simple, quick and cost-efficient: a universal rt-pcr and sequencing strategy for genomic characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major contributor to poverty and food insecurity in africa and asia, and it is one of the biggest threats to agriculture in highly developed countries. as fmd is extremely contagious, strategies for its prevention, early detection, and the immediate characterisation of outbreak strains are of great importance. the generation of whole-genome sequences enables phylogenetic characterisation, the epidemiological tracing of virus transmission pathways and is supporti ...201728442328
evaluation of immune responses of stabilised sat2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. this is especially so for serotypes o and sat2 which are unstable in mildly acidic ph conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146s particle) and loss of immunogenicity. previously, stabilised sat2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a ...201728431813
recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) as a candidate probe to identify fmdv-infected cattle in serosurveys.recombinant protein 3a-egfp, a fusion construct between foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was expressed in bl21-de3 cells. the identity of the partially purified protein 3a-egfp was confirmed by its reactivity with sera from cattle infected with fmdv and with a monoclonal antibody specific for fmdv-3abc (mab3h7) in western blot assays. no reactivity was observed with sera from uninfected vaccinated animals. the perform ...201728421368
detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (ofs). detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome in swine ofs has previously been demonstrated. virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing fmdv, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine of. the objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of fmdv in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and fmdv ...201728408775
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits lgp2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.the role of the innate immune protein lgp2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in fmdv-infected cells remains unknown. here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of lgp2 during fmdv infection. fmdv infection triggered lgp2 mrna expression but reduced protein expression. overexpression of lgp2 suppressed fmdv replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by lgp2 in virus-infected cells. the n-terminal dexdc and the c-terminal regulatory domain regions of lgp2 were esse ...201728406479
phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/panasia in vietnam 2010-2014.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within southeast asia. the large populations of fmdv-susceptible species in vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. in this study, we investigated the phylogeny of fmdv o/panasia in vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographi ...201728403902
the integration of molecular tools into veterinary and spatial the interface of molecular biology and epidemiology, the emerging discipline of molecular epidemiology offers unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases through the investigation of infectious agents at the molecular level. molecular tools can increase our understanding of the factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of pathogens and disease. both spatial and molecular aspects have always been important to the field of infectious disease epidemiology, but recently n ...201122748175
southeast asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in eastern asia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks recently affected 2 countries (japan and south korea) in eastern asia that were free of fmd without vaccination. analysis of viral protein 1 nucleotide sequences indicated that fmd serotype a and o viruses that caused these outbreaks originated in mainland southeast asia to which these viruses are endemic.201222377196
avianized modified foot and mouth disease viruses. 195813853433
expression and immunogenicity of two recombinant fusion proteins comprising foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp1 and dc-sign-binding glycoproteins.improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. in this study, the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or c2-v3 domain of hepatitis c virus (hcv) envelope glycoprotein e2, both of which are dc-sign-binding glycoproteins. after codon optimization, the vp1 protein and the two recombinan ...201729119112
an uncommon clinical form of foot-and-mouth disease in beef cattle presented with cornual skin lesions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major infectious disease in livestock. the common clinical signs in cattle include epidermal vesicles that are majorly distributed around oronasal cavity, feet and teats. the aim of this report is to document an uncommon clinical form of the disease which comprises the occurrence of classic vesicular lesion in a rarely observed location of the horn vegetative tissue. during iran's outbreak of fmd in 2013, field investigation, clinical examination and sampling fr ...201729387105
foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission dynamics and persistence in a herd of vaccinated dairy cattle in india.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an important transboundary disease with substantial economic impacts. although between-herd transmission of the disease has been well studied, studies focusing on within-herd transmission using farm-level outbreak data are rare. the aim of this study was to estimate parameters associated with within-herd transmission, host physiological factors and fmd virus (fmdv) persistence using data collected from an outbreak that occurred at a large, organized dairy farm in ...201729205858
safety profile of a replication-deficient human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a24 subunit vaccine in cattle.the safety of a replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (adta24) was evaluated in five independent safety studies. the target animal safety studies were designed in compliance with united states (u.s.) regulatory requirements (title 9, u.s. code of federal regulation [9cfr]) and international standard guidelines (vich topic gl-44) for veterinary live vaccines. the first three studies were conducted in ...201729076657
detection of pathogen exposure in african buffalo using non-specific markers of inflammation.detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. in the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. tracking common host immune responses indicative of recent infection may have potential as a non-specific diagnostic ap ...201729375568
development and utilization of vhh antibodies derived from camelus dromedarius against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease of domestic and wildlife species. for effective implementation of fmd control program, there is an imperative need for developing a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostics which help in the identification of serotypes involved in the outbreaks. the humoral immune response of the camelidae is unique since in these animals 75% of circulating antibodies are constituted by heavy-chain antibodie ...201829527970
common vole (microtus arvalis) and bank vole (myodes glareolus) derived permanent cell lines differ in their susceptibility and replication kinetics of animal and zoonotic viruses.pathogenesis and reservoir host adaptation of animal and zoonotic viruses are poorly understood due to missing adequate cell culture and animal models. the bank vole (myodes glareolus) and common vole (microtus arvalis) serve as hosts for a variety of zoonotic pathogens. for a better understanding of virus association to a putative animal host, we generated two novel cell lines from bank voles of different evolutionary lineages and two common vole cell lines and assayed their susceptibility, rep ...201931513859
production of foot-and-mouth disease virus sat2 vp1 protein.the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) differ on the surface exposed regions on the vp1, 2 and 3 proteins. amongst the three, the vp1 protein has been produced the most for use in serotyping assays for some of the euro-asian serotypes. in this study the vp1 protein of the fmdv sat2/zim/7/83 was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 cells in luria broth and enpresso® b media in shake flasks. production was further developed and the vp1 protein was produced at 2.15 g l-1 in fed-ba ...202031912326
a wide-ranging antiviral response in wild boar cells is triggered by non-coding synthetic rnas from the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious viral disease that affects multiple cloven-hooved hosts including important livestock (pigs, cattle, sheep and goats) as well as several wild animal species. crossover of fmdv between domestic and wildlife populations may prolong virus circulation during outbreaks. the wild boar (sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir of various pathogens that can infect other wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. as wild boar and ...202032851049
clinical validation of two recombinase-based isothermal amplification assays (rpa/raa) for the rapid detection of african swine fever virus.african swine fever (asf), caused by african swine fever virus (asfv), is a devastating infectious disease of domestic pigs and wild boars, and has tremendous negative socioeconomic impact on the swine industry and food security worldwide. it is characterized as a notifiable disease by world organisation for animal health (oie). no effective vaccine or treatment against asf has so far been available. early detection and rapid diagnosis are of potential significance to control the spread of asf. ...202032793160
first isolation of foot and mouth disease virus from wild boars in the middle east.domestic pigs are susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and suffer from severe clinical disease. our knowledge on the clinical manifestations of fmd in and its transmission by wild boars (sus scrofa) is very limited. during an fmd outbreak in the golan heights in 2018, wild boars grazing in close proximity to cattle were observed showing lameness. infectious fmdv was isolated from throat and heart tissues of two young wild boars with fmd clinical signs. this is the first r ...202032034998
foot and mouth disease virus serological study of dromedary camels in oman.the potential role of camels in the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in oman was investigated. sera from local dromedaries (n = 151) that graze with animals (cattle and small ruminants) positive for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein antibody (nsp-ab) were tested for the detection of fmdv nsp-ab. the samples were tested using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) , a rapid immunochromatographic assay and a solid-phase celisa for the det ...201932286571
seroprevalence and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in chad.this study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in domestic ruminants and at characterizing the virus strains circulating in four areas of chad (east batha, west batha, wadi fira and west ennedi). the study was carried out between october and november 2016. a total of 1,520 sera samples (928 cattle, 216 goats, 254 sheep and 122 dromedaries) were collected randomly for fmd serological analyses. nine epithelial tissue samples were also collected from cattle showi ...202031845545
genetic determinants of virulence between two foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates which caused outbreaks of differing severity.individual foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains reveal different degrees of infectivity and pathogenicity in host animals. the differences in severity among outbreaks might be ascribable to these differences in infectivity among fmdv strains. to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we estimated the infectivity of o/jpn/2000 and o/jpn/2010, which caused outbreaks of markedly different scales, in cell lines, holstein cattle, and suckling mice. viral growth of t ...201931413173
foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind 2001 lineage outbreak in vaccinated holstein friesian cattle in saudi arabia in 2016.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious viral infection of large ruminants. despite the massive application of vaccines against fmdv, several outbreaks are still being reported in africa and asia.201830706772
persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in dried casein 1.dried casein produced from pasteurized milk of dairy cows infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus retained infectivity for cattle in one of seven tests for 42 days of storage at 25 c. thus, infections fmd virus can persist after pasteurization of the milk at 72 c for 15 sec., acid precipitation and washing of casein, followed by drying of the casein in a hot air flow and conversion to sodium caseinate.197830795079
in this issue - september 2018: identification of commercial piggeries using aerial photographs and image analysis • destruction of foot-and-mouth disease virus in carcases in the field • size of the australian goat industry • p4 and fertility after ai in extensively managed bos indicus cattle • antimuellerian hormone levels not recommended in young bitches • a sarcoma on an echidna beak. 201830152066
seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in some wildlife and cattle in bauchi state, nigeria.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an important transboundary viral disease of both domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals characterized by high morbidity with devastating consequence on the livestock worldwide. despite the endemic nature of fmd in nigeria, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease at the wildlife-livestock interface level. to address this gap, blood samples were collected between 2013 and 2015 from some wildlife and cattle, respectively, within and around the yankari ...202032257095
the role of african buffalo in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in sympatric cattle and buffalo populations in kenya.quantitative knowledge on the contribution of african buffalo to the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in east africa is lacking, and this information is essential for the design of control programs in the region. the objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of fmdv in buffalo, including the role of buffalo in the circulation of fmdv in livestock populations. we collected blood and oropharyngeal fluids from 92 wild buffalo and 98 sympatric cattle in central k ...202032303117
characterization of sat2 foot-and-mouth disease 2013/2014 outbreak viruses at the wildlife-livestock interface in south africa.the southern african territories (sat)-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) are endemic to the greater kruger national park (knp) area in south africa, where they are maintained through persistent infections in african buffalo. the occurrence of fmdv within the greater knp area constitutes a continual threat to the livestock industry. to expand on knowledge of fmdv diversity, the genetic and antigenic relatedness of sat2-type viruses isolated from cattle during a fmd outbreak in mpumalanga ...202031984622
serological and phylogenetic characterization of foot and mouth disease viruses from uganda during cross-sectional surveillance study in cattle between 2014 and, we report the results of a cross-sectional study designed to monitor the circulation and genetic diversity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in uganda between 2014 and 2017. in this study, 13,614 sera and 2,068 oral-pharyngeal fluid samples were collected from cattle and analysed to determine fmdv seroprevalence, circulating serotypes and their phylogenetic relationships. circulation of fmdv was evidenced by the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins of fmdv or viral ...201931127983
persistent infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) with foot-and-mouth disease virus: limited viral evolution and no evidence of antibody neutralization escape.african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) are the principal "carrier" hosts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). currently, the epithelia and lymphoid germinal centers of the oropharynx have been identified as sites for fmdv persistence. we carried out studies in fmdv sat1 persistently infected buffaloes to characterize the diversity of viruses in oropharyngeal epithelia, germinal centers, probang samples (oropharyngeal scrapings), and tonsil swabs to determine if sufficient virus variation is gene ...201931092573
phylogeographical and cross-species transmission dynamics of sat1 and sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in eastern africa.understanding the dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), an endemic and economically constraining disease, is critical in designing control programmes in africa. this study investigates the evolutionary epidemiology of sat1 and sat2 fmdv in eastern africa, as well as between cattle and wild african buffalo. bayesian phylodynamic models were used to analyse sat1 and sat2 vp1 gene segments collected between 1975 and 2016, focusing on the sat1 and sat2 viruses currently circulating in eas ...201931074125
challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an african perspective.the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of fmd viruses (southern african territories [sat] 1, sat2, sat3, a, o, and c), with the exception of asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. due to underreporting of fmd, the current strains circulating throughout sub-saharan africa are in many cases unknown. for sat1, sat2, and serotype a viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that ...201432670853
adenovirus-vectored capsid proteins of the serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.type a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been detected on china's pig farms since 2015, and all suspected samples have been strain a/gdmm/cha/2013. to overcome the shortcomings of inactive fmdv vaccines, we expressed the capsid protein precursor p1-2a and mutated viral 3c protease of fmdv strain a/gdmm/cha/2013 in a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector in this study. a significant humoral immune response, t-cell-mediated antiviral response, and mucosa-mediated antiviral res ...202032733405
enhanced protective immune response of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine through dna-loaded virus-like particles.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. virus-like particles (vlps) can induce a robust immune response and deliver dna and small molecules. in this study, a vlp-harboring pcdna3.1/p12a3c plasmid was generated, and the protective immune response was characterized. guinea pigs were injected with vlps, naked dna vaccine, dna-loaded vlps, or phosphate-buffered saline twice subcutaneously at four-week intervals. ...202032165331
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of 3a truncated negative marker foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically significant disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by fmd virus (fmdv) of the picornaviridae family. vaccination of susceptible animals with inactivated virus vaccine is the standard practice for disease control. the prophylactic use of the inactivated vaccines has reduced the disease burden in many countries endemic to fmd. in the process of implementation of the mass vaccination program and disease eradication, it is essential ...202032002597
nlrp3 inflammasome activation by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection mainly induced by viral rna and non-structural protein 2b.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a positive-strand rna virus of the family picornaviridae. early studies show that some viruses of picornaviridae, such as emcv and ev71, induce nlrp3 inflammasome activation. our current study demonstrates that fmdv induces the secretion of caspase-1 and interleukin 1 beta (il-1β), as well as activates the nlrp3 inflammasome in a dose- and time-dependent manner. meanwhile, nlrp3 inflammasome can suppress fmdv replication during virus infection. both fmdv rn ...202031840571
soluble fmdv vp1 proteins fused with calreticulin expressed in escherichia coli under the assist of trigger factor16 (tf16) formed into high immunogenic polymers.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious pathogen propagating among cloven-hoofed animals. as a major immunogenic protein, vp1 plays a pivotal role in the induction of neutralizing antibodies, which therefore is an ideal target for developing subunit vaccines. in current study, four prokaryotic expression clones (rv4c, rc4v, rv5f and rf5v) were constructed by fusing truncated calreticulin (crt) (120-250 aa or 120-308 aa) at the n/c terminal of vp1 gene, and co-expressed with ch ...202031739054
construction, expression and evaluation of recombinant vp2 protein for serotype-independent detection of fmdv seropositive animals in egypt.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of cloven-hoofed animals. the detection of antibodies (ab) against fmdv structural proteins (sp) using virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is the standard procedure in use for monitoring seroconversion in animals post vaccination, the prevalence of infection-surveillance, proving clinical cases and seronegative status of fmdv-free/naïve-animals prior transportation. however, due ...201931300744
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins consisting of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with flagellin.many recent studies have shown that flagellin fused to heterologous antigens can induce significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses through its adjuvant activity. therefore, in this study, two key b cell epitopes and a truncated vp1 (δvp1) protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed as flagellin fusion proteins in different patterns. specifically, δvp1 and two duplicates of two key b cell epitopes (2×b1b2) were fused separately to the c-terminus of flagellin ...201930888465
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus empty-capsid-like particle with improved acid stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animal species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile and viral particles lose their immunogenicity when they disassemble at mildly acidic phs. the viral capsid of fmdv serotype o is more sensitive than those of other serotypes, making it more difficult to acquire enough empty-capsid-like particles in the acidic insect cell environment for research. in this study, novel fmdv mut ...201930808570
hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles as delivery vehicle of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles induce persistent immune responses in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and febrile infectious disease, which can cause great economic losses. virus-like particles (vlps) as an advantageous antigen can induce significant specific immune response. to improve immunity of vlps, especially, make it induce persistent immune response, the hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (hmsns) as a potential nano-adjuvant were synthesized and loaded the fmd virus (fmdv) vlps. they were injected into guinea pigs and the specific immune respo ...201930701562
