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development of a gexp-multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of six cattle viruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), bovine viral diarrheal (bvdv), bovine rotavirus (brv), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (ibrv) are common cattle infectious viruses that cause a great economic loss every year in many parts of the world. a rapid and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six cattle viruses. six pairs ...201728166243
picornavirus rna is protected from cleavage by ribonuclease during virion uncoating and transfer across cellular and model membranes.picornaviruses are non-enveloped rna viruses that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. because they lack an envelope, picornaviruses face the challenge of delivering their rna genomes across the membrane of the endocytic vesicle into the cytoplasm to initiate infection. currently, the mechanism of genome release and translocation across membranes remains poorly understood. within the enterovirus genus, poliovirus, rhinovirus 2, and rhinovirus 16 have been proposed to release their geno ...201728166307
development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an economically important, office international des epizooties (oie) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. ppr virus (pprv), a negative-sense single-stranded rna virus, is the causal agent of ppr. therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of pprv are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of ppr.201728173845
exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in libya.sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have occurred in libya for almost fifty years. during the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of fmd virus circulation and identify fmd virus serotypes in the country. a total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (lr; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (sr; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). fmd sero-prevalence of nsp antibodies determined by elisa were 19.0% (2 ...201728180094
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna. 201728180318
a versatile 2a peptide-based bicistronic protein expressing platform for the industrial cellulase producing fungus, trichoderma reesei.the industrial workhorse fungus, trichoderma reesei, is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, whereas use of this fungus for over-expression of other proteins (homologous and heterologous) is still very limited. identifying transformants expressing target protein is a tedious task due to low transformation efficiency, combined with highly variable expression levels between transformants. routine methods for identification include pcr-based analysis, western blotting, ...201728184247
an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies to senecavirus a in swine.senecavirus a (sva), a member of the family picornaviridae, genus senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded rna virus closely related to members of the cardiovirus genus. sva was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with idiopathic vesicular disease (ivd). vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal ...201728202026
sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in ethiopia.foot and mouth disease (fmd), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. this vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae. currently fmd is major global animal health problem and endemic in africa including ethiopia. this paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports ...201728209551
potential of electrolyzed water for disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.acidic electrolyzed water (ew) (ph 2.6-5.8) and alkaline ew (ph 11.2-12.1) were examined as potential disinfectants against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using acidic ew with ph 2.6 and alkaline ew with ph >11.7, the viral titer decreased in vitro by > 4.0 log values, 2 min after the virus was mixed with ew at a 1:10 dilution. the strong virucidal effect of acidic ew (ph 2.6), but not that of alkaline ew (>11.7), seemed to depend on the chlorine level in the solution. genetic analysis rev ...201728216545
interaction between fmdv l(pro) and transcription factor adnp is required for optimal viral replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protease (l(pro)) inhibits host translation and transcription affecting the expression of several factors involved in innate immunity. in this study, we have identified the host transcription factor adnp (activity dependent neuroprotective protein) as an l(pro) interacting protein by mass spectrometry. we show that l(pro) can bind to adnp in vitro and in cell culture. rnai of adnp negatively affected virus replication and higher levels of interferon ...201728219017
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat1 in cattle, nigeria.the knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dynamics and epidemiology in nigeria and the west africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype south african territories (sat)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an fmd outbreak in cattle in nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of fmdv sat1 in west africa. the vp1 coding sequence of the nigerian 2015 sat1 isolates dive ...201728224715
artificially designed recombinant protein composed of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.concerns regarding the safety of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine have been raised since it is produced from cultured live fmd virus (fmdv). to overcome this issue, recombinant protein has been studied as an alternative vaccine.201728228147
investigation of the role of protein kinase d in human rhinovirus replication.picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodelling of golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (osbp) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase iii beta (pi4kb). since both osbp and pi4kb are substrates for protein kinase d (pkd) and pkd is known to be involved in the control of golgi vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesised that pkd played a role in ...201728228588
