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crystal structure of the 3c protease from southern african territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)). as in other picornaviruses, 3c(pro) performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the rna genome of the virus. previous work revealed that the 3c(pro) from serotype a-one of the seven serotypes of fmdv-adopts a trypsin-like fold. on the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the fmdv serotypes are grouped into two phylogenet ...201627168976
genome sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolate gre/23/94.the complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease type o virus originating from an epidemic in greece in 1994 is reported. this virus belongs to the middle east-south asia topotype.201627174269
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp): a new approach for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its sero-types in pakistan.successful disease management requires a rapid and sensitive diagnosis method that can recognize early infection even before the manifestation of its clinical signs. the only available field diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are lateral flow devices, commonly known as chromatographic strips. low sensitivity and inability to detect fmd virus (fmdv) at the serotype level are limitations of lateral flow devices. therefore, a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplificati ...201527175198
both cis and trans activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3d polymerase are essential for viral rna replication.the picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense rna viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-rna interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral rna replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate ...201627194768
novel 6xhis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity.here, we engineered two fmd viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the fmdv capsid. both 6xhis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. the 6xhis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by co(2+) affinity columns. electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xhis fmdvs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with ni(2+)-chelated nanolipo ...201627209448
neonatal mortality, vesicular lesions and lameness associated with senecavirus a in a u.s. sow farm.a 300-sow farrow-to-finish swine operation in the united states experienced a sudden and severe increase in mortality in neonatal piglets with high morbidity followed by vesicular lesions on the snout and feet of adult females and males. affected live piglets were submitted for diagnostic investigation. samples tested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine delta coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, porcine rotavirus types a, b and c, transmis ...201627213868
genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which fmdv can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. as sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribut ...201627217177
serological and molecular detection of senecavirus a associated with an outbreak of swine idiopathic vesicular disease and neonatal mortality.we performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (vd) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. initially, a usda foreign animal disease (fad) investigation confirmed the presence of senecavirus a (sva) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) ...201627225408
complexities in isolation and purification of multiple viruses from mixed viral infections: viral interference, persistence and exclusion.successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. in this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mixed infection in goats. rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (cpe) of the virus was observed in cocultured vero/bhk-21 cells at 6th blind passage (bp). pprv, but not fmdv could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. viral rna (mixture) transfection in bhk-21 cells produc ...201627227480
partial deletion of stem-loop 2 in the 3' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus identifies a region that is dispensable for virus replication.the 3' untranslated region (3' utr) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome plays an essential role in virus replication, but the properties of the 3' utr are not completely defined. in order to determine the role of different regions of the 3' utr in fmdv replication, we conducted site-directed mutagenesis of the 3' utr of fmdv serotype o ind r2/1975 using a cdna clone. through independent serial deletions in various regions of the 3' utr, we demonstrated that deletion of nucleotides ...201627233801
construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/jpn/2010 isolated in japan in 2010.a full-length infectious cdna clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan was constructed and designated psvl-f02. transfection of cos-7 or ibrs-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. the recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. pigs were experimentally infected with ...201627234555
the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs.the greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. however, accumulated evidence from fmd outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of fmd pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vacc ...201627243028
the critical role of vp1 in forming the necessary cavities for receptor-mediated entry of fmdv to the host cell.the antigenic inconsistency of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very broad, such that a vaccine made from one isolate will not offer protection against infection with other isolates from the same serotype. viral particles (vps) or surface exposed capsid proteins, vp1-vp3, of fmdv determine both the antigenicity of the virus and its receptor-mediated entry into the host cell. therefore, modifications of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. here we show putati ...201627249937
aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus asia-1 under experimental conditions.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. transmission of fmdv by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. understanding the potential for aerosol s ...201627259825
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201627260141
