenesis. we present a new analysis pipeline called viquas for viral quasispecies spectrum reconstruction using short next-generation sequencing reads. vi ...201525398613
modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.a salmonid alphavirus (sav) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. in this study, we have compared several modifications to a sav replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. we found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the n-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease ...201525395591
efficacy of synthetic peptide candidate vaccines against serotype-a foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains a major threat to livestock worldwide, especially in developing countries. to improve the efficacy of vaccination against fmd, various types of vaccines have been developed, including synthetic peptide vaccines. we designed three synthetic peptide vaccines, 59 to 87 aa in size, based on immunogenic epitopes in the vp1, 3a, and 3d proteins of the a/hubwh/cha/2009 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), corresponding to amino acid positions 129 to 16 ...201525381487
cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions.in this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a strains during propagation in cell monolayers. viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (bhk-21, lfbk and ib-rs-2) consistently gained positively charged amino acids in the putative heparin-sulfate-binding pocket (vp2 βe-βf loop, vp1 c-terminus and vp3 β-b knob) surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis (vp1 βf-βg loop) and at other discrete sites on the capsid (vp3 βg-βh lo ...201525381054
three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its biological functions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an acute, violent, infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, remains widespread in most parts of the world. it can lead to a major plague of livestock and an economical catastrophe. structural studies of fmd virus (fmdv) have greatly contributed to our understanding of the virus life cycle and provided new horizons for the control and eradication of fmdv. to examine host-fmdv interactions and viral pathogenesis from a structural perspective, the structures of vir ...201525377637
re-emergence of circulatory foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes asia1 in bangladesh and vp1 protein heterogeneity with vaccine strain ind 63/72.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in bangladesh; however serotype asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. the present investigation reports the detection of serotype fmdv asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. the farms were located in jessore and gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. phylogenetic analysis of the complete vp1 gene revealed tha ...201525370946
dose-dependent responses of pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 by the intranasal and intraoral routes.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was successfully initiated in pigs by intraoral inoculation of both 10(6) and 10(3) tcid50 of fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan. by intranasal inoculation, infection was established in pigs with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, but not with 10(3) tcid50 of the isolate. in the pigs inoculated with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, viruses and viral rnas were obtained earlier from the pigs inoculated by the intraoral route than from the p ...201525281431
complete genome sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses recovered from experimental persistently infected cattle.for the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. no consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.201526159521
bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis a viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinitis viruses (brvs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. in this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named rs3x (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the uk in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. compared to other closely related aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (l(pro)), p1, 2b, and 3a proteins. phylogenetic analysis revealed that rs3x was a member of the species bovine rhinit ...201527081310
membrane topology and cellular dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence and host-range; nevertheless little is known on the interactions that this protein can establish with different cell components. in this work, we have performed in vivo dynamic studies from cells transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein (gfp) fused to the complete 3a (gfp3a) and versions including different 3a mutations. the results revealed the presence of a mobile fraction o ...201425275544
within herd transmission and evaluation of the performance of clinical and serological diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in partially immune cattle herds.the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in vaccinated populations relies upon surveillance activities such as clinical inspections (ci) and serological monitoring. new evidence to refine current surveillance guidelines has been provided by evaluating (1) the diagnostic performance of ci and serological tests for detection of fmd virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsp), and (2) the within-herd transmission of the virus in partially immune cattle. data came from 23 affected herds during an ...201425261377
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage.translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase l(pro) (lab(pro) and lb(pro)). these forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4 g. during infection, lb(pro) removes six residues from its own c-terminus, generating slb(pro). we present the structure of slb(pro) bound to the inhib ...201425240326
adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines: recent progress.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and rapidly spreading disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in most countries, animals are immunized with inactivated whole virus vaccines to control the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv); however, there are safety and efficacy (especially, cell-mediated immunity) concerns. many efforts are currently devoted to the development of effective vaccines by combining the application of protective antigens together with the search for specific ...201425234962
poly iclc increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the fmdv capsid coding region of serotype a24 cruzeiro (ad5-ci-a24-2b) protects swine and cattle against fmdv challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. however, since relatively large amounts of ad5-ci-a24-2b are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. poly iclc is ...201425216089
virus-host interactions in persistently fmdv-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus in pharyngeal tissues. here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (pbpt) infected with fmdv serotype o1 manisa, where surviving cells were serially passed until a persistently infected culture was generated. characterization of the persistent virus d ...201425216088
phylodynamic reconstruction of o cathay topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the philippines.reconstructing the evolutionary history, demographic signal and dispersal processes from viral genome sequences contributes to our understanding of the epidemiological dynamics underlying epizootic events. in this study, a bayesian phylogenetic framework was used to explore the phylodynamics and spatio-temporal dispersion of the o cathay topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that caused epidemics in the philippines between 1994 and 2005. sequences of the fmdv genome encoding the vp1 sh ...201425209700
molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from gharbia, egypt.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affecting cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) occurred in egypt during 2012/2013. the present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the fmd virus (fmdv) and the prevalence of fmd among cattle and buffalo in gharbia, egypt. the diagnostic sensitivity of two rt-pcr assays for the detection of fmdv was evaluated. the results revealed that sat2 was the causative agent. the percentage of infected of animals varied with the detectio ...201425187028
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.a time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. the earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral rna, viral antigen, and infectious virus. at this time fmdv antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and cd172a-ex ...201425184288
genetic and antigenic characterisation of serotype a fmd viruses from east africa to select new vaccine strains.vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. a total of 56 serotype a fmdvs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from central, east and north african countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequen ...201425171846
preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). current approaches involve either; 1) detection of fmd virus (fmdv) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (lfd), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable rt-qpcr that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. t ...201425165973
effect of amino acid mutation at position 127 in 3a of a rabbit-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 on viral replication and infection.an amino acid mutation (r127→i) in the 3a non-structural protein of an fmdv serotype asia1 rabbit-attenuated zb strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. to explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (i) was changed to arginine (r) in the infectious cdna clone of the rabbit-attenuated zb strain by sitedirected mutagenesis, and the r127-mutated virus was rescued. bhk monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated ...201425326348
recovery of viral rna and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. in developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. these factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise fmd virus in countries where the disease is endemic. ...201425313787
identification of the structural basis of thermal lability of a virus provides a rationale for improved vaccines.virus stability and dynamics play critical roles during infection. some viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), are surprisingly prone to thermal dissociation outside the cell. the structural bases and functional implications of this distinctive trait were essentially unknown. this study (1) uncovers the structural determinants of fmdv thermolability, (2) investigates the relationship between virus thermolability and infectivity, and (3) provides a structure-based rationale for e ...201425308865
genomic changes in an attenuated zb strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 and comparison with its virulent parental strain.the molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 zb strain remains unknown. to understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated zb strains (zb/cha/58(att), zbrf168, and zbrf188) and their virulent parental strains (zbcf22 and ynbs/58). the results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutati ...201425386556
presentation of epitope sequences from foreign viruses on the surface of apple latent spherical virus particles.apple latent spherical virus (alsv) has small isometric particles that are comprised of two single-stranded rna species (rna1 and rna2) and three capsid proteins (vp25, vp20, and vp24). we constructed alsv vectors for presenting foreign peptides on the surface of virus particles. in these vectors, peptides can be fused to either of two c-terminal regions of vp20 (amino acid positions between g171 and p172 or between p172 and l173) or the c-terminus (t192) of vp24. an alsv vector presenting the e ...201425058477
effects of two amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins on the interaction of two cell-adapted panasia-1 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o with heparan sulfate receptor.some cell-adapted strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can utilize heparan sulfate (hs) as a receptor to facilitate viral infection in cultured cells. a number of independent sites on the capsid that might be involved in fmdv-hs interaction have been studied. however, the previously reported residues do not adequately explain hs-dependent infection of two cell-adapted panasia-1 strains (o/tibet/cha/6/99tc and o/fujian/cha/9/99tc) of fmdv serotype o. to identify the molecular determinan ...201425056022
expression of porcine fusion protein irf7/3(5d) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type i, ii, or iii interferons (ifns) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (ad5) vector expressing ifns can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. however, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. in this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poirf7/3(5d), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of ifn activit ...201425031341
induction of protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture and transgenic suckling mice by mirna targeting integrin αv receptor.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus that causes a highly contagious disease in domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. although vaccination has been used to protect animals against fmdv, there are shortcomings in the efficacy of the available vaccines. rna interference (rnai) is triggered by small rna molecules, including short interfering rnas and micrornas (mirnas), and the use of rnai-based methods have demonstrated promise as an alternative method of controlling the transmis ...201425016204
development of tailored real-time rt-pcr assays for the detection and differentiation of serotype o, a and asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus lineages circulating in the middle east.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in countries where fmd is endemic, identification of the serotypes of the causative virus strains is important for vaccine selection and tracing the source of outbreaks. in this study, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assays using primer/probe sets designed from the vp1 coding region of the virus genomes were developed for the specific detection of serotype o, a and ...201425016065
morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of myocarditis in two pigs infected by foot-and mouth disease virus strains of serotypes o or a.myocarditis is often cited as the cause of fatalities associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. however, the pathogenesis of fmdv-associated myocarditis has not been described in detail. the current report describes substantial quantities of fmdv in association with a marked mononuclear inflammatory reaction, interstitial edema and cardiomyocyte degeneration in the myocardium of two pigs that died during acute infection with either of two different strains of fmdv. despite s ...201425015718
serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of tanzania.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by a virus of the genus aphthorvirus of the family picornaviridae. there is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of fmd virus (fmdv) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. a variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of fmdv in wildlife and cattle. however, many fmdv research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptib ...201425005680
rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in africa.speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of fmd virus (fmdv) by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp), real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) and sequencing. rt-lamp enables amplification o ...201425005362
molecular survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock in tanzania, 2008-2013.phylogeography data are of paramount importance in studying the molecular epidemiology dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, epithelial samples and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids were collected from 361 convalescent animals (cattle and buffaloes) in the field throughout tanzania between 2009 and 2013. the single plex real-time rt-pcr (qrt-pcr) assay for rapid and accurate diagnosis of fmdv employing the callahan 3df-2, 3df-r primers and callahan 3dp-1 probe were used. pr ...201425005022
spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the lake zone of tanzania.this study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) serotypes and evaluate the awareness of livestock keepers about fmd in tanzania. an observational prospective study involving serological analysis, fmdv antigen detection and questionnaire survey was carried out in the lake zone of tanzania. seroprevalence of antibodies to the nonstructural protein 3abc of fmdv and serotype-specific antigen detection were investigated by using svano ...201425005020
recombinant viral capsid protein vp1 suppresses lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting cox-2/pge2 and mig-7.recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus binds to integrins to modulate akt/gsk3-β signaling and suppress migration/invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. here, we showed that the rvp1-mediated inhibition of akt/gsk3-β signaling and cell migration/invasion was accompanied by downregulation in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (pip3), integrin-linked kinase (ilk) and ikk/nf-κb signaling as well as suppressio ...201425004182
sequence adaptations affecting cleavage of the vp1/2a junction by the 3c protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor p1-2a is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3c protease to vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. it was shown previously that modification of a single amino acid residue (k210e) within the vp1 protein and close to the vp1/2a cleavage site, inhibited cleavage of this junction and produced 'self-tagged' virus particles. a second site substitution (e83k) within vp1 was also observed within the rescued virus [gullberg et al. (2013). j virol 87: , 11591-1160 ...201425000961
comparative evaluation of non-structural protein-antibody detecting elisas for foot-and-mouth disease sero-surveillance under intensive vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious and contagious disease of livestock animals with transboundary and economical importance. animals in the endemic settings are regularly vaccinated in addition to intensive surveillance for control of the disease. under intensive vaccination, detection of infected animals among the vaccinated population is essential to monitor the infection and to track down the virus movement. sero-surveillance and retrospective disease diagnosis is performed primari ...201424996132
swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sifitm3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (ifitm3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. it restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. in this report, the swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) gene was cloned. it shares the functionally conserved cd225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (y19, f74, f77, r86 and y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. ectopic exp ...201424973762
protection against rift valley fever virus infection in mice upon administration of interferon-inducing rna transcripts from the fmdv genome.in this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome on the infection of mice with rift valley fever virus (rvfv). groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic rna resembling the 5'-terminal s region, the internal ribosome entry site (ires) or the 3'-ncr of the fmdv genome. rna inoculation was performed 24h befor ...201424973761
influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (mat-abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. here, we report the anti-fmdv humoral responses elicited in calves with or without mat-abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in a ...201424968156
magnesium-dependent folding of a picornavirus ires element modulates rna conformation and eif4g interaction.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements are high-order rna structures that promote internal initiation of translation to allow protein synthesis under situations that compromise the general cap-dependent translation mechanism. picornavirus ires elements are highly efficient elements with a modular rna structure organization. here we investigated the effect of mg(2+) concentration on the local flexibility and solvent accessibility of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires element measu ...201424961997
a pig tonsil cell culture model for evaluating oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments.oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments proved effective in several models of viral infections and immunopathological conditions. also, they do not give rise to the serious side effects observed after parenteral inoculation of high doses (10(5)u/kg b.w. and higher). there is convincing evidence that such treatments work through an early, effective interaction with oral lymphoid tissues before the ifn-α molecules are rapidly destroyed by gut enzymes. yet, the paucity of detailed information about these c ...201424951265
[progress in insertion sites for foreign sequence of foot and mouth disease virus].with the progess in studying gene structure and function of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), fmdv can express exogenous genes in different sites. through transforming and modifying fmdv can achieve different application purposes such as improving virus titer, introducing tag, improving immune responses, and reducing pathogenicity. from the perspective of fmdv receiving inserted exogenous gene, this paper mainly describes the latest relevant developments of fmdv's expression to exogenous gene ...201424945052
genome sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage from outbreaks in libya, saudi arabia, and bhutan during 2013.the complete genomes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered in libya and saudi arabia in 2013 are described here. these viruses belong to an fmd virus lineage (ind-2001, topotype middle east-south asia, serotype o) which is normally endemic in the indian subcontinent. a contemporary virus sequence from bhutan is also reported here.201424723708
first isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in benin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. in west africa, where constant circulation of fmd virus (fmdv) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. this study describes the first isolation and characterization of fmdv in benin. fmdv was isolated from 42 samples. antigen capture elisa (ag-elisa) and vp1 coding ...201424720890
a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to rapidly diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus c.a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was developed to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv c). by testing 10-fold serial dilutions of fmdv c samples, sensitivity of the fmdv c rt-lamp was found to be 10 times higher than that of conventional reverse transcription- pcr (rt-pcr). no cross-reactivity with a, asia 1, or o fmdv or swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) indicated that fmdv c rt-lamp may be an exciting novel method for det ...201424690607
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