the b cell response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following sequential vaccination with multiple serotypes.foot-and mouth disease virus is a highly contagious viral disease. antibodies are pivotal in providing protection against fmdv infection. serological protection against one fmdv serotype doesn't confer inter-serotypic protection. however, some historical data have shown inter-serotypic protection can be induced following sequential fmdv challenge with multiple fmdv serotypes. in this study we have investigated the kinetics of the fmdv-specific antibody secreting cell response following homologou ...201728228594
screening for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock-wildlife interface areas of tanzania. 201428235267
full genome sequencing to study the evolutionary characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa. 201428235268
the changing landscape of the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa north of limpopo and east africa. 201428235269
spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the eastern zone of tanzania. 201428235270
molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the african buffalo in southern africa. 201428235272
a novel bicistronic expression system composed of the intraflagellar transport protein gene ift25 and fmdv 2a sequence directs robust nuclear gene expression in chlamydomonas reinhardtii.chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers a great promise for large-scale production of multiple recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. however, the nuclear-encoding transgenes usually are expressed at a low level, which severely hampers the use of this alga in molecular farming. in this study, the promoter of the endogenous intraflagellar transport 25 (ift25) gene of c. reinhardtii was tested for its ability to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (gfp), which funct ...201728238082
quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in india.the goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern india. despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of fmd occurred in october 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (farm a) and adult dairy cattle (farm b). subsequent to the ...201728251837
identification of a conserved conformational epitope in the vp2 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. vp2 is a structural protein of fmdv. in this study, a potent fmdv serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (mab) 3d9 was generated. screening of a phage-displayed random 12-peptide library revealed that mab 3d9 bound to phages displaying a consensus motif gvyxxayxw that is highly homologous to the (89)gvyxxxxxxxayxx ...201728258408
purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.the goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cell culture. heparin resins hiptrap heparin hp and af-heparin hc-650 were utilized to purify fmdv o/hn/cha/93. results showed that the purity of af-heparin hc-650 was ideal. then, the o/hn/cha/93, o/tibet/cha/99, asia i/hn/06, and a/cha/hb/2009 strains were purified by af-heparin hc-650. their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 5 ...201728260627
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o, isolated from gochang, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gochang, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280023
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o isolated from gimje, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gimje, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280025
sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structurally modified for increased thermostability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is notoriously unstable, particularly the o and sat serotypes. consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile sat viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. in-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. we assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant virus ...201728298597
combined administration of synthetic rna and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. we have previously reported the use of rna transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the fmdv rna as potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an fmd vaccine in mice. here, we describe the enhancing effect of rna delivery on the immunoge ...201728315707
favipiravir can evoke lethal mutagenesis and extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. an understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (t-705) and its derivatives t-1105 and t-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture and in vivo. however, no mechanism for their activity ...201728322918
preclinical diagnosis: predicting its ability to improve control of farm-to-farm foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. we used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples ...201728330886
the impact of importation of live ruminants on the epizootiology of foot and mouth disease in saudi arabia.approximately five million live ruminants are imported annually into saudi arabia. the majority of these animals are imported shortly before the pilgrimage season from sudan and the horn of africa, where foot and mouth disease (fmd) is known to be enzootic. this study was designed to investigate the impact of the importation of these live ruminants on the epizootiology of fmd in saudi arabia. the authors carried out antibody testing on a total of 480 sheep and 233 cattle from the sacrificial liv ...201628332652
vp1 sequencing protocol for foot and mouth disease virus molecular epidemiology.nucleotide sequences of field strains of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) contribute to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of viral lineages that circulate in different regions of the world. this paper outlines a practical reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing strategy that can be used to generate rna sequences encoding the vp1 (1d) region of fmdv. the protocol contains a panel of pcr and sequencing primers that can be selected to characterise ...201628332654
thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.the risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. this study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. if extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for fmdv-endemic countries. t ...201628332656