alkaline hydrolysis to remove potentially infectious viral rna contaminants from dna.diagnostics and research of high-consequence animal disease agents is often limited to laboratories with a high level of biosecurity that restrict the transport of biological material. often, sharing of dna with external partners is needed to support diagnostics, forensics, or research. even in the absence of virus, rna from positive-sense single stranded rna (+ssrna) viruses that may contaminate otherwise purified dna preparations continues to pose a threat due to its potential to be infectious ...201627260412
computational predictions suggest that structural similarity in viral polymerases may lead to comparable allosteric binding sites.the identification of ligand-binding sites is often the first step in drug targeting and design. to date there are numerous computational tools available to predict ligand binding sites. these tools can guide or mitigate the need for experimental methods to identify binding sites, which often require significant resources and time. here, we evaluate four ligand-binding site predictor (lbsp) tools for their ability to predict allosteric sites within the hepatitis c virus (hcv) polymerase. our res ...201627262620
retraction notice to “sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o of ethiopian isolates” [res. vet. sci. volume 96, issue 3, june 2014, pages 558–566]. 201627263135
effect of the nucleotides surrounding the start codon on the translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.as for the alternative augs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), nucleotide bias of the context flanking the aug(2nd) could be used as a strong signal to initiate translation. to determine the role of the specific nucleotide context, dicistronic reporter constructs were engineered to contain different versions of nucleotide context linking between internal ribosome entry site (ires) and downstream gene. the results indicate that under fmdv ires-dependent mechanism, the nucleotide contexts fla ...201627265464
esterase d enhances type i interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the enzymatic activities of esterase d (esd) are involved in many human diseases. however, no antiviral property of esd has been described to date. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. in this study, we showed that fmdv infection triggered esd expression. overexpression of esd significantly suppressed fmdv replication and knockdown of esd expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of esd. furthermore, we found tha ...201627267271
a prime-boost vaccination strategy in cattle to prevent foot-and-mouth disease using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. they are made using chemically inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. here, we have expressed the fmdv capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) of strain o1 manisa alone or with the fmdv 3c protease (3cpro) u ...201627294397
establishment and validation of two duplex one-step real-time rt-pcr assays for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.two duplex one-step taqman-based rt-pcr protocols for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were established and validated. each rt-pcr test consists of a ready-to-use master mix for simultaneous detection of the well established 3d or ires fmdv targets and incorporates the host β-actin mrna as an internal control target, in a single-tube assay. the two real-time rt-pcr 3d/β-actin and ires/β-actin tests are highly sensitive and able to detect up to 7tcid50/ml of fmdv and 10 copies/1μl ...201627317973
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines.this study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd vaccine research. vaccines play a vital role in fmd control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in fmd-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management ...201627320164
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 4 - diagnostics.this study assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research in the field of diagnostics. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from around the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. molecular and genetic technologies, including sequencing, are developing at an increasing rate both in terms of capability and affordability. these advances potentiate progress ...201627320165
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 5 - biotherapeutics and disinfectants.we assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research. findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. while vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against fmd virus (fmdv) for t ...201627320166
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology.this study assessed gaps and priorities for fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) research in the field of immunology. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. improved understanding of fmdv immunology facilitates the development of vaccines, adjuvants and diagnostic tests, and will allow better assessment and prediction o ...201627320167
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology.we assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. there have been important advances in fmdv pathogenesis; fmdv remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previ ...201627320168
evaluation of fta(®) card for the rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus by chemical transfection of extracted rna in cultured cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. inadequate storage and shipment of suspected clinical samples can compromise the ability to detect and characterise fmd virus (fmdv) in endemic countries, thereby, leading to the loss of valuable virological and epidemiological data. this study, investigates the potential of using fta(®) cards for dry transportation of clinical samples and subsequent recovery of infectious fmdv by chemical transfect ...201627321701
construction of a stable w/o nano-emulsion as a potential adjuvant for foot and mouth disease virus vaccine.a stable and bio-compatible w/o nano-emulsion was developed as adjuvant for foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine with isopropyl myristate as oil phase, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, and tween 80 as surfactants. dissolving tween 80 in aqueous phase decreased the droplet size and improved stability of the emulsion through narrowing size distribution, increasing viscosity, and reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water. the nano-emulsion was then formulated with inactivated fmd virus an ...201627322345
