recovery of viral rna and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. in developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. these factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise fmd virus in countries where the disease is endemic. ...201425313787
identification of the structural basis of thermal lability of a virus provides a rationale for improved vaccines.virus stability and dynamics play critical roles during infection. some viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), are surprisingly prone to thermal dissociation outside the cell. the structural bases and functional implications of this distinctive trait were essentially unknown. this study (1) uncovers the structural determinants of fmdv thermolability, (2) investigates the relationship between virus thermolability and infectivity, and (3) provides a structure-based rationale for e ...201425308865
dose-dependent responses of pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 by the intranasal and intraoral routes.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was successfully initiated in pigs by intraoral inoculation of both 10(6) and 10(3) tcid50 of fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan. by intranasal inoculation, infection was established in pigs with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, but not with 10(3) tcid50 of the isolate. in the pigs inoculated with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, viruses and viral rnas were obtained earlier from the pigs inoculated by the intraoral route than from the p ...201525281431
membrane topology and cellular dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence and host-range; nevertheless little is known on the interactions that this protein can establish with different cell components. in this work, we have performed in vivo dynamic studies from cells transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein (gfp) fused to the complete 3a (gfp3a) and versions including different 3a mutations. the results revealed the presence of a mobile fraction o ...201425275544
within herd transmission and evaluation of the performance of clinical and serological diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in partially immune cattle herds.the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in vaccinated populations relies upon surveillance activities such as clinical inspections (ci) and serological monitoring. new evidence to refine current surveillance guidelines has been provided by evaluating (1) the diagnostic performance of ci and serological tests for detection of fmd virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsp), and (2) the within-herd transmission of the virus in partially immune cattle. data came from 23 affected herds during an ...201425261377
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage.translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase l(pro) (lab(pro) and lb(pro)). these forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4 g. during infection, lb(pro) removes six residues from its own c-terminus, generating slb(pro). we present the structure of slb(pro) bound to the inhib ...201425240326
adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines: recent progress.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and rapidly spreading disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in most countries, animals are immunized with inactivated whole virus vaccines to control the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv); however, there are safety and efficacy (especially, cell-mediated immunity) concerns. many efforts are currently devoted to the development of effective vaccines by combining the application of protective antigens together with the search for specific ...201425234962
poly iclc increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the fmdv capsid coding region of serotype a24 cruzeiro (ad5-ci-a24-2b) protects swine and cattle against fmdv challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. however, since relatively large amounts of ad5-ci-a24-2b are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. poly iclc is ...201425216089
virus-host interactions in persistently fmdv-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus in pharyngeal tissues. here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (pbpt) infected with fmdv serotype o1 manisa, where surviving cells were serially passed until a persistently infected culture was generated. characterization of the persistent virus d ...201425216088
phylodynamic reconstruction of o cathay topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the philippines.reconstructing the evolutionary history, demographic signal and dispersal processes from viral genome sequences contributes to our understanding of the epidemiological dynamics underlying epizootic events. in this study, a bayesian phylogenetic framework was used to explore the phylodynamics and spatio-temporal dispersion of the o cathay topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that caused epidemics in the philippines between 1994 and 2005. sequences of the fmdv genome encoding the vp1 sh ...201425209700
molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from gharbia, outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affecting cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) occurred in egