PMID(sorted ascending)
comparative efficacy of virus like particle (vlp) vaccine of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) type o adjuvanted with poly i:c or cpg in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious and economically important diseases of cloven-hoofed livestock. currently used inactivated fmd vaccines have short lived immunity besides risk of handling live virus. we studied recombinant fmd virus like particles (vlps) encoded by fmdv type o/ind/r2/75 polyprotein genes expressed in sf9 cells and adjuvanted with cpg or poly i:c in inducing protective immune response in guinea pigs. guinea pigs immunized with vlp + cpg vaccine had shown ...201526493006
a modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class i molecules.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class imolecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to cd8+ t cells. polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class i molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class i molecules. understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola), peptide-mhc class i binding specificities may fac ...201526496773
further evaluation of an elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) was further evaluated using sequentially collected serum samples of experimentally infected animals, because the sensitivity of the kit used in a previous study was significantly low in field animals. the kit fully detected antibodies in infected animals without vaccination; however, the first detections of antibodies by the kit were later than those by the liquid-phase blocking elisa that is use ...201626498533
peptides interfering 3a protein dimerization decrease fmdv multiplication.nonstructural protein 3a is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. fmdv 3a can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2) that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. in this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. the dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the ...201526505190
effect of cellular location of human carboxylesterase 2 on cpt-11 hydrolysis and anticancer activity.cpt-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. hydrolysis of cpt-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (ce2) generates sn-38, a topoisomerase i inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. expression of ce2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of cpt-11. ce2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as ...201526509550
multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protein (l(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. l(pro) exists as two forms, lab and lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. l(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. in addition to its role as a viral proteinase, l(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. to promote ...201526511922
foot-and-mouth disease seroprevalence in cattle in eritrea.information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotypes in eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. we carried out a cross-sectional study from february to june 2011 in eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of fmd in four administrative regions of the country. we analysed cattle sera ...201526518476
robust real-time reverse transcription-pcr for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing carryover contamination.during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr) is the most commonly used diagnostic method to detect viral rna. however, while this assay is often conducted during the outbreak period, there is an inevitable risk of carryover contamination. this study shows that the carryover contamination can be prevented by the use of target-specific restriction endonuclease in that assay.201526560537
identification of a conserved linear epitope using a monoclonal antibody against non-structural protein 3b of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the family picornaviridae that has caused severe economic losses in many countries of the world. regular vaccinations have been effectively used to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in countries where the disease is enzootic. distinguishing between infected and vaccinated animals in herds after immunization is an important component of effective eradication strategies. nonstructural protein (nsp) 3b of fmdv is part of a larger antigen that is ...201626563318
development of a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans.a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus (sycmv) was constructed for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans. the in vitro transcript with a 5' cap analog m7gpppg from an sycmv full-length infectious vector driven by a t7 promoter infected soybeans (psycmvt7-full). the symptoms observed in the soybeans infected with either the sap from sycmv-infected leaves or psycmvt7-full were indistinguishable, suggesting that the vector exhibits equivalent biological a ...201626569351
data-driven models of foot-and-mouth disease dynamics: a review.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) threatens animal health and leads to considerable economic losses worldwide. progress towards minimizing both veterinary and financial impact of the disease will be made with targeted disease control policies. to move towards targeted control, specific targets and detailed control strategies must be defined. one approach for identifying targets is to use mathematical and simulation models quantified with accurate and fine-scale data to design and evaluate alte ...201526576514
synonymous deoptimization of foot-and-mouth disease virus causes attenuation in vivo while inducing a strong neutralizing antibody response.codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. we have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the p1 region rendered a viable fmdv progeny. the resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those ...201526581977
interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle.the factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in ruminants are not well defined. this paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (il-10) early in the course of infection (1-4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of fmd virus in cattle. results showed that serum il-10 in carrier cattle infected with fmd virus type o (n = 4) was detected and peaked at 1 or 2 days post infection and rapidly declined thereafter. in contract, serum il- ...201526582423
