a serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in kenya.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in fmd-free areas. this study investigated the presence of antibodies against fmd virus (fmdv) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for fmd in cattle coinciding with sat 1 fmdv outbreaks in cattle. a total of 191 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs in 17 districts. forty-two of the 191 sera were from pigs vaccinated against ...201424442573
characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle.previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a a serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the vp1 g-h loop (termed a(-)). since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspartate (rgd) motif required for virus attachment to the host cell in vivo, it was hypothesised that this virus would be attentuated in naturally susceptible animals. the a(-) virus was passaged three times ...201424438986
development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important global animal disease. to control fmd virus (fmdv) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. in this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) as a replicon vector to express fmdv structural protein.201424427767
detection of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus infection using indirect elisa based on recombinant nonstructural protein 2b.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of transboundary importance. in india, since the launch of the fmd control programme, there has been a substantial increase in the vaccinated bovine population. in this scenario, there is a need for additional locally developed non-structural protein (nsp)-based immnoassays for efficient identification of fmd virus (fmdv)-infected animals in the vaccinated population. the 2b nsp of fmdv, lacking the transmembrane domain (δ2b), was ...201424420160
artificial micrornas as antiviral strategy to fmdv: structural implications of target selection.rna interference (rnai) appears as a promising strategy to control virus replication. while the antiviral power of short-hairpin rnas or small-interfering rnas against fmdv has been demonstrated widely, safer rnai effectors such as artificial micrornas (amirs) have not been evaluated extensively. in this work, transgenic monoclonal cell lines constitutively expressing different amirs targeting fmdv 3d-coding region or 3'utr were established. certain cell lines showed an effective, sequence-speci ...201424406623
application of a cell-based protease assay for testing inhibitors of picornavirus 3c proteases.proteolytical cleavage of the picornaviral polyprotein is essential for viral replication. therefore, viral proteases are attractive targets for anti-viral therapy. most assays available for testing proteolytical activity of proteases are performed in vitro, using heterologously expressed proteases and peptide substrates. to deal with the disadvantages associated with in vitro assays, we modified a cell-based protease assay for picornavirus proteases. the assay is based on the induction of expre ...201424393668
detection and seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats in punjab, pakistan.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of ruminants that causes huge economic losses around the globe. however, the prevalence of fmdv in small ruminants has been overlooked in pakistan. a seroepidemiological study was conducted in chakwal, faisalabad and khanewal districts of punjab, pakistan to determine the prevalence of fmd in sheep and goats. a total 1200 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 180) and goats (n = 920) and were subjected to 3abc non-structural prot ...201424393420
multiple micrornas targeted to internal ribosome entry site against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a severe vesicular disease in domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. because of the limited early protection induced by current vaccines, emergency antiviral strategies to control the rapid spread of fmd outbreaks are we constructed multiple micrornas (mirnas) targeting the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element of fmdv and investigated the effect of ires-specific mirnas on fmdv replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells and su ...201424393133
resiquimod and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid formulation with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.toll-like receptor (tlr) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. resiquimod (r848) is an imidazoquinoline compound with potent antiviral activity and functions through the tlr7/tlr8 myd88-dependent signaling pathway. polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(i:c)] is a synthetic analog of double-stranded rna that induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the activation of nf-κb through tlr3. thi ...201424386990
design and synthesis of irreversible inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. the fmdv genome is translated as a single polypeptide precursor that is cleaved into functional proteins predominantly by the highly conserved viral 3c protease, making this enzyme an attractive target for antiviral drugs. a peptide corresponding to an optimal substrate has been modified at the c-terminus, by the addition of a warhead, to produce irreversible inhibitors that react as ...201424374278
adjuvant effect enhancement of porcine interleukin-2 packaged into solid lipid this paper, we investigated the enhancement of adjuvant effects of porcine il-2 (pil-2) by packaging it into a solid lipid nanoparticle (sln) delivery system. sln-pil-2 was prepared using hydrogenated castor oil and polylactide-co-glycolide by double emulsion solvent evaporation methods (w/o/w). in animal trials, balb/c mice were immunized with inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen combined with the sln-pil-2 adjuvant on days 0 and 14. antibody titer, splenocyte proliferatio ...201424374120
genetic diversity of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses in kenya from 1964 to 2013; implications for control strategies in eastern africa.serotype a is the most genetically and antigenically diverse of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes. records of its occurrence in kenya date back to 1952 and the antigenic diversity of the outbreak viruses in this region is reflected by the current use of two different vaccine strains (k5/1980 and k35/1980) and previous use of two other strains (k18/66 and k179/71). this study aimed at enhancing the understanding of the patterns of genetic variation of serotype a fmdv in kenya. the ...201424368254