quantitative assessment of the risk of release of foot-and-mouth disease virus via export of bull semen from israel.various foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strains circulate in the middle east, causing frequent episodes of fmd outbreaks among israeli livestock. since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. as a non-fmd-free country with vaccination, israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. the purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of fmd viru ...201728334452
stabilization study of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine by size-exclusion hplc and differential scanning calorimetry.the inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a sedimentation coefficient of 146s, is crucial to the efficacy of vaccine preparations, but extremely unstable in vitro. it is prone to dissociate into smaller particles referred to as 12s with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity; therefore, it is of great importance to find the best condition for stabilizing the fmdv. in the present work, the effects of solution ph and temperature on the dissociation of 146s was investigated a ...201728342666
antigenic and immunogenic spectrum of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain o1 campos against representative viruses of topotypes that circulated in asia over the past decade.identifying vaccine strains to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus that could spread to new regions is essential for contingency plans. this is the first report on the antigenic/immunogenic relationships of the south american o1/campos vaccine strain with representative isolates of the three currently active asian type o topotypes. virus neutralization tests using o1/campos post-vaccination sera derived from cattle and pigs predicted for both species acceptable cross-protection, ev ...201728343779
outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in riyadh.to detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. the signs vary from mild to severe. the mortality rate of the disease is high. the morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. sheep flock resident in el-kharje governorate.201728344409
outbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in south-west niger.in niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. this study aimed (i) to identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of niger. testing of cli ...201728345819
processing and targeting of proteins derived from polyprotein with 2a and lp4/2a as peptide linkers in a maize expression system.in the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the co-translational "cleavage" of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. lp4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and secon ...201728358924
adjuvanticity of a ctla-4 3' utr complementary oligonucleotide for emulsion formulated recombinant subunit and inactivated vaccines.cytotoxic t-lymphocyte antigen 4 (ctla-4) is recognized as a critical inhibitory regulator of t-cell proliferation and activation, opposing the action of cd28-mediated co-stimulation. interfering or blocking ctla-4 can result in continuous t-cell activation required for the full immune response to pathogenic microbes and vaccines. to test if nucleic acid-based ctla-4 inhibitors could be developed into a novel adjuvant, we designed two oligonucleotides, cmd-1 and cmd-2, with the sequences complem ...201728359618
insights into jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6): a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cells.the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. it was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular ...201728364140
chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control fmd is both urgent and necessary. in this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (vlp) vaccine candidate for serotype o fmdv and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. chimeric vlps w ...201728365796
safe and cost-effective protocol for shipment of samples from foot-and-mouth disease suspected cases for laboratory diagnostic.an essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. however, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. in this study, we report the ...201728387065
proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating micrornas in bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent fmdv infection.changes in the levels of circulating micrornas (mirnas) in the serum of humans and animals have been detected as a result of infection with a variety of viruses. however, to date, such a mirna profiling study has not been conducted for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection.201728388926
lithium chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. fmd vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. however, the use of fmd vaccines to protect early infection is limited. therefore, the alternative strategy of applying antiviral agents is required to control the spread of fmdv in outbreak situations. as previously reported, licl ha ...201728390158
single-round infectious particle antiviral screening assays for the japanese encephalitis virus.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome that contains a big open reading frame (orf) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (utrs). nearly 30,000 je cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in east asia. although the jev genotype iii vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other genotypes. moreover, no effective treatment for a je case is developed. this study constructed a pbr322- ...201728394283
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage collected in north africa.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa (2013) and the gulf states (2013) of the middle east have been caused by a fmd viral lineage (o/me-sa/ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the indian sub-continent. this study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a fmd virus emergency vaccine type o1 manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (o/alg/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. this widely available vaccine was selected since in vitr ...201728396208
phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/panasia in vietnam 2010-2014.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within southeast asia. the large populations of fmdv-susceptible species in vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. in this study, we investigated the phylogeny of fmdv o/panasia in vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographi ...201728403902