in silico prediction of ebolavirus rna polymerase inhibition by specific combinations of approved nucleotide analogues.the urgency of ebolavirus drug development is obvious in light of the current local epidemic in western africa with high morbidity and a risk of wider spread. we present an in silico study as a first step to identify inhibitors of ebolavirus polymerase activity based on approved antiviral nucleotide analogues.201526587786
pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.a time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored fmdv vaccine. fmdv genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. a rapid progression of infectio ...201526599543
evaluation of a fiber-modified adenovirus vector vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of fmd virus (fmdv). ad5 containing serotype a24 capsid sequences (ad5.a24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against fmd in livestock species. however, ad5-vectored fmdv serotype o1 campos vaccine (ad5.o1c.2b) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. it has been reported tha ...201526607309
construction of nef-positive doxycycline-dependent hiv-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements.conditionally replicating hiv-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for hiv research. we previously developed a genetically modified hiv-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. the nef gene in this hiv-rtta variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtta transcriptional activator. because loss of nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on nef function, we tested ...201626615334
evaluation of two lyophilized molecular assays to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus directly from clinical samples in field settings.accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. however, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. these concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect ...201526617330
protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs via oral administration of recombinant lactobacillus plantarum expressing vp1.mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, lactobacillus plantarum strains nc8 and wcfs1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a psip411-vp1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with nc8-psip411, nc8-psip411-vp1, wcfs1-psip411, wcfs1-psip411-vp1 or milk. anima ...201526629822
time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses.with the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) for rapidly evolving viruses. coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. this study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evoluti ...201526630483
development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. the rapid detection of orfv is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. a isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to pcr assay.201526631157
increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid.this study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-pga) three days before vaccination. antibody against fmd virus serotype o was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a priocheck fmdv type o elisa kit. the results showed that positive antibody reactions against fmdv serotype o antigen among a component of the vac ...201626645341
multi‑transgenic minipig models exhibiting potential for hepatic insulin resistance and pancreatic apoptosis.there are currently no multi‑transgenic minipig models of diabetes for the regulation of multiple genes involved in its pathogenesis. the foot and mouth disease virus 2a (f2a)‑mediated polycistronic system possesses several advantages, and the present study developed a novel multi‑transgenic minipig model associated with diabetes using this system. the tissue‑specific polycistronic system used in the present study consisted of two expression cassettes, separated by an insulator: (i) 11‑β‑hydroxy ...201626648014
stable peptides instead of stapled peptides: highly potent αvβ6-selective integrin ligands.the αvβ6 integrin binds the rgd-containing peptide of the foot and mouth disease virus with high selectivity. in this study, the long binding helix of this ligand was downsized to an enzymatically stable cyclic peptide endowed with sub-nanomolar binding affinity toward the αvβ6 receptor and remarkable selectivity against other integrins. computational studies were performed to disclose the molecular bases underlying the high binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of this peptide. fina ...201626663660
tongue epithelium cells from shrna mediated transgenic goat show high resistance to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the gene 3dpol in fmdv genome encodes the viral rna polymerase, a vital element for fmdv replication. in this study, a conserved 3d-7414shrna targeting fmdv-3dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3d-7414shrna. loss of function assay demonstrated th ...201526671568
translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna: factors influencing alternative aug selection.the mechanism of alternative aug usage in foot-and-mouth disease virus is not completely understood. using simple computational approaches, we evaluated the contributions of overall codon bias, quantitative codon bias, and %gc of the region between the two alternative augs, region-la, as well as the nucleotide bias of the sequence context flanking each aug with respect to translation initiation efficiency. for all serotypes of this virus, we found that only a small component of the effect of rna ...201526681026
profiling oral and digital lesions in sheep in ireland.during the fmd outbreak in ireland and the uk in 2001, there was significant uncertainty amongstveterinary practitioners and government veterinary inspectors surrounding the clinical diagnosis of fmd insheep. this situation was complicated by reports of idiopathic oral ulcers that closely resembled fmd ongross appearance which at that time were referred to as ovine mouth and gum obscure disease.201526682039
immunogenicity of adenovirus-derived porcine parvovirus-like particles displaying b and t cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease.virus-like particles (vlps) vaccines combine many of the advantages of whole-virus vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines, integrating key features that underlay their immunogenicity, safety and protective potential. we have hypothesized here the effective insertion of the vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-40, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) within the external loops of ppv vp2 could be carried out without altering assembly based on struct ...201626685093