identification of cytotoxic t lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal t cell vaccine.classical swine fever (csf), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. vaccine induced cd8(+) t cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) epitopes, it is an exc ...201324358361
an increase in acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid is mediated by a tyrosine replacement of the vp2 histidine previously associated with vp0 cleavage.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid is highly acid labile, but introduction of amino acid replacements, including an n17d change in vp1, can increase its acid resistance. using mutant vp1 n17d as a starting point, we isolated a virus with higher acid resistance carrying an additional replacement, vp2 h145y, in a residue highly conserved among picornaviruses, which has been proposed to be responsible for vp0 cleavage. this mutant provides an example of the multifunctionality of picorna ...201424352460
interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 3a with host protein dctn3 is important for viral virulence in cattle.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most fmdvs examined to date. the role of 3a in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular protein dctn3 as a specific host binding partner for 3a. dctn3 is a subunit of the dynactin complex, a cofactor for dynein, a motor protein. the dynactin-dynein duplex has been implicated in several su ...201424352458
evaluation of cross-protection against three topotypes of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs vaccinated with multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c).epitope-based vaccines are always questioned for their cross-protection against the antigenically variable foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we proved the cross-protection effect of a multi-epitope vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c) against three topotypes of o type fmdv. a total of 45 naïve pigs were vaccinated with different doses of multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c). at 28 days post-vaccination, 45 vaccinated and 6 unvaccinated control pigs (two pigs ...201424345411
accuracy of traditional and novel serology tests for predicting cross-protection in foot-and-mouth disease vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigenic-match between vaccine and field viruses has traditionally been estimated in vitro by computing the r1 value using virus neutralization test (vnt) or elisa titers. in this study we compared the accuracy in predicting cross-protection between the r1 value estimated by vnt and two recently developed tests that measure igg subtypes and avidity. data analyzed consisted of 64 serum samples from fmdv a24/cruzeiro vaccinated bovines challenged with the heter ...201424342253
collection of oral fluids using cotton ropes as a sampling method to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in high-density farming practices, it is important to constantly monitor for infectious diseases, especially diseases that have the potential to spread rapidly between holdings. pigs are known to amplify foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by excreting large amounts of virus, and it is therefore important to detect the virus quickly and accurately to minimize the spread of disease. ropes were used to collect oral fluid samples from pigs, and each sample was compared to saliva samples collected from ind ...201524325543
molecular modeling and analysis of hepatitis e virus (hev) papain-like cysteine protease.the biochemical or biophysical characterization of a papain-like cysteine protease in hev orf1-encoded polyprotein still remains elusive. very recently, we have demonstrated the indispensability of orf1 protease-domain cysteines and histidines in hev replication, ex vivo (parvez, 2013). in this report, the polyprotein partial sequences of hev strains and genetically-related rna viruses were analyzed, in silico. employing the consensus-prediction results of rubv-p(150) protease as structural-temp ...201424321124
enhanced ires activity by the 3'utr element determines the virulence of fmdv isolates.a reverse genetics approach was used to identify viral genetic determinants of the differential virulence displayed by two field foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains (a/arg/00 and a/arg/01) isolated in argentina during the 2000-2001 epidemics. a molecular clone of a/arg/01 strain and viral chimeras containing the s-fragment or the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of a/arg/00 in the a/arg/01 backbone were constructed and characterized. the ires appeared as a determining factor of the lo ...201424314661
foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. it can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. in addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. the disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease viru ...201324308718
expression of bovine mx1 protein inhibits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 proteins belonging to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases inhibit replication of a wide range of rna viruses. in this study, we examined whether bovine mx1 protein could interfere with the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for this purpose we established cloned bhk-21 cells expressing bovine mx1 protein (bm1 cells) and infected them with fmdv serotype o. cloned bhk-21 cells expressing neomycin resistance instead of mx1 protein (bh1 cells) and original bhk-21 cells serve ...201324294956
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein, 3d in insect cells and its application in detection of anti-fmdv antibodies.non-structural proteins (nsps) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in fmd endemic countries like india which aim at disease control through vaccination. these diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. in the present study, non-structural protein rna polymerase (3d gene) of fmd virus (fmdv) was expressed using baculovirus e ...201224293820
genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus x (pvx) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the pvx coat protein. when large ...201424243237
efficient rescue of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cultured cells transfected with rna extracted from clinical this study, an rna transfection was used to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus from clinical samples in bhk-21 cell line for diagnosis of fmd. tissue samples (n=190) were subjected to fmd virus isolation by conventional cell culture and also by rna transfection. fmd virus was isolated from 62% of the clinical samples by rna transfection, whereas virus was isolated only from 16% of the clinical samples in conventional cell culture method, suggesting better performance of the ...201424239633