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits lgp2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.the role of the innate immune protein lgp2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in fmdv-infected cells remains unknown. here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of lgp2 during fmdv infection. fmdv infection triggered lgp2 mrna expression but reduced protein expression. overexpression of lgp2 suppressed fmdv replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by lgp2 in virus-infected cells. the n-terminal dexdc and the c-terminal regulatory domain regions of lgp2 were esse ...201728406479
detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (ofs). detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome in swine ofs has previously been demonstrated. virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing fmdv, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine of. the objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of fmdv in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and fmdv ...201728408775
recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) as a candidate probe to identify fmdv-infected cattle in serosurveys.recombinant protein 3a-egfp, a fusion construct between foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was expressed in bl21-de3 cells. the identity of the partially purified protein 3a-egfp was confirmed by its reactivity with sera from cattle infected with fmdv and with a monoclonal antibody specific for fmdv-3abc (mab3h7) in western blot assays. no reactivity was observed with sera from uninfected vaccinated animals. the perform ...201728421368
development of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus virus type ii (pcv2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (pdns), and necrotizing pneumonia. rapid diagnosis tool for detection of pcv2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (pcv2 real-time rpa assay) and rpa combined with lateral flow dipstick (pcv2 rpa lfd assay) were developed ta ...201728424790
evaluation of immune responses of stabilised sat2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. this is especially so for serotypes o and sat2 which are unstable in mildly acidic ph conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146s particle) and loss of immunogenicity. previously, stabilised sat2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a ...201728431813
simple, quick and cost-efficient: a universal rt-pcr and sequencing strategy for genomic characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major contributor to poverty and food insecurity in africa and asia, and it is one of the biggest threats to agriculture in highly developed countries. as fmd is extremely contagious, strategies for its prevention, early detection, and the immediate characterisation of outbreak strains are of great importance. the generation of whole-genome sequences enables phylogenetic characterisation, the epidemiological tracing of virus transmission pathways and is supporti ...201728442328
separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eif4g cleavage.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its rna genome encodes a large polyprotein. the n-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed lpro. the virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. this results from the lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eif4g. lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the l/p1 junction. using site-dir ...201728452293
laboratory validation of two real-time rt-pcr methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3d and 5utr real-time rt-pcr assays (rt-qpcr) from callahan et al. (2002) and reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for an optimal detection of fmdv in clinical samples, it is advised to use both assays simultaneously (king et al., 2006). recently, vandenbussche et al. (2016) showed that the addition of 5'-tails to the fmdv-specific primers enhances the detection of fmdv in both the 3d and the 5utr rt-qpcr assay. to v ...201728457784
molecular and functional bases of selection against a mutation bias in an rna virus.the selective pressures acting on viruses that replicate under enhanced mutation rates are largely unknown. here, we describe resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus to the mutagen 5-fluorouracil (fu) through a single polymerase substitution that prevents an excess of a to g and u to c transitions evoked by fu on the wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus, while maintaining the same level of mutant spectrum complexity. the polymerase substitution inflicts upon the virus a fitness loss during ...201728460010
pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.understanding the mechanisms of attenuation and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the natural host species is critical for development of next-generation countermeasures such as live-attenuated vaccines. functional genomics analyses of fmdv have identified few virulence factors of which the leader proteinase (lpro) is the most thoroughly investigated. previous work from our laboratory has characterized host factors in cattle inoculated with virulent fmdv and attenuated mutant s ...201728464897
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o lineage ind-2001d collected in vietnam in 2015.in 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus lineage ind-2001 was detected for the first time in southeast asia. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequence of a viral isolate from this lineage collected from an outbreak in vietnam. this novel incursion has substantial implications for regional fmd control measures.201728473375
a naturally occurring recombinant enterovirus expresses a torovirus deubiquitinase.enteroviruses (evs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. in this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species g [evg]) (evg 08/nc_usa/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. the viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic evg strain (pev9 ukg/410/73). remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3c(pro) cleavage sites at the 5' and 3 ...201728490584
spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in north central nigeria.this study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of fmdv serotypes, and the spatial distribution of fmdv among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the north-central nigeria.201728507418
attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) (3d(pol)) catalyzes viral rna synthesis. its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow fmdv to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. in this study, we used the structure of fmdv 3d(pol) in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. in particular, we targeted trp237 within conserved ...201728515297
production of japanese encephalitis virus antigens in plants using bamboo mosaic virus-based vector.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is among the major threats to public health in asia. for disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against jev is in urgent need. in this study, we produced a plant-made jev vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (cvp) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) for epitope presentation. the chimeric virus, designated bj2a, was constructed by fusing jev envelope protein domain iii (ediii) at the n-terminu ...201728515719
a replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a luciferase reporter.bioluminescence is a powerful tool in the study of viral infection both in vivo and in vitro. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a small rna genome with a limited tolerance to foreign rna entities. there has been no success in making a reporter fmdv expressing a luciferase in infected cell culture supernatants. we report here for the first time a replication-competent fmdv encoding nanoluciferase, named as nano-fmdv. nano-fmdv is genetically stable during serial passages in cells and exhibi ...201728532601
rules of engagement between αvβ6 integrin and foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvβ6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif in the exposed, antigenic, gh loop of capsid protein vp1. infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with heparin sulphate (hs); this virus is attenuated in natural infections. hs interaction has been visualized at a conserved site in two serotypes ...201728534487
rapid engineering of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine and challenge viruses.there are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), each of which has intratypic variants. in the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. the capsid-encoding gene (p1) of the vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the o, a, asia1, c, sat1, sat2, and sat3 serotypes. viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. each ch ...201728566375
a synonymous mutation at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integrin host receptor (itgav) gene effect the susceptibility of foot-and-mouth disease in crossbred cattle.integrins are one of the major biologically active proteins responsible for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)- host interaction. out of various heterodimeric integrins discovered, αvβ6 heterodimer serves as the chief receptor for fmdv host tropism. earlier studies reported that, snps at beta 6 subunit (itgb6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle. in this study we report the association between a synonymous snp (rs719257875) at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integri ...201728567614
a bivalent dendrimeric peptide bearing a t-cell epitope from foot-and-mouth disease virus protein 3a improves humoral response against classical swine fever virus.three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (csfv) in domestic pigs. construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a b-cell epitope derived from csfv e2 glycoprotein connected to an also csfv-derived t-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the b-cell epitope, and ...201728571760
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o strain yntba from yunnan province of china.yntba is a rabbit-passaged attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o. here, we announce the complete genome sequence of yntba, which provides data for further studies on replication, virulence, its determinants, and cell and host tropism of yntba.201728572308
development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on hsp70 for the rapid detection of echinococcus granulosus in sheep.echinococcus granulosus is the causative pathogen of cystic echinococcosis, a serious disease endangering human and animal health. in this study, an immunochromatographic strip was developed based on the recombinant protein heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) for the serological detection of e. granulosus. the protocol completes within 20min requiring no specialized equipment or chemical reagents, while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with positive serum of fasciola hepatica, haemonchu ...201728576342
bifunctional enzyme jmjd6 contributes to multiple disease pathogenesis: new twist on the old story.jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is a non-heme fe(ii) 2-oxoglutarate (2og)-dependent oxygenase with arginine demethylase and lysyl hydroxylase activities. its initial discovery as a dispensable phosphatidylserine receptor (psr) in the cell membrane of macrophages for phagocytosis was squashed by newer studies which revealed its nuclear localization and bifunctional enzymatic activity. though its interaction with several nuclear and cytoplasmic target proteins has been demonstrated, th ...201728587176
chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against the 2c and 3abc nonstructural proteins induced by infecting pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (clias) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics has not been reported. full-length 3abc and 2c proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated pigs. the recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two clias ...201728592628
first detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/ind-2001d in vietnam.in recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, topotype middle east-south asia (me-sa), lineage ind-2001d has spread from the indian subcontinent to the middle east, north africa, and southeast asia. in the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in vietnam in may, 2015 in đắk nông province. three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between may-october, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for ...201728599321