gold nanoparticles impair foot-and-mouth disease virus this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (aunps) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. the anti-fmdv activity of aunps was assessed using plaque reduction assay. mtt assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. the 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. the virus yield reduction assay showed tha ...201626685261
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low ph conditions. spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing fmd. kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. moreover, certain chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral ...201626691487
analysis of the interaction between host factor sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.the nuclear protein src-associated protein of 68 kda in mitosis (sam68) is known to bind rna and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. interestingly, sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (sgs). recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of sam68 to the cytoplasm in fmdv infected cells, its ...201526695943
coexpression of cellulases in pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.the term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. in an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce ...201526698316
multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a24 subunit vaccine in cattle using homologous challenge.the safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (adta24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. adta24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. no detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. at 7 days p ...201626707216
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
the rescue and evaluation of flag and his epitope-tagged asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the vp1 g-h loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains the primary antigenic site, as well as an arg-gly-asp (rgd) binding motif for the αv-integrin family of cell surface receptors. we anticipated that introducing a foreign epitope tag sequence downstream of the rgd motif would be tolerated by the viral capsid and would not destroy the antigenic site of fmdv. in this study, we have designed, generated, and characterized two recombinant fmdvs with a flag tag or histidine (his) inse ...201626732485
pharmacological characterization of the αvβ6 integrin binding and internalization kinetics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus derived peptide a20fmdv2.a20fmdv2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (rgd)-binding integrin. it has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. in a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3h]a20fmdv2), its high affinity (k(d): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at leas ...201626734728
evaluation of infectivity, virulence and transmission of fdmv field strains of serotypes o and a isolated in 2010 from outbreaks in the republic of korea.since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have been described in several previously fmd-free asian nations, including the republic of korea (south korea). one outbreak with fmd virus (fdmv) serotype a and two with serotype o occurred in south korea in 2010/2011. the causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in south east asia, far east and east asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. most fmdv strains infect ruminan ...201626735130
unrecognized circulation of sat 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around queen elizabeth national park in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda in spite of the control measures used. various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of fmd viruses (fmdv) in uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for fmdv. to better understand the epidemiology of fmd at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around queen eliza ...201626739166
productive entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus via macropinocytosis independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, sirna interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. we also found that the internalization of fmdv induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinoso ...201626757826
foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. the predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. however, there are many limitations. for instance, cultivation of virulent fmd virus (fmdv) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral non-structural proteins (nsps), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based ...201626760264
ires mediated expression of viral 3c protease for enhancing the yield of fmdv empty capsids using baculovirus system.for expression of fmdv empty capsids, high protease activity associated with 3c co-expressed with p1 polyprotein has been reported to adversely affect the yields of capsids. limiting the levels of 3cpro relative to p1-2a polypeptide is thus critical to enhance the yields. in this study, fmdv internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequence which serves as an alternative to the cap-dependent translation initiation mechanism, was used for controlled translation of 3c protease. baculovirus expressing b ...201626775685
swine trim21 restricts fmdv infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.the tripartite motif protein 21 (trim21) is a ubiquitously expressed e3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. trim21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (adin) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. in this study, swine trim21 (strim21) was cloned and its role in adin was investigated. the expression of strim21 is induced by type i interferon in pk-15 cells. strim21 restricts fmdv infect ...201626777733
novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype o vp1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype o vlps in the low ph insect hemolymph. therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (vlp)-based candidate vaccine for serotype o fmdv was develope ...201626790940