foot-and-mouth disease virus genome replication is unaffected by inhibition of type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes economically damaging infections of cloven-hooved animals, with outbreaks resulting in large financial losses to the agricultural industry. due to the highly contagious nature of fmdv, research with infectious virus is restricted to a limited number of key facilities worldwide. fmdv sub-genomic replicons are therefore important tools for the study of viral translation and genome replication. the type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (pi4ks) are a fami ...201627323707
recombinant aav vectors for enhanced expression of authentic igg.adeno-associated virus (aav) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against aids viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. here we examined a number of variations to aav vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin g (igg) molecules. expression of rhesus igg from a sing ...201627332822
biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. non-structural proteins (nsps) and non-coding elements (nces) of fmdv play a critical role in these biological processes. the fmdv virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. the virus genome is a positive single stranded rna and encodes a single long open reading frame (orf) flanked by a ...201627334704
application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. in particular, handling fmd virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. the lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. the fmd mouse model has been studied, but most fmd vir ...201627340094
large-scale production of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype asia1) vlp vaccine in escherichia coli and protection potency evaluation in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling fmd. compared to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines, the format of fmdv virus-like particles (vlps) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative.201627371162
induction of systemic ifitm3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. interferon-induced transmembrane (ifitm) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. our previous study showed that overexpression of swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) impeded replication of the fmd virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells and mice. in this study, sifitm3-transgenic (tg) pigs were produced by handmade cloni ...201627374903
redefining the "carrier" state for foot-and-mouth disease from the dynamics of virus persistence in endemically affected cattle populations.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) "carrier" state was defined by van bekkum in 1959. it was based on the recovery of infectious virus 28 days or more post infection and has been a useful construct for experimental studies. using historic data from 1,107 cattle, collected as part of a population based study of endemic fmd in 2000, we developed a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable fmdv by probang and culture, conditional on the animal's ag ...201627381947
a disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is used to amplify a specific segment of dna through a thermal cycling protocol. the pcr industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. some of the fastest pcr devices use continuous f ...201627393216
evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.the aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: azadirachta indica, moringa oleifera and morus alba against foot and mouth disease virus using mtt assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as means ± s.d. the concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are co ...201627393440
investigating intra-host and intra-herd sequence diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.due to the poor-fidelity of the enzymes involved in rna genome replication, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus samples comprise of unique polymorphic populations. in this study, deep sequencing was utilised to characterise the diversity of fmd virus (fmdv) populations in 6 infected cattle present on a single farm during the series of outbreaks in the uk in 2007. a novel rt-pcr method was developed to amplify a 7.6kb nucleotide fragment encompassing the polyprotein coding region of the fmdv genom ...201627421209
identification of a conserved linear neutralizing epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 9a9 against serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, a series of outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope have the potential to provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and to protect against future pandemics. in this study, we produced ...201627422396
proper timing of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination of piglets with maternally derived antibodies will maximize expected protection levels.we investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to fmd virus (fmdv) were measured using virus neutralization tests (vnt). we used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the n ...201627446940
tracking the antigenic evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. however, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the p ...201627448206
constitutively active irf7/irf3 fusion protein completely protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. several serotype-specific vaccine formulations exist, but they require about 5 to 7 days to induce protective immunity. our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine interferon (ifn) regulatory factors (irf) 7 and 3 [irf7/3(5d)] strongly induced type i ifn and antiviral genes in vitro and prevented mortality in an fmd mouse model when delivered with a rep ...201627466421
a recombinant adenovirus expressing p12a and 3c protein of the type o foot-and-mouth disease virus stimulates systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of cloven-hoofed animals which causes severe economic losses. the replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine has been proven effective against fmd. however, the role of t-cell-mediated antiviral responses and the mucosae-mediated antiviral responses induced by the adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine was rarely examined. here, the capsid protein precursor p1-2a and viral protease 3c of the type o fmdv were express ...201627478836