synonymous codon usage analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses: a comparative study on coxsackievirus a6, a10, a16, and enterovirus 71 from 2008 to 2015.enterovirus 71 (ev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) throughout the world for decades. in recent years, coxsackievirus a6 (cva6) and coxsackievirus a10 (cva10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of hfmd. the present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on p1 (encoding capsid proteins) and p2-p3 regions (both encoding non-struct ...201728602802
evaluation of gaussia luciferase and foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter chimeras as polycistronic reporters for transgene expression.the gaussia princeps luciferase is used as a stand-alone reporter of transgene expression for in vitro and in vivo expression systems due to the rapid and easy monitoring of luciferase activity. we sought to simultaneously quantitate production of other recombinant proteins by transcriptionally linking the gaussia princeps luciferase gene to other genes of interest through the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter sequence.201728606077
recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (ad5- fmd) were made for three indian vaccine virus serotypes o, a and asia 1. constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and viral 3c protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (bos indicus). purified ad5-fmd viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal per serotype) vaccin ...201728619144
preserved immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles with improved stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. vaccines based on inactivated fmdv virions provide a useful tool for the control of this pathogen. however, long term storage at 4°c (the temperature for vaccine storage) or ruptures of the cold chain, provoke the dissociation of virions, reducing the immunogenicity of the vaccine. an fmdv mutant carrying amino acid replacements vp1 n17d and vp2 h145y isolated pre ...201728619156
inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic capability in germany.germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for fmdv exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. a proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. a panel of two identical samples of fmdv genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), four lyophilize ...201728619169
immunogenicity of t7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. the g-h loop of the fmdv vp1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. however, a fully protective g-h loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous th sites from a source outside vp1. thus, we demonstrated the potential of t7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused g-h loop peptide (t7-gh) as a fmdv vaccine can ...201728622860
t135i substitution in the nonstructural protein 2c enhances foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. it has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the c-terminal half of 3a attenuate serotype o and c fmdvs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the c-terminal half of 3a is not essential for serotype asia1 fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells. in this study, we constructed a 3a deletion fmdv mutant based ...201728634750
comparison of different inactivation methods on the stability of indian vaccine strains of foot and mouth disease virus.in this study, the efficiency of binary ethyleneimine (bei) in combination with formaldehyde (fa) and glutaraldehyde (gta) in inactivating the indian fmdv vaccine strains is compared. the acceptable safety of virus inactivation was faster and the inactivation rates were increased many-folds with combination of inactivants than bei alone. fmdv a was inactivated rapidly than the other two serotypes with bei + fa combination. inactivation plots were linear for all the serotypes irrespective of inac ...201728645721
differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality.adult c57bl/6j mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) biology. in this work, two variants of an fmdv a/arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (a01nl) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (a01l) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. virus a01l reached higher viral ...201728647507
molecular mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus targeting the host antiviral response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. the aim of the host interferon (ifn) response is to limit viral replication and spread. detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type i- and type iii-ifns and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative ...201728660175
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces lysosomal degradation of host protein kinase pkr by 3c proteinase to facilitate virus replication.the interferon-induced double-strand rna activated protein kinase (pkr) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection. here we demonstrate the significant antiviral role of pkr against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and report that fmdv infection inhibits pkr expression and activation in porcine kidney (pk-15) cells. the viral nonstructural protein 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) is identified to be responsible for this inhibition. however, it is independent of the well-known protei ...201728662438
inhibition of viral replication by small interfering rna targeting of the foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor integrin β6.in animals, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes symptoms such as fever, limping and the development of blister spots on the skin and mucous membranes. rna interference (rnai) may be a novel way of controlling the fmd virus (fmdv), specifically by targeting its cognate receptor protein integrin β6. the present study used rnai technology to construct and screen plasmids that expressed small interfering rna molecules (sirnas) specific for the integrin β6 subunit. expression of green fluorescence pr ...201728672992
enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids.analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. while measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. determining the immunoglobulin (ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will fa ...201728689695