the vp1 s154d mutation of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances viral replication and of the proteins encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the vp1 protein, a capsid protein, plays an important role in integrin receptor attachment and humoral immunity-mediated host responses. the integrin receptor recognition motif and an important antigenic epitope exist within the g-h loop, which is comprised of amino acids 134-160 of the vp1 protein. fmdv strain, asia1/hn/cha/06, isolated from a pig, was passaged four times in suckling mice and sequenced. sequencing analyses ...201626792712
modification of the internal ribosome entry site element impairs the growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in porcine-derived cells.the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires) that facilitates translation initiation of the viral orf in a 5' (m7gpppn) cap-independent manner. ires elements are responsible for the virulence phenotypes of several enteroviruses. here, we constructed a chimeric virus in which the ires of fmdv was completely replaced with that of bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) in an infectious clone of serotype o fmdv. the resulting ires- ...201626795299
complete genome sequence of a serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus from an outbreak in saudi arabia during 2015.the complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) type a virus isolated from cattle in saudi arabia in 2015 is described here. this virus belongs to an fmd virus lineage named genotype vii, which is normally endemic on the indian subcontinent.201626798100
effect of storage conditions on subpopulations of peripheral blood t lymphocytes isolated from naïve cattle and cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry is important in infectious disease research. in animal experiments and other longitudinal studies, the processing, prompt staining, and analysis of fresh samples is a logistical challenge and daily assay variation can confound data interpretation.201626802284
effects of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus on reproductive performance of beef cows.this study compared reproductive performance of cows vaccinated against the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus before timed ai or during early pregnancy (exp. 1), as well as rectal temperature (rt) and plasma concentrations of the acute-phase protein haptoglobin in cattle vaccinated or not against the fmd virus (exp. 2). cattle utilized in exp. 1 and 2 originated from herds with no historical occurrences of fmd and that received vaccination against the fmd virus biannually. in exp. 1, 604 lactat ...201626812345
the vp3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the ifn-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease is a frequently occurring disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by infection with the foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv circumvents the type-i ifn response by expressing proteins that antagonize cellular innate immunity, such as leader protease and 3c protease. we identified the fmdv structural protein vp3 as a negative regulator of the virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. expression of fmdv vp3 inhibited the sendai virus-triggered activation of ifn regulator ...201626813975
development of high-affinity single chain fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by the fmd virus (fmdv) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. for rapid fmd diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against fmdv is needed. here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against fmdv by facs-based high throughput screening of a random library. with the fitc-conjugated vp1 epitope of fmdv and high-speed facs sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scfv) library in which antibody variants are display ...201626827774
correction: transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection. 201626840180
transmission of foot and mouth disease at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park, south africa: can the risk be mitigated?in southern africa, the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is the natural reservoir of foot and mouth disease (fmd). contacts between this species and cattle are responsible for most of the fmd outbreaks in cattle at the edge of protected areas, which generate huge economic losses. during the late 1980's and 90's, the erection of veterinary cordon fences and the regular vaccination of cattle exposed to buffalo contact at the interface of the kruger national park (knp), proved to be efficient to c ...201626848115
immunogenicity of a recombinant sendai virus expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease this study, sev was used as a vector to express capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using reverse genetics. the rescue recombinant sev (rsev-p1) can efficiently propagate and express p1 protein by western blot and ifa analysis. to evaluate the immunogenicity of rsev-p1, balb/c mice were divided into several groups and immunized intramuscularly with various doses of rsev-p1, rsev-egfp, pbs and commercial fmd vaccine, respectively, and then challenged wit ...201626850558
novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea, july-august 2014.despite nation-wide immunization with o, a, and asia 1 type vaccines in republic of korea, foot-and-mouth disease type o occurred again in july 2014 after three years and three months. this virus was a mya-98 strain of the southeast asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in east asia in 2014. this was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3a/3b1 region and low pathogenic property.201626866028
role of a single amino acid substitution of vp3 h142d for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at ph value below 6.5. after the uptake of fmdv by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of fmdv genome inside endosomes. nevertheless, dissociation of fmdv particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated fmd vaccine less effective. to improve the acid stability of inactivated fmd vaccine during the manufacturing proces ...201626873406
foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of fmd, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. the pathophysiology of fmdv has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. here, the fmdv non-structural protein 3a was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. overexpression of the fmdv 3a inhibited sendai virus-triggered activation of irf3 and the expressions of rig-i/mda5. transient transfection and co-im ...201626883855