2a and the auxin-based degron system facilitate control of protein levels in plasmodium falciparum.analysis of gene function in plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite, is restricted by the lack of robust and simple reverse genetic tools. approaches to manipulate protein levels post-translationally are powerful tools to study protein-off effects especially in the haploid malaria parasite where genetic knockouts of essential genes are lethal. we investigated if the auxin-inducible degron system is functional in p. falciparum and found that degron-tagged yellow fluoresc ...201324236031
genetic heterogeneity in the leader and p1-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o in africa.genetic information regarding the leader (l) and complete capsid-coding (p1) region of fmd serotype a and o viruses prevalent on the african continent is lacking. here, we present the complete l-p1 sequences for eight serotype a and nine serotype o viruses recovered from fmdv outbreaks in east and west africa over the last 33 years. phylogenetic analysis of the p1 and capsid-coding regions revealed that the african isolates grouped according to serotype, and certain clusters were indicative of t ...201424221247
historical perspective on agroterrorism: lessons learned from 1945 to 2012.this article presents a historical perspective on agroterrorism cases from 1945 until 2012. the threat groups and perpetrators associated with bio- and agroterrorism are clustered into several groups: apocalyptic sects, lone wolves, political groups, and religious groups. we used open-source information, and 4 biological agroterrorism cases are described: (1) in 1952, mau mau poisoned cattle in kenya by using a plant toxin from the african milk bush plant; (2) in 1985, the usda claimed that mexi ...201323971803
control of the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most feared of transboundary animal diseases. accidental or deliberate release of the causative agent can have both direct and indirect effects that result in massive economic losses and disruption. the direct effects of an fmd outbreak include immediate losses to agricultural production and disruption of local economies, while the indirect effects are mainly related to disease control measures such as restriction of market access at local and global le ...201323971796
antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a.the current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. one of the difficulties in controlling fmd by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv) and the strains within these serotypes. therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate ...201424187014
identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shed in secretions and excretions by fmdv infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of fmdv shed is related to transmission risk. first, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed that the total amount of fmdv in secretions and excretions from infected animals is highly correlated with maximum titres of fmdv. next, we collected data from 32 published scientific articles in which ...201424182985
efficient foreign gene expression in planta using a plantago asiatica mosaic virus-based vector achieved by the strong rna-silencing suppressor activity of tgbp1.plant virus expression vectors provide a powerful tool for basic research as well as for practical applications. here, we report the construction of an expression vector based on plantago asiatica mosaic virus (plamv), a member of the genus potexvirus. modification of a vector to enhance the expression of a foreign gene, combined with the use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide, allowed efficient expression of the foreign gene in two model plant species, arabidopsis thaliana and nicot ...201424154949
availability of a fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical samples collected from animals experimentally infected with fmdv.the availability of the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. therefore, in the current study, the availability of zz-r 127 cells for the isolation of fmdv was evaluated using clinical samples (e.g., sera, nasal swabs, saliva, feces, and oropharyngeal fluids) collected from animals experimentally infected with an fmdv isolate. virus isolation rates for the zz-r ...201324153031
reconstructing geographical movements and host species transitions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 2.of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus sat serotypes mainly confined to sub-saharan africa, sat 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in north africa and the middle east six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. this study updates the picture of sat 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the vp1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace ...201324149511
selection and characterization of an acid-resistant mutant of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) loses infectivity and immunogenicity due to its disassembly in culture environments below ph 6.8. to study the molecular basis of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly and improve the acid stability of inactivated fmd vaccines during the manufacturing process, type o fmdv mutants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were selected, and the genes encoding their capsid proteins were sequenced. three amino acid substitutions (vp1 n17d, vp2 d86a, a ...201424122111
gene expression profiling reveals the heterogeneous transcriptional activity of oct3/4 and its possible interaction with gli2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.we examined the transcriptional activity of oct3/4 (pou5f1) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mescs) maintained under standard culture conditions to gain a better understanding of self-renewal in mescs. first, we built an expression vector in which the oct3/4 promoter drives the monocistronic transcription of venus and a puromycin-resistant gene via the foot-and-mouth disease virus self-cleaving peptide t2a. then, a genetically-engineered mesc line with the stable integration of this vector was iso ...201324121003
challenges for serology-based characterization of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in endemic areas; identification of two separate lineages of serotype o fmdv in uganda in 2011.control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in uganda by ring vaccination largely depends on costly trivalent vaccines, and use of monovalent vaccines could improve the cost effectiveness. this, however, requires application of highly specific diagnostic tests. this study investigated outbreaks of fmd in seven ugandan districts, during 2011, using the priocheck® fmdv ns elisa, solid-phase blocking elisas (spbes) and virus neutralization tests (vnts), together with virological analyses for characteri ...201524118785