virus-like particles of recombinant pcv2b carrying fmdv-vp1 epitopes induce both anti-pcv and anti-fmdv antibody responses.mixed infection of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is devastating to swine populations. to develop an effective vaccine that can protect the pigs from the infection of pcv2 and fmdv, we used the neutralizing b cell epitope region (aa 135-160) of fmdv to replace the regions aa 123-151 and aa 169-194 of the pcv2b cap protein to generate a recombinant protein designated as capfb. the capfb protein was expressed in escherichia coli system and the purified cap ...201830338355
mutation in the vp2 gene of p1-2a capsid protein increases the thermostability of virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important, global disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the conventional vaccine could bring down the incidence of disease in many parts of the world but has many limitations and in india, the disease is enzootic. more promisingly, the alternate vaccine candidates, virus-like particles (vlps) are as immunogenic as a native virus but are more labile to heat than the live virus capsids. to produce stable vlps, a single amino acid residue was mutated at 9 ...201830136205
serological response of guinea pigs to inactivated 146s antigens of foot and mouth disease virus after single or repeated inoculations. 198432987996
immunization of the guinea pig using a suspension of foot-and-mouth disease virus adsorbed by aluminum hydroxide and irradiated by ultraviolet (ultra-short) waves. 194918117787
rapidly assessing the risks of infectious diseases to wildlife species.predicting the likelihood of rare events is increasingly demanded by risk managers. a key challenge is dealing with different types of uncertainty, including epistemic uncertainties (lack of knowledge), stochasticity (inherent randomness) and natural variation. one potentially catastrophic event which is impacted by high levels of all three of these uncertainty types is the transmission of livestock pathogens to wildlife, particularly for endangered species. there is often a lack of basic inform ...201930800356
characterization of naturally occurring, new and persistent subclinical foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated asian buffalo in islamabad capital territory, pakistan.the convalescent subclinical carrier state of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has been thoroughly investigated; contrastingly, the subclinical form of new infections of vaccinated and naïve hosts is recognized, but poorly understood. to investigate the natural dynamics of subclinical fmdv infections, a prospective, 12-month, longitudinal study was conducted in vaccinated asian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) under natural conditions in pakistan, where fmdv is hyperendemic. oropharyngeal ...201830035376
diagnostic and epitope mapping potential of single-chain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a, sat1, and sat3.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wildlife animals and an outbreak can cause severe losses in milk production, reduction in meat production and death amongst young animals. several parts of asia, most of africa, and the middle east remain endemic, thus emphasis on improved fmd vaccines, diagnostic assays, and control measures are key research areas. fmd virus (fmdv) populations are quasispecies, which pose serious implications in vaccine design and efficacy where an ...202032851044
application of median lethal concentration (lc50) of pathogenic microorganisms and their antigens in vaccine development.lack of ideal mathematical models to qualify and quantify both pathogenicity, and virulence is a dreadful setback in development of new antimicrobials and vaccines against resistance pathogenic microorganisms. hence, the modified arithmetical formula of reed and muench has been integrated with other formulas and used to determine bacterial colony forming unit/viral concentration, virulence and immunogenicity.202032539814
antibody prevalence to african swine fever virus, mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-mouth disease virus, rift valley fever virus, influenza a virus, and brucella and leptospira spp. in free-ranging warthog (phacochoerus africanus) populations in south africa.the warthog (phacochoerus africanus) can be used as a model for investigating disease transmission at the human, wildlife, and livestock interface. an omnivore and scavenger, a warthog moves freely between natural ecotypes, farmland, and human communities and is susceptible to diseases of zoonotic, agricultural, and conservation concern. a retrospective study using 100 individual serum samples collected from may 1999 to august 2016 was performed to determine antibody prevalence to seven pathogen ...202133635986
comparative analysis of swine leukocyte antigen gene diversity in european farmed europe, swine represent economically important farm animals and furthermore have become a preferred preclinical large animal model for biomedical studies, transplantation and regenerative medicine research. the need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (sla) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments and their use in infection studies and for design of veterinary vaccines. in this study, we characterised the sla class i ...202134028065