genetic characterization of serotypes a and asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in balochistan, pakistan, in 2011.this study reports characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in samples collected from balochistan, pakistan. fmdv was detected by pan-fmdv real-time rt-pcr in 31 samples (epithelial and oral swabs) collected in 2011 from clinical suspect cases. of these, 29 samples were serotyped by serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays and were confirmed by sequencing the vp1 coding region. sixteen samples were found positive for serotype a and eight for serotype asia-1, whereas five samples ...201627484792
truncated bovine integrin alpha-v/beta-6 as a universal capture ligand for fmd diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. fmd affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of fmd. many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-fmd virus (fmdv) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and ...201627494135
expanding specificity of class i restricted cd8(+) t cells for viral epitopes following multiple inoculations of swine with a human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine.the immune response to the highly acute foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is routinely reported as a measure of serum antibody. however, a critical effector function of immune responses combating viral infection of mammals is the cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) response mediated by virus specific cd8 expressing t cells. this immune mechanism arrests viral spread by killing virus infected cells before new, mature virus can develop. we have previously shown that infection of swine by fmdv results i ...201627498407
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
foot-and-mouth disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (antilocapra americana).there is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american wildlife and none concerning pronghorn ( antilocapra americana ). in an experimental study of 13 pronghorn and six steers ( bos taurus ), we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to fmd virus (fmdv) strain o, with that of cattle ( bos taurus ). we also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of fmdv strain o in pronghorn and cattle, assessed the applica ...201627525593
rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.a novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time rt-rpa) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv). the sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of rpa was 70 copies of hp-prrsv rna/reaction. the real-time rt-rpa highly specific amplified hp-prrsv with no cross-reaction with classic prrsv, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus ...201627534870
equine rhinitis a virus mutants with altered acid resistance unveil a key role of vp3 and intrasubunit interactions in the control of the ph stability of the aphthovirus capsid.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype aphthovirus. erav has recently gained interest as an fmdv alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. as described for fmdv, current data support that acidic ph inside cellular endosomes triggers erav uncoating. in order to provide further insights into ...201627535044
the first identification and complete genome of senecavirus a affecting pig with idiopathic vesicular disease in china.senecavirus a (sva) infection was recently confirmed in pigs in brazil. in march, 2015, an outbreak of vesicular disease occurred in guangdong, china, characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute death of neonatal piglets. cumulative incidence of porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in farm a was 258, which had a total number of 5500 sows. sows in farm b displayed typical vesicular symptoms by may, 2015, which also had 5500 sows. a total of 278 and 142 of 5500 sows in farm b demonstrated ...201627539949
efficient production of a bioactive bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2a self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus.bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mab) targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. we here reported the first plant-derived bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. codon-optimized bevacizumab light chain (blc) and bevacizumab heavy chain (bhc) genes were designed, synthes ...201627555853
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3 zimbabwe/4/81.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype sat3 virus zim/4/81, which belongs to a topotype 1 (sez), is reported here.201627563037
protection of a novel epitope-rna vlp double-effective vlp vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. previously, we found that the epitope peptide ep141-160 displayed on virus-like particles (vlp) for use as a vaccine showed high immunoreactivity and conferred partially effective protection to animals. in this study, we first combined antisense rna with vlp as a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using a prokaryotic co-expression system. the antisense rna against the 3d genes of f ...201627565990
development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time rt-pcr assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in east africa.rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). while pan-specific molecular tests for fmd virus (fmdv) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and fmd-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection elisas or nucleotide sequencing approaches. this report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays (rrt-pcr) tail ...201627575682
the serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.in israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (fmd). if infections with fmd virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. we hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. in order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to num ...201627576078
field-deployable reverse transcription-insulated isothermal pcr (rt-iipcr) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is critical to containing an fmd outbreak. availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an fmdv outbreak. here we report validation of a novel reverse transcript ...201627589902
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (ppv real-time rpa assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (ppv rpa lfd assay) were developed targeting ppv ns1 gene. the detection limit of ppv real-time rpa assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °c, while the rpa lfd assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than ...201627593155