a review of oie country status recovery using vaccinate-to-live versus vaccinate-to-die foot-and-mouth disease response policies i: benefits of higher potency vaccines and associated nsp diva test systems in post-outbreak rapidly return to trade, countries with oie status, fmd-free country where vaccination is not practised, have destroyed emergency vaccinated animals, raising ethical concerns with respect to social values, the environment, animal welfare and global food security. this two-part review explores whether science could support eligibility to return to previous oie status in 3 months irrespective of vaccinate-to-live or vaccinate-to-die policies. here, we examine the benefits of higher potency (≥ 6 ...201524112127
a partial deletion in non-structural protein 3a can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.the role of non-structural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. particularly, a characteristic 10-20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in the naturally occurring, porcinophilic fmdv o1 taiwanese strain, and an approximately 20 amino acid deletion found in egg-adapted derivatives of fmdv serotypes o1 and c3. previous reports using chimeric viru ...201324074589
phylogeny and genetic diversity of foot and mouth disease virus serotype asia1 in india during 1964-2012.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first identified in india in 1951 and since then causing significant proportion of fmd outbreaks in the country. in this paper genetic analysis of 219 isolates from india collected over a period of 48 years is described. bayesian approach was used to estimate the date of divergence and evolutionary rate. phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of three lineages (b, c and d) of which lineage b formed one genotype (i) which was prevale ...201324060099
molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of the egyptian foot-and-mouth disease virus february 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreak struck egypt. in this work, one-step rt-pcr assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. fmdv sat2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. the complete vp1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. the two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contempor ...201424046086
reconstructing the origin and transmission dynamics of the 1967-68 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the united kingdom.a large epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in the united kingdom (uk) over a seven month period in northwest england from late 1967 to the summer of 1968. this was preceded by a number of smaller fmd outbreaks in the country, two in 1967, in hampshire and warwickshire and one in northumberland during 1966. the causative agent of all four events was identified as fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and the source of the large epidemic was attributed to infected bone marrow in lamb products ...201324035793
genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype a viruses from the middle east.foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) from serotype a exhibit high antigenic diversity. within the middle east, a strain called a-iran-05 emerged in 2003, and subsequently replaced the a-iran-96 and a-iran-99 strains that were previously circulating in the region. viruses from this strain did not serologically match with the established a/iran/96 vaccine, although most early samples matched with the older a22/iraq vaccine. however, many viruses from this strain collected after 2006 had poor sero ...201424035435
[evaluation of synthetic peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease type a].we developed a synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type a.201324028062
targeted delivery of vp1 antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus to m cells enhances the antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune response.application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. in particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from fmdv transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where fmdv infection ...201324009543
multiple introductions of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses into east asia in 2010-2011.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. sporadic introductions of this virus into fmd-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. in 2010 and 2011, incursions of the fmdv o/sea/mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland southeast asia, caused extensive outbreaks across east asia. in this study, 12 full genome fmdv sequences for representative samples collected from the people's republic of china (pr china) ...201324007643
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease induces fragmentation of the golgi compartment and blocks intra-golgi transport.picornavirus infection can cause golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. in this study, we show that golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3c(pro) and that this requires the protease activity of 3c(pro). 3c(pro) caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late golgi com ...201323986596
antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein vp1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. the serotype asia1 occurs mainly in asian regions. an in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein vp1 of asia1. a total of 47 vp1 sequences of asia1 isolates from different countries of south asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. the structure of vp1 protein was modeled using a homo ...201323983476
transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated fmd virus (fmdv). the use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. in this report, we explored transient gene expression (tge) in serum-fr ...201323977353
novel immunogenic baculovirus expressed virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.vaccination is a well accepted strategy for control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in endemic countries. currently, chemically inactivated virus antigens are used for preparation of fmd vaccine. to develop a non-infectious and safe recombinant vaccine, we expressed structural polypeptide of fmdv (o/ind/r2/75) using baculovirus expression system. we show that inclusion of mutated viral 3c protease in frame with the polypeptide (p1-2a), enhanced the yield of structural proteins. the structural pr ...201323969204