adoption of the 2a ribosomal skip principle to tobacco mosaic virus for peptide display.plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. the monomeric non-oxygen-dependent fl ...201728702043
negative regulation of hepatic inflammation by the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.host immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibited tnf-α- and sev-induced type i interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). conversely, tnf-α- or sev-induced type i interferon respon ...201728706517
isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected mithun (bos frontalis) in north-eastern india.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the fmd virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. the mithun (bos frontalis), popularly called the "cattle of mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east india: arunachal pradesh, nagaland, manipur and mizoram. despite the geographical inaccessibility, ...201728707820
identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the vp1 protein of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and protect against future pandemics. in this study, we generated a serotype a fmdv-specific pot ...201728711695
emergence and whole-genome sequence of senecavirus a in colombia.in 2015 and 2016, senecavirus a (sva) emerged as an infectious disease in brazil, china and the united states (us). in a colombian commercial swine farm, vesicles on the snout and coronary bands were reported and tested negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but positive for sva. the whole-genome phylogenetic analysis indicates the colombian strain clusters with the strains from the united states, not with the recent sva strains from brazil.201728714178
development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.goatpox virus (gtpv) and sheeppox virus (sppv), which belong to the capripoxvirus (capv), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of gtpv and sppv is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases.201728716095
antigenic variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o during serial cytolytic passage.the emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. in the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype o fmdv during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype o vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship v ...201728718047
adjuvantation of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine with il-15 expressing plasmid improves the immune response in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. as the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. inclusion of adjuvant which enhances b and t cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine whi ...201728734743
uncleaved 2a-peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus can display foreign epitope-tag at the virion surface.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein p1-2a is cleaved by viral-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a proteins. it was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2a peptide sequence (l2p) blocked the 3c(pro) mediated vp1/2a cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' fmdv particles containing uncleaved 2a-peptide. to determine whether the uncleaved 2a-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogen ...201728734763
evaluating the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour against foot-and-mouth disease virus within a bsl4 biosafety facility.an evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a biosafety facility. biological indicators (bis) were produced using three serotypes of fmdv, all with a titre of ≥10(6) tcid50 per ml. fifteen bis of each serotype were distributed across five locations, throughout a 30-m(3) airlock chamber, producing a total of 45 bis. thirty-five percent hpv was generated and applied using a bioquell vaporization module located in the c ...201728736948
g3bp1 interacts directly with the fmdv ires and negatively regulates translation.rna-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the function of picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we analysed the impact of ras gtpase sh3 domain binding protein 1 (g3bp1) in the ires activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we found that g3bp1 interacts directly with three distinct sequences of the ires element using rna electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. analysis of the interaction with domain 5 indicated that the g3bp1 binding-site is placed at the si ...201728755480
direct detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa using a field-ready real-time pcr platform.effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by the world organisation for animal health (oie). however, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during fmd outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in fmd-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple di ...201728758346
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of o/sea/mya-98 lineage in sheep.potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. however, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. to determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6pd50) fmd virus (fmdv) o1manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a het ...201728780422
protective effects of high-potency fmdv o1 manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with fmdv o/skr/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus belonging to the sea topotype continues to be a significant problem in the eastern asia region, with outbreaks in japan and south korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. high-potency o1 manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, o/skr/2010. this study tested the ability of the o1 manisa vaccine to protect ...201728789849
galectin-8 activates dendritic cells and stimulates antigen-specific immune response elicitation.galectin-8 (gal-8) is a mammalian β-galactoside-binding lectin, endowed with proinflammatory properties. given its capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, we investigated whether gal-8 was also able to promote apc activation to sustain t cell activation after priming. both endogenous [dendritic cells (dcs)] and bone marrow-derived dcs (bmdcs) treated with exogenous gal-8 exhibited a mature phenotype characterized by increased mhc class ii (mhcii), cd80, and cd86 surface ex ...201728811319
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