dna vaccine (p1-2a-3c-pcdna) co-administered with bovine il-18 gives protective immune response against foot and mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. dna vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. in the present study, we constructed p1-2a-3cpcdna (containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of fmdv asia-1 ind 63/72) and bovine il-18 pcdn ...201627599937
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the genome of rna viruses folds into 3d structures that include long-range rna-rna interactions relevant to control critical steps of the viral cycle. in particular, initiation of translation driven by the ires element of foot-and-mouth disease virus is stimulated by the 3'utr. here we sought to investigate the rna local flexibility of the ires element and the 3'utr in living cells. the shape reactivity observed in vivo showed statistically significant differences compared to the free rna, revea ...201627608725
systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine.in order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. eighteen steers that had received a recombinant fmdv a vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of fmdv a24. for up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with t lymphocyte subsets, type i/iii i ...201627634113
transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of apoptosis and cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx.in order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the fmdv carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant fmdv a vaccine, 10 non-vaccinated) were challenged with fmdv a24 cruzeiro, and the gene expression profiles of nasopharyngeal tissues collected between 21 and 35 days after challenge were compared between 11 pe ...201627643611
construction of stabilized and tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. construction and purification of stable antigen for vaccine are necessary but technically difficult and laborious. here, we have tried to investigate an alternative method by inserting a hexa-histidine tag (6xhis) in the vp1 c-terminal for easy purification and replacing two amino acids of vp1/vp2 to enhance the stability of the capsid of the fmd virus (fmdv) asi ...201627659244
scotti: efficient reconstruction of transmission within outbreaks with the structured coalescent.exploiting pathogen genomes to reconstruct transmission represents a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. however, their interpretation rests on a number of simplifying assumptions that regularly ignore important complexities of real data, in particular within-host evolution and non-sampled patients. here we propose a new approach to transmission inference called scotti (structured coalescent transmission tree inference). this method is based on a statistical framework that mod ...201627681228
molecular epidemiology of senecavirus a associated with vesicular disease in pigs in brazil.senecavirus a (sv-a) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in brazil in 2015. samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from january to august in 2015 from farms in the states of minas gerais, santa catarina, goiás and rio grande do sul, brazil, and tested for the presence of sv-a by reverse transcriptase pcr. all samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious ...201627687954
infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intranasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure.for the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. ante-mortem infection dynamics were characterized in cattle exposed to fmdv through a novel, simulated natural intranasopharyngeal (inp) inoculation system or through standardized and controlled systems of within- or be ...201627697284
foot-and-mouth disease virus viroporin 2b antagonizes rig-i-mediated antiviral effects by inhibition of its protein expression.the role of retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells remains unknown. here, we showed that rig-i inhibits fmdv replication in host cells. fmdv infection increased the transcription of rig-i, while it decreased rig-i protein expression. a detailed analysis revealed that fmdv leader proteinase (l(pro)), as well as 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) and 2b protein, decreased rig-i protein expression. l(pro) and 3c(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave v ...201627707918
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in nigeria between 2007 and 2014: evidence for epidemiological links between west and east africa.this study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in nigeria between 2007 and 2014. antigen elisa of viral isolates was used to identify fmd virus serotypes o, a and sat 2. phylogenetic analyses of vp1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype sat 2, and o/east africa 3 (ea-3) and o/west africa topotypes in the country. in contrast, for serotype a, a single monophyletic cl ...201627718336
a tale of tails: dissecting the enhancing effect of tailed primers in real-time pcr.non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5'-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. to address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rt-qpcr assays using an fmdv reference panel. tailing of the panfmdv-5 ...201627723800
experimental infections using the foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 in animals administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan.the effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in japan. cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 e ...201727773883
live attenuated vaccine based on duck enteritis virus against duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3.as causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis a virus type 1 (dhav-1) and type 3 (dhav-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. however, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rc-kce-2vp1) containing both vp1 from dhav-1 (vp1/dhav-1) and vp1 from dhav-3 (vp1/dhav-3) between ul27 and ul26. a self-cleaving 2a-element of fmdv was inserted between the tw ...201627777571
a new immunoassay of serum antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus using quantum dots and a lateral-flow test strip.a fast and ultrasensitive test-strip system combining quantum dots (qds) with a lateral-flow immunoassay strip (lfias) was established for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibody. the highly luminescent water-soluble carboxyl-functionalized qds were used as the signal output and were conjugated to streptococcal protein g (spg), which was capable of binding to immunoglobulin g (igg) from many species through an amide bond to capture the target pprv iggs. the pprv n protein, ...201727783124