optimisation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a co-expression system for biomedical applications.many biomedical applications require the expression or production of therapeutic hetero-multimeric proteins/protein complexes: in most cases only accomplished by co-ordinated co-expression within the same cell. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) and '2a-like' sequences are now widely used for this purpose. since 2a mediates a co-translational 'cleavage' at its own c-terminus, sequences encoding multiple proteins (linked via 2as) can be concatenated into a single orf: a single transgene. it ha ...201323968294
processing of the vp1/2a junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by 3c(pro) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1, and the peptide 2a. the capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2a. in a cell culture-adapted strain of fmdv (o1 manisa [lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (e83k, s134c, and k210e) were identified within the vp1 region of the p1-2a precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). expression of the o1 ...201323966400
a role for endoplasmic reticulum exit sites in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.picornaviruses replicate their genomes in association with cellular membranes. while enteroviruses are believed to utilize membranes of the early secretory pathway, the origin of the membranes used by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for replication are unknown. secretory-vesicle traffic through the early secretory pathway is mediated by the sequential acquisition of two distinct membrane coat complexes, copii and copi, and requires the coordinated actions of sar1, arf1 and rab proteins. sar1 ...201323963534
development of a luminex assay for the detection of swine antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and mouth disease (fmd), swine vesicular disease (svd), and vesicular stomatitis (vs) are highly contagious vesicular diseases of swine but are not easy to differentiate clinically. for the purpose of instant detecting of fmd and differentiating it from the other vesicular diseases, a luminex assay was developed. sera from 64 infected, 307 vaccinated, and 280 naïve pigs were tested by the luminex assay. diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 100%. diagnostic specificity of the assay was 98 ...201323962586
two new flavonol glycosides and biological activities of diplotaxis harra (forssk.) boiss.two new flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-o-β-glucopyranoside-4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-o-β-glucopyranoside -4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (2), were isolated from the defatted aqueous methanol extract of the whole plant diplotaxis harra along with 12 known flavonols (3-14). they were characterised by chemical and spectral methods. the 70% aqueous methanol, chloroform and defatted aqueous methanol plant extracts exhibited significant antioxidant effects (nitroblue tetrazolium reduction ...201323962320
co-administration of flagellin augments immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal virus known that affects livestock health and production. this study aimed to investigate the effect of flagellin, a toll-like receptor 5 agonist, on the immune responses to inactivated fmdv antigen in guinea pig model. our results showed that the co-administration of flagellin with fmdv antigen through intradermal route induces earlier and higher anti-fmdv neutralizing antibody responses as compared to fmdv antigen alone. ...201323941960
analysis of recent serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses from livestock in kenya: evidence of four independently evolving lineages.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in kenya where four serotypes (o, a, sat 1 and sat 2) of the virus are currently in circulation. within 2010 and 2011, the national laboratory recorded an increase in the number of fmd outbreaks caused by serotype o virus. the characteristics of these viruses were determined to ascertain whether these were independent outbreaks or one single strain spreading throughout the country. the sequences of the complete vp1-coding region were analysed from viruses ...201523931583
development of a peptide based latex agglutination assay for serotype identification of foot and mouth disease virus.out of 200 serum samples collected from cattle (142) and buffaloes (58) of various ages and sexand subjected to latex agglutination test (lat) using serotype specific peptides (o, a, asia 1) and also with peptide for non-structural protein 2b (nsp-2b), 114 (70%) samples were positive against fmdv type 'o', 102 (51%) against serotype 'a' and 104 (52%) against serotype 'asia 1'. with nsp-2b peptide a total of 71 (35.5%) samples were positive. the results suggest that lat could be used for the diag ...201323923605
heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions worldwide and to limit outbreaks during epidemics. vaccine-induced protection in cattle has been largely correlated with the fmd virus (fmdv)-specific antibodies. genetic control of cattle immune adaptive responses has been demonstrated only for peptide antigens derived from fmdv structural proteins. here, we quantify the heterogeneity in the antibody response of cattle primo-vaccinated against f ...201523895140
characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase.we have experimentally tested whether the mrktklapt sequence in fmdv 3d protein (residues 16 to 24) can act as a nuclear localization signal (nls). mutants with substitutions in two basic residues within this sequence, k18e and k20e, were generated. a decreased nuclear localization was observed in transiently expressed 3d and its precursor 3cd, suggesting a role of k18 and k20 in nuclear targeting. fusion of mrktklapt to the green fluorescence protein (gfp) increased the nuclear localization of ...201323886493
an increased replication fidelity mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus retains fitness in vitro and virulence in a screen for rna mutagen-resistant foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains, we isolated an fmdv mutant with rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) r84h substitution. this mutant, selected under the mutagenic pressure of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu), is resistant not only to 5-fu but also to other two rna mutagens, 5-azacytidine and ribavirin, suggesting that the rdrp r84h mutant is a high fidelity variant. subsequently, the increased fidelity of this mutant was verified through analysis of mutation ...201323880348
protein coexpression using fmdv 2a: effect of "linker" residues.many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) and "2a-like" sequences (e.g., thosea asigna virus 2a; t2a) are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (orfs) to form a single cistron. the activity of f2a "cleavage" may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of f2a and the sequences (d ...201323878801