short communication: preliminary observations on the serum levels of hsp70 and its correlation with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentration in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the study aimed to explore the serum levels of hsp70 and identify its possible association with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentrations in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. after the fmd outbreak in an organized dairy cattle farm in india, blood samples were obtained from clinically infected (n = 40) and apparently healthy (n = 30) animals. samples were processed and tested by an in-house diva assay for confirmation of fmd infecti ...202134292411
seroprevalence and molecular detection of foot and mouth disease virus in dairy cattle around addis ababa, central ethiopia.foot and mouth disease is a debilitating and highly contagious transboundary disease of cattle that can cause a huge economical loss globally. it is a notifiable disease in ethiopia, and it is thought to be causing a decrease in cattle productivity and production.202134285888
eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in france.eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in france foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild artiodactyls (mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camelids and deer). before the 1980s, europe, and in particular france, regularly experienced fmd epizootics with a very high number of outbreaks. a compulsory vaccination policy has been implemented at european level. thus, every year, the french population of domestic cattle (about 20 million animals) w ...202134160957
after nasopharyngeal infection, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a rna is shed in bovine milk without associated mastitis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious aphthoviral infection of cloven-hoofed animals, inducing vesiculopustular stomatitis, pododermatitis, and thelitis. vesicular fluid represents a major pathway of virus excretion, but bovine milk is another important source of virus shedding. we describe here the time course of fmd virus (fmdv) excretion in the milk and characterize associated lesions in the mammary gland. three dairy cows were infected by nasopharyngeal instillation of fmdv and ...202134137327
effect of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination on acute phase immune response and anovulation in hanwoo (bos taurus coreanae).vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease is the most common method for preventing the spread of the disease; the negative effects include miscarriage, early embryo death, lower milk production, and decreased growth of fattening cattle. therefore, in this study, we analyze the side effects of vaccination by determining the acute immune response and ovulation rate after vaccinating cows for foot-and-mouth disease. the test axis was synchronized with ovulation using 100 hanwoo (bos taurus coreana ...202133922252
characterization of foot and mouth disease virus serotype sat-2 in swamp water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) under the egyptian smallholder production system.spontaneous mutations are a common characteristic of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), leading to wide antigenic variations resulting in the emergence of new topotypes and lineages of fmdv, which contributes to occasional vaccination failures. the objectives of the present study were to genetically characterize fmdv isolated from water buffaloes and study the biochemical and histopathological indicators of infected animals. fifty-four water buffaloes of both sexes and different ages suffe ...202134200281
prevalence of foot and mouth disease virus in apparently healthy buffaloes brought to islamabad slaughterhouse in pakistan.this study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) slaughtered at islamabad slaughterhouse, pakistan. sera and oro-pharyngeal (op) fluid were collected from 630 healthy buffaloes. these animals originated from various livestock markets from 14 districts of punjab. the age of animals ranged from 1 to 15 years. sera were analyzed using fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp) and indirect elisa. the sero-prevalence of fmd w ...201833601788
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris), iran.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease, recognised to affect animals in the order artiodactyla. the disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, however high mortality is associated with neonatal and juvenile infection.202133526020
adjuvant effect of saponin in an oil-based monovalent (serotype o) foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine on the antibody response in guinea pigs and enhance the potency of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, saponin was included in the vaccine formula. in this study, the combined effect of montanide isa 50 and saponin was evaluated. two experiments were performed in guinea pigs and one in cattle to determine the optimal antigen and saponin doses. only serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/panasia-2 of me-sa topotype) was employed in preparation of the monovalent vaccine. all animals were immunized twice with a four-week interv ...202133871696
bi-functional gold nanocages enhance specific immunological responses of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles vaccine as a carrier and adjuvant.virus-like particle (vlp) vaccines have become one of the dominant vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). to further enhance the immunogenicity of vlp vaccines, gold nanocages (auncs) were selected as an adjuvant for the vaccine. our experiments demonstrated that auncs had little biotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and improved the uptake of vlp in bhk-21 and raw264.7 cell lines. the vlp-auncs activated dcs mainly through toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) and promoted the secretion of il-6, ...202133484882
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