complete genome sequence of pig-originated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from bangladesh.in this article, we document the first pig-isolated complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in bangladesh. the complete viral genome revealed a potential serotypic recombination at the 5' untranslated region (utr). conventional amino acid deletion was lacking in 3a region, and antigenic heterogeneity to circulatory type o existed within the vp1 region.201627789636
evidence of vp1 of duck hepatitis a type 1 virus as a target of neutralizing antibodies and involving receptor-binding activity.the vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major target of neutralizing antibodies and is responsible for viral attachment to permissive cells via an rgd motif. vp1 of duck hepatitis a type 1 virus (dhav-1) does not contain any rgd motif. to investigate the antibody and receptor-binding properties of dhav-1, vp1 has been expressed as a his fusion protein (his-vp1) in baculovirus system. sera against his-vp1 raised in rabbits effectively neutralized dhav-1 infection in vitro ...201727816429
a universal next-generation sequencing protocol to generate noninfectious barcoded cdna libraries from high-containment rna viruses.several biosafety level 3 and/or 4 (bsl-3/4) pathogens are high-consequence, single-stranded rna viruses, and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. moreover, many of these viruses are select agents (sas), and their genomes are also considered sas. for this reason, cdnas and/or their derivatives must be tested to ensure the absence of infectious virus and/or viral rna before transfer out of the bsl-3/4 and/or sa laboratory. this tremendously limits the capacity to ...201627822536
coordinated protein co-expression in plants by harnessing the synergy between an intein and a viral 2a peptide.a novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. an ssp dnae mini-intein variant engineered for hyper-n-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an 'intf2a' self-excising fusion protein domain. this intf2a domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (pois) fro ...201627879048
efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) disinfectant on foot-and-mouth disease virus, swine vesicular disease virus and senecavirus a.in a laboratory, disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and to prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. it is, therefore, essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. the objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (ahp(®) )-based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and swine vesicu ...201727886439
evolutionary phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o and a circulating in vietnam.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. the virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals in vietnam. the vp1 coding gene of 80 fmdv samples (66 samples of the serotype o and 14 samples of the serotype a) collected from endemic outbreaks during 2006-2014 were analyzed to investigate their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available fmdvs globally.201627894299
generation of mabs to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and application in a competitive elisa for serodiagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically devastating disease that severely limits international trade of animals. of the seven fmd virus (fmdv) serotypes, serotype a is one of the most widespread cross the world. currently antibodies to fmdv are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (vnt) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the vnt is laborious, time-consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures, while elisa has the advantage of using inactivated a ...201627894355
determinants of the vp1/2a junction cleavage by the 3c protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by fmdv 3c protease to yield vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. cleavage of the vp1/2a junction is the slowest. serotype o fmdvs with uncleaved vp1-2a (having a k210e substitution in vp1; at position p2 in cleavage site) have been described previously and acquired a second site substitution (vp1 e83k) during virus rescue. furthermore, introduction of the vp1 e83k substitution alone generated a second site change at the vp1/2a junctio ...201727902359
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs.understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. in the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-n ...201627917386
challenges of generating and maintaining protective vaccine-induced immune responses for foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. recent incursions of exotic fmd virus lineages into several east asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulati ...201627965966
foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. during recent fmd outbreaks in india, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst fmd-affected and asymptomatic cows. the current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of fmdv from infected cows to fetuses. for this purpose, fetal t ...201627977708
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles as integrin-based drug delivery system achieve targeting anti-tumor efficacy.the surface of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-like particles (vlps) contains a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif. natural fmdv specifically attaches to overexpressed integrin receptors in several cancer cells. the fmdv vlps produced in escherichia coli were used for the first time as a delivery system of anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (dox). the dox-loaded vlps exhibited a distinct release profile in different physiological conditions. the effects of fmdv-vlps-dox on cellula ...201627993721
molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants in iran.a molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in iran. samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 mouflon (ovis orientalis), 22 wild goat (capra aegagrus), nine indian gazelle (gazella bennettii) and eight goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa) during the national survey for wildlife diseases in iran. serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody test ...201627997620
adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine confers early and full protection against fmdv o1 manisa in swine.a human adenovirus (ad5) vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1-manisa subunit vaccine (ad5-o1man) was engineered to deliver fmdv o1-manisa capsid and capsid-processing proteins. swine inoculated with ad5-o1man developed an fmdv-specific humoral response as compared to animals inoculated with an empty ad5-vector. vaccinated animals were completely protected against homologous challenge at 7 or 21 days post-vaccination. potency studies exhibited a pd50 of about 10(7) pfu/animal while a d ...201728039799
foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. in countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of fmd seriously impact food security and development. in highly industrialized developed nations, fmd endemics cause economic a ...201628040311
development of a feature and template-assisted assembler and application to the analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus genotyping microarray.several rt-pcr and genome sequencing strategies exist for the resolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). while these approaches are relatively straightforward, they can be vulnerable to failure due to the unpredictable nature of fmdv genome sequence variations. sequence independent single primer amplification (sispa) followed by genotyping microarray offers an attractive unbiased approach to fmdv characterization. here we describe a custom fmdv microarray and a companion feature and temp ...201728045937
balanced secretion of anti-cea × anti-cd3 diabody chains using the 2a self-cleaving peptide maximizes diabody assembly and tumor-specific cytotoxicity.adoptive transfer of genetically engineered human cells secreting bispecific t-cell engagers has shown encouraging therapeutic effects in preclinical models of cancer. however, reducing the toxicity and improving the effectiveness of this emerging immunotherapeutic strategy will be critical to its successful application. we have demonstrated that for gene-based bispecific antibody strategies, two-chain diabodies have a better safety profile than single-chain tandem scfvs (single-chain variable f ...201728075428
detection and molecular characterization of foot and mouth disease viruses from outbreaks in some states of northern nigeria 2013-2015.control measures for foot and mouth disease (fmd) in nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating fmd virus (fmdv) serotypes/strains. in 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported fmd outbreaks in four states (kaduna, kwara, plateau and bauchi) in northern nigeria. fmdv non-structural protein (nsp) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of ...201728097814
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and nf-кb antiviral responses via degradation of atg5-atg12 by 3c(pro).autophagy-related protein atg5-atg12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. previous reports show that atg5-atg12 positively or negatively regulates type i interferon (ifn-α/β) pathway during virus infection. in this study, we found that fmdv infection rapidly induced lc3 lipidation and gfp-lc3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in pk-15 cells. along wi ...201728102839
development of a blocking elisa using a monoclonal antibody to a dominant epitope in non-structural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as a matching test for a negative-marker vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a devastating animal disease. strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (diva) remain very important for controlling disease. development of an epitope-deleted marker vaccine and accompanying diagnostic method will improve the efficiency of diva. here, a monoclonal antibody (mab) was found to recognize a conserved "aeknple" epitope spanning amino acids 109-115 of non-structural protein (nsp) 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv; o/tibe ...201728107470
genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period of the 2010 epidemic in japan.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. to investigate how fmdv genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an fmd-free area, whole l-fragment sequences of 104 fmdvs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. phylogenetic analysis of whole l-fragment sequences sh ...201728110786
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six dna and rna viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and orf virus (orfv) were used for testing procedure. a s ...201728111057
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201628118140
targeting of aberrant αvβ6 integrin expression in solid tumors using chimeric antigen receptor-engineered t cells.expression of the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in several solid tumors. in contrast, physiologic expression of this epithelial-specific integrin is restricted to development and epithelial re-modeling. here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a chimeric antigen receptor (car) that couples the recognition of this integrin to the delivery of potent therapeutic activity in a diverse repertoire of solid tumor models. highly selective targeting αvβ6 was achieved using a foot and mout ...201728129120
antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), ovine interferon tau 4 (ovifn-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type і inter ...201728137623
host microrna-203a is antagonistic to the progression of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.sam68 was previously shown to be a critical host factor for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. microrna (mir) mir-203a is reportedly a negative regulator of sam68 expression both in vitro and in vivo. here, transfection of mir-203a-3p and mir-203a-5p mimics separately and in combination in a porcine cell line followed by fmdv infection resulted in diminished viral protein synthesis and a 4 and 6log reduction in virus titers relative to negative controls, respectively. unexpectedly, ...201728152384
rational design and efficacy of a multi-epitope recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and outbreaks of this disease are often economically catastrophic. recently, a series of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a occurred in many countries, including china. therefore, it is necessary to develop safe and effective vaccines. we designed multi-epitope recombinant proteins a6, a7, and a8 with different three-dimensional structures and compared their immunogenicity in pigs. the ...201728161579
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