role of jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes four integrins (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8) as its primary cell receptor. during cell culture propagation, fmdv frequently adapts to use heparan sulfate (hs), and rarely utilizes an unidentified third receptor. capsid mutations acquired by a soluble integrin resistant fmdv cause (i) adaptation to cho-677 cells (ii) increased affinity to membrane-bound jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) (iii) induced jmjd6 re-localization from the cell surfa ...201626896934
foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp3 degrades janus kinase 1 to inhibit ifn-γ signal transduction pathways.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to replicate efficiently in vivo, fmdv has evolved methods to circumvent host antiviral defense mechanisms, including those induced by interferons (ifns). previous research has focused on the effect of fmdv l(pro) and 3c(pro) on type i ifns. in this study, fmdv vp3 was found to inhibit type ii ifn signaling pathways. the overexpression of fmdv vp3 inhibited ...201626901336
pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: impact of the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) and route of inoculation.a companion study reported jumonji-c domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is involved in an integrin- and hs-independent pathway of fmdv infection in cho cells. jmjd6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type a24-fmdv (a24-wt) or mutant fmdv (jmjd6-fmdv) carrying e95k/s96l and rgd to kge mutations in vp1. additionally, pathogenesis of mutant jmjd6-fmdv was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (iel) inoculation. interes ...201626914509
a promising trigene recombinant human adenovirus vaccine against classical swine fever virus.classical swine fever (csf) vaccine based on hadv-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. both classical swine fever virus (csfv) e0 glycoprotein and e2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against csf. interleukin-2 (il2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in csf vaccine research. in this study, coexpression of the csfv e0, e2, and il2 genes by hadv-5 (radv-e0-e2-il2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. three ex ...201626918463
expression and purification of virus like particles (vlps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease, which causes severe economic loss to livestock. virus like particles (vlps) produced by recombinant dna technology are gaining importance because of their immunogenic properties and safety in developing a new vaccine for fmd. in the present study, a practical and economically feasible approach of expression, purification and characterization of vlps of fmdv in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae was described. although thr ...201626925448
quantitative detection of the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o 146s antigen for vaccine production using a double-antibody sandwich elisa and nonlinear standard curves.the efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. at present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146s antigen, of fmd vaccines is sucrose density gradient (sdg) analysis. however, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. in contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity a ...201626930597
the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-endemic parts of the globe, control is mainly implemented by preventive vaccination with an inactivated purified vaccine. elisas detecting antibodies to the viral nonstructural proteins (nsp) distinguish fmd virus (fmdv)-infected animals in the vaccinated population (diva). however, residual nsps present in the vaccines are suspected to be a cause of occasional false positive results, and therefore, an epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy is considered ...201626935917
development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.we report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (trsv)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was inserted between the trsv movement protein (mp) and coat protein (cp) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the rna2-encoded viral polyprotein. gfp was released from the polyprotein via an n-terminal homologous mp- ...201626950504
full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent b-cell epitope dendrimer peptide.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have reported (cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a b-cell epitope [vp1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a t-cell epitope [3a(21-35)] of fmdv [b4t(thi)] elicits potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type c fmdv challenge. herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copi ...201626956030
differential persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in african buffalo is related to virus virulence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. in particular, the three southern african territories (sat) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the african buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple sat serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. however, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. fmd in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study fmdv persisten ...201626962214
bovine mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral rna.innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. myxovirus-resistant (mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line bpte-simx1, in which bovine mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with ifn alpha for 6 hr before fmdv infection. the copy numbers of the negative and ...201626982472
development of an isothermoal amplification-based assay for rapid visual detection of an orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of a severe infectious skin disease (also known as contagious ecthyma) in goats, sheep and other small ruminants. importantly, orfv also infect humans which causes a public health concern in the context of changing environment and increase in human populations. the rapid detection is critical in effective control of the disease and urgently needed.201626993468
diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3a to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus (fmdv) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of fmd-infected animals in the vaccinated population. nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to nsps, the likelihood of screening or confirming the fmd infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple nsps is considered for diagnosis. in order to develop and evaluate an additional nsp-based ...201626995490
application of the thermofluor pastry technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. current fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. fmdv exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. a lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control fmd ...201627002540
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. dendritic cells (dc) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. therefore, investigating their role during fmdv infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. in this study, fol ...201627008425
inability of fmdv replication in equine kidney epithelial cells is independent of integrin αvβ3 and αvβ6.integrins can function as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in epithelium. horses are believed to be insusceptible to this disease, but the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. to detect whether fmdv can use integrin to attach to equine epithelial, we compared the utilities of αvβ3 and αvβ6 between bovine and equine kidney epithelial cells (kecs). equine kecs showed almost equal efficiency to those of bovine. further, the integrin αv, β3, and β6 subunits from bovine and equin ...201627011223
emergence of antigenic variants within serotype a fmdv in the middle east with antigenically critical amino acid substitutions.a new immunologically distinct strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a emerged in the middle east in 2003 that replaced the previously circulating strains (a-iran-96 and a-iran-99) in the region. this resulted in introduction of a new vaccine of this strain (a/tur/2006) in 2006. though this vaccine strain has been predominantly used to control fmd in the region, recent viruses isolated in 2012 and 2013 have shown antigenic drift and a poor match with it. in this study, we r ...201627016651
comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against fmdv in pk15 cells pretreated with ifn-γ.interferon gamma (ifn-γ) can induce a host antiviral response to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vivo and in vitro. to elucidate the mechanism of ifn-γ anti fmdv infection in host cells, high-throughput rna sequencing was analyzed for systemic changes in gene expression profiles in pk15 cells infected by fmdv with or without ifn-γ pretreatment. more than 25 million reads, covering 1.2-1.5 gb, were analyzed from each experiment panel. fmdv challenge altered the transcription of genes invol ...201627018244
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid coding (p1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (p1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a isolated in india was analysed. the exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the vp3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. the rate of evolution of the indian isolates at the capsid ...201627020544
low-dose oral interferon modulates expression of inflammatory and autoimmune genes in cattle.while the safety and efficacy profiles of orally administered bovine interferon (ifn) alpha have been documented, the mechanism(s) that result in clinical benefits remain elusive. one approach to delineating the molecular pathways of ifn efficacy is through the use of gene expression profiling technologies. in this proof-of-concept study, different (0, 50, 200 and 800 units) oral doses of natural bovine ifn (type i) were tested in cattle to determine if oral ifn altered the expression of genes t ...201627032505
ires-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cultured cells derived from fmdv-susceptible and -insusceptible animals.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) possess a positive sense, single stranded rna genome. internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element exists within its 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of the viral rna. translation of the viral rna is initiated by internal entry of the 40s ribosome within the ires element. this process is facilitated by cellular factors known as ires trans-acting factors (itafs). foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and ...201627036295
erratum to: the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines. 201627038829
importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.the aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. the evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as re ...201527044149
evaluation of spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (a, o, sat2).this work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) different types to evaluate its replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell culture and in baby mice.201527047027
construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75.generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2b, 3b and 3c(pro) and its characterization.201527047064
seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in pigs from zuru, nigeria.this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and distribution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs from zuru, kebbi state, nigeria.201527047166
validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods.the present work deals with different methods for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) inactivation for serotypes o/pan asia, a/iran05, and sat-2/2012 by heat, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet (uv) in comparison with the traditional methods and their effects on the antigenicity of viruses for production of inactivated vaccines.201527047204
effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine.this study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity.201627051181
reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid identification of eastern and western strains of bluetongue virus in india.bluetongue virus (btv) infects all ruminants, including cattle, goats and camelids, causing bluetongue disease (bt) that is often severe in naïve deer and sheep. reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (rt-lamp) assays were developed to detect eastern or western topotype of btv strains circulating in india. each assay uses four primers recognizing six distinct sequences of btv genome-segment 1 (seg-1). the eastern (e)rt-lamp and western (w)rt-lamp assay detected btv rna in a ...201627054888
immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of fmd. the level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". the aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms ...201627067203
molecular infectious disease epidemiology: survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees.recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. however, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. in a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the ...201627070316
distance effects during polyprotein processing in the complementation between defective fmdv rnas.passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells resulted in the segmentation of the viral genome into two defective rnas lacking part of either the l- or the capsid-coding region. the two rnas are infectious by complementation. electroporation of l-defective rna in bhk-21 cells resulted in the accumulation of the precursor p3 located away from the deleted sequence. expression of l in trans led to the processing of p3, indicating that there is a connection between l protease activi ...201627073008
bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis a viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinitis viruses (brvs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. in this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named rs3x (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the uk in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. compared to other closely related aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (l(pro)), p1, 2b, and 3a proteins. phylogenetic analysis revealed that rs3x was a member of the species bovine rhinit ...201527081310
foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates independently of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and type iii phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.picornaviruses form replication complexes in association with membranes in structures called replication organelles. common themes to emerge from studies of picornavirus replication are the need for cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (pi4p). in infected cells, type iii phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (pi4kiiis) generate elevated levels of pi4p, which is then exchanged for cholesterol at replication organelles. for the enteroviruses, replication organelles form at golgi membranes in ...201627093462
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus outside the 3a region is also responsible for virus replication in bovine cells.the deletion of residues 93-102 in non-structure protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in bovine cells and attenuated virulence in cattle.whereas, a previously reported fmdv strain o/hkn/21/70 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3a protein grew equally well in bovine and swine cells. this suggests that changes infmdv genome sequence, in addition to 93-102 deletion in 3a, may also affectthe viral growth phenotype in bovine cellsduring infectio ...201627094491
differential gene expression in porcine sk6 cells infected with wild-type and sap domain-mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. the viral proteinase l(pro) of fmdv is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the l(pro) sap domain reduces fmdv pathogenicity in pigs. to determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in sk6 cells infected with fmdv ...201627097918
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolated from morocco in 2015.the genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in morocco in 2015 is described here. this virus is classified as lineage ind-2001d within serotype o, topotype me-sa (middle east-south asia). this lineage is endemic on the indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the middle east and north africa since 2013.201627103736
development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of vesicular stomatitis new jersey virus: use of rapid molecular assays to differentiate between vesicular disease viruses.vesicular stomatitis (vs) is endemic in central america and northern regions of south america, where sporadic outbreaks in cattle and pigs can cause clinical signs that are similar to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). there is therefore a pressing need for rapid, sensitive and specific differential diagnostic assays that are suitable for decision making in the field. rt-lamp assays have been developed for vesicular diseases such as fmd and swine vesicular disease (svd) but there is currently no rt-l ...201627118518
involvement of a joker mutation in a polymerase-independent lethal mutagenesis escape mechanism.we previously characterized a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with three amino acid replacements in its polymerase (3d) that conferred resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. here we show that passage of this mutant in the presence of high ribavirin concentrations resulted in selection of viruses with the additional replacement i248t in 2c. this 2c substitution alone (even in the absence of replacements in 3d) increased fmdv fitness mainly in the presence of ribavirin, pre ...201627136067
the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in cattle.the pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. the prevalence of fmdv persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical diverg ...201627147736
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease sat2 viruses at the wildlife-livestock interface of two major transfrontier conservation areas in southern africa.over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) re-emerged in southern africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. fmd virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the african buffalo as the major wildlife fmd reservoir in the region. we used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of fmd transmission between buffalo and domestic ca ...201627148217
complete genome sequences of three african foot-and-mouth disease viruses from clinical samples isolated in 2009 and 2010.the complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype sat1, sat2 and o) were directly sequenced from rna extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals.201627151795
detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in brazil.vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of fmd. we report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle wit ...201627154321
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