delivery of synthetic rna can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in mice.we have recently described the antiviral effect in mice of in vitro-transcribed rnas mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome rna. these small, synthetic and non-infectious rna molecules (ncrnas) are potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers in vivo. in this work, the immunomodulatory effect of the ncrna corresponding to the internal ribosome entry site (ires) on immunization with two different fmd vaccine formulations, both based on ...201323859841
antigenic site variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o grown under vaccinal serum antibodies in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is constantly evolving under neutralizing antibody pressure in either naturally infected or vaccinated animals. this study was carried out to understand the dynamics of evolution of antigenic sites. neutralizing antibody-resistant populations of three strains of fmdv serotype o (indr2/1975, ind120/2002 and ind271/2001) were isolated by serial propagation in bhk-21 cells in the presence of sub-neutralizing level of bovine vaccinal sera (bvs). in the partial neu ...201323850868
truncated recombinant non-structural protein 2c-based indirect elisa for fmd sero-surveillance.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a transboundary animal disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. in india, systematic preventive vaccination using inactivated trivalent (o, a and asia 1) vaccine is the strategy being adopted to control fmd. the use of non-structural protein (nsp)-contaminated inactivated vaccine raises concerns over differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (diva) by nsp based immunoassays. however, 2c being a membrane associated protein usually remain absent in v ...201323850716
characterization of cytotoxic t lymphocyte function after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.the induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. although these efforts have yielded much success, challenges remain, including little cross-serotype protection and inadequate duration of immunity. commonly, viral infections are characterized by induction of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl), yet the function of ctl in fmdv immunity is poorly ...201323829779
transgenically mediated shrnas targeting conserved regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus provide heritable resistance in porcine cell lines and suckling mice.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is responsible for substantial economic losses in livestock breeding each year, and the development of new strategies is needed to overcome the limitations of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs. in this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of transgenic porcine cells and suckling mice that simultaneously expressed two short-hairpin rnas (shrnas) targeting the conserved regions of the viral polymerase protein 3d and the non-structural protein 2b. firs ...201323822604
understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission biology: identification of the indicators of infectiousness.the control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in non-endemic countries relies on the rapid detection and removal of infected animals. in this paper we use the observed relationship between the onset of clinical signs and direct contact transmission of fmdv to identify predictors for the onset of clinical signs and identify possible approaches to preclinical screening in the field. threshold levels for various virological and immunological variables were determined using receiver o ...201323822567
construction of self-replicating subgenomic west nile virus replicons for screening antiviral compounds.mosquito-borne flavivirus rna genomes encode one long open reading frame flanking 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-utrs) which contain cis-acting rna elements playing important roles for viral rna translation and replication. the viral rna encodes a single polyprotein, which is processed into three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (ns) proteins. the regions coding for the seven ns proteins are sufficient for replication of the rna. the sequences encoding the structural gene ...201323821276
potential roles of synonymous codon usage and trna concentration in hosts on the two initiation regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the open reading frame of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains two authentic initiation codons and the second initiation codon is often selected in high frequency. in the study, we analyzed the effects of the host-cell synonymous codon usage and the overall trna concentration in the hosts on the region flanked by the two initiation codons (termed as the region 1) and the same length starting from the second initiation codon (defined as the region 2). we find that low-usage codons of host ...201323806792
engagement of soluble resistance-related calcium binding protein (sorcin) with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibits type i interferon response in cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious animal disease caused by fmd virus (fmdv). although fmdv-induced immunosuppression in host has been well established, the exact molecular mechanism for such induction is not very clear. we report here the identification of fmdv vp1 as an interferon-suppressor by interacting with soluble resistance-related calcium binding protein (sorcin). we found that vp1 suppressed tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-α or sendai virus (sev)-induced type i int ...201323764275
comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. nmr studies on the monomeric variant lb(pro) l200f provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)n-hsqc measurements of lb(pro) l200f showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant slb(pro), lacking six c-terminal residues. this indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the c-te ...201323756127
positively charged residues at the five-fold symmetry axis of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus permit novel receptor interactions.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain rgd-dependent integrin receptors. in contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (hs) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of fmdv. in cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the a/turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect cho and hs- ...201323740982
assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structural protein precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) into the capsid proteins vp0, vp1 and vp3 (and 2a). in some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3c(pro) can be toxic for cells. the expression level of 3c(pro) activity has now been reduced relative to the p1-2a, and the effect on the yield of processed capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid particl ...201323740480
montanide isa™ 201 adjuvanted fmd vaccine induces improved immune responses and protection in cattle.despite significant advancements in modern vaccinology, inactivated whole virus vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remain the mainstay for prophylactic and emergency uses. many efforts are currently devoted to improve the immune responses and protective efficacy of these vaccines. adjuvants, which are often used to potentiate immune responses, provide an excellent mean to improve the efficacy of fmd vaccines. this study aimed to evaluate three oil adjuvants namely: montanide isa-201, isa- ...201323735678
emergence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh and is predominantly due to fmdv serotype o. in 2012, fmd outbreaks were identified in five different districts of bangladesh. of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic pcr assay based on 5'-urt detected 38 fmdv infections. viral genotyping targeting vp1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, a and o with an abundance of serotype a in chittagong and gazipur districts and serotype o in pabna and far ...201523734722
cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection: a unique landscape of innate immunity.pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. viruses that cause acute disease tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chronicity of infection, but spread of disease throughout the herd. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses known. upon infection of susceptible species, cloven-hoofed animals, the virus prolif ...201323727070
mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions) and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. although integrin αvβ6 receptor has been identified as primary fmdv receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tiss ...201323724025
recombinant adenovirus expression of fmdv p1-2a and 3c protein and its immune response in mice.the purpose of this research was to develop a new type of recombinant adenovirus vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and confirm whether both 2a and 3c proteases can fully process fmdv p1 polyprotein into vp1 protein. we constructed and characterized recombinant adenoviruses, designated as rad-p1, rad-p1-2a, rad-l-p1, rad-l-2a, and rad-3c. the construct was further confirmed by the enzyme digestion, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing, sequencing, and transfection. the infecti ...201323722010
immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. here we present study using a sublingual (sl) route with the killed serotype asia 1 fmdv vaccine. guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. animals were challenged with homologous fmdv asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. all control guinea pigs ...201323717497
analysis of sat type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. in this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric sat2 and sat3 virus particles to various conditions including low ph, mild temperatur ...201323717387
the effects of the codon usage and translation speed on protein folding of 3d(pol) of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201323715863
rogue taxa phenomenon: a biological companion to simulation provide a baseline biological comparison to simulation study predictions about the frequency of rogue taxa effects, we evaluated the frequency of a rogue taxa effect using viral data sets which differed in diversity. using a quartet-tree framework, we measured the frequency of a rogue taxa effect in three data sets of increasing genetic variability (within viral serotype, between viral serotype, and between viral family) to test whether the rogue taxa was correlated with the mean sequence div ...201323707704
diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exists as multiple serotypes and strains that infect a range of cloven-hoofed animals with variable severity. clinical diagnosis reinforced by diagnostic tests support timely intervention, whilst virus characterisation helps trace routes of spread and select appropriate vaccine strains. to speed up and simplify diagnosis, penside tests have recently been developed. serology is used to identify undisclosed infection and substantiate freedom from infection and s ...201323689889
evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding fmdv capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of fmdv, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable balb/c mice model. additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. for this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (ad), herpesvirus amplicons (hs) and/or killed virus (kv) vaccine ...201323683999
evaluation and use of in-silico structure-based epitope prediction with foot-and-mouth disease virus.understanding virus antigenicity is of fundamental importance for the development of better, more cross-reactive vaccines. however, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3d structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in bot ...201323667434
emergence of a novel lineage genetically divergent from the predominant ind2001 lineage of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in india, emergence of ind2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was recorded in the year 2001. after causing sporadic incidences, the ind2001 lineage that re-surged in 2008 out-competed panasia from the field during 2009 and continued its dominance during 2010 and 2011 as well. the lineage has diversified in due course of time, leading to two sub-lineages (ind2001a and ind2001b). the sub-lineage ind2001a include isolates collected during 2001-2002 and sub-lineage ind2001 ...201323643555
comparison of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for orf virus with quantitative real-time pcr.orf virus (orfv) causes orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. therefore, a rapid, highly specific and accurate method for the diagnosis of orfv infections is essential to ensure that the appropriate treatments are administered and to reduce economic losses.201323634981
control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, south outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype o virus occurred in cattle and pigs in south korea during november 2010-april 2011. the highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program.201323632094
comparative analysis of cloned cdnas encoding chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine integrin receptors for foot-and-mouth disease analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cdnas encoding the integrin αν, β1, β3, β6 and β8 subunits from chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. the lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin β subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative n-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine ...201323620003
nucleotide mismatches of foot-and-mouth disease virus during there is a lack of error correction mechanisms during rna replication, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a very high mismatch rate, which leads to a high mutation rate, in the range of 10(-3) to 10(-5) per nucleotide site per genome replication. we examined the nucleotide mismatch of fmdv during replication, based on the whole genomes of the 7 serotypes retrieved from ncbi. with the mega bio-software, spss, and microsoft excel, we studied the nucleotide differences compared to the seque ...201323613248
development of a quick and simple detection methodology for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 using a generic rapidassay device.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have resulted in tremendous economic losses. thus, the development of a rapid and easily performed test for fmd detection is important for controlling a fmd outbreak and containing its spread. the purpose of this project is to develop a lateral flow immunochromatographic (lfi) strip test for rapid detection of fmd virus serotypes o, a and asia 1.201323607273
induction of partial protection against foot and mouth disease virus in guinea pigs by neutralization with the integrin β6-1 subunit.the mechanism by which the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection of cells is thought to involve the attachment of the viral capsid to host integrins on the surface of target cells. however, the role of integrins in fmdv infection still needs to be fully understood, although it has been demonstrated that integrin αvβ6 interferes with fmdv in vitro and results in neutralization of its infectivity. in the present study, we describe the cloning and sequencing of suckling mouse inte ...201323604096
enhancement of the immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice by oral administration of a novel polysaccharide from the roots of radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rc).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a kind of the important animal infectious disease caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of the polysaccharide from the radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rcps) for its adjuvant potential on the fmdv-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. in this study, our findings shows that oral administration of rcps significantly enhanced the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, sple ...201323603047
foot and mouth disease virus-loaded fungal chitosan nanoparticles for intranasal administration: impact of formulation on physicochemical and immunological characteristics.nasal vaccination is a promising, needle-free alternative route for parenteral vaccination. this study introduces a simple, scalable nasal vaccine delivery formulation for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) using chitosan (cs) nanoparticles and assesses the potential of fungal cs for use as nanocarriers for mucosal vaccines. fungal cs was extracted from fungal biomass and physiochemically characterized. fmdv-loaded cs nanoparticles, prepared using an ionic gelation technique, were characterized ...201423590209
co-inoculation of baculovirus and fmdv vaccine in mice, elicits very early protection against foot and mouth disease virus without interfering with long lasting immunity.baculoviruses (bvs) potentiate the immune response against soluble antigens. we investigated whether bv could be used as immunoactivator in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines using the balb/c mouse model. mice were vaccinated with a single dose of inactivated fmdv (ifmdv), ifmdv+bv, bv, or culture medium. humoral and cellular immune responses were higher in animals immunized with ifmdv+bv than in mice vaccinated with ifmdv alone. animals receiving ifmdv+bv had significantly lower viremia at 2 ...201323588086
development and evaluation of multiplex rt-lamp assays for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this paper describes the evaluation of four novel real-time multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in order to overcome the genetic diversity of fmd viruses (fmdv), these multiplex rt-lamp assay pairs were established by combining four newly designed primer sets with two primer sets that had been previously published. using a real-time turbidimeter to detect amplification products ...201323583488
repeated exposure to 5d9, an inhibitor of 3d polymerase, effectively limits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in host cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus (fmdv) that has seven serotypes and more than sixty subtypes. both prophylactic and post-infection means of controlling the disease outbreak, including universally applicable vaccines and emergency response measures such as therapeutic treatments, are on high demand. in this study, we analyzed the long-term exposure outcome to a previously identified inhibitor of 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dp ...201323578728
regulation of porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells by cytokines.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc) are the most potent producers of type-i interferon (ifn) and represent the main interferon (ifn)-α source in response to many viruses. considering the important roles played by type i ifn's, not only as antiviral effectors but also as potent alarming cytokine of the immune system, we investigated how such responses are regulated by various cytokines. to this end, we stimulated enriched pdc in the presence or absence of particular cytokines with a strong activat ...201323577175
vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) impairs baculovirus surface display.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes important economical losses in livestock farming. in order to develop a novel subunit vaccine against fmdv, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that display the protein vp1 of fmdv on their surface, with either polar (fused to gp64) or nonpolar (fused to anchor membrane from vsv-g protein) distribution. insect cells infected with the different recombinant baculoviruses expressed vp1 fusion protein to high levels. however, the recombinant vp1 pr ...201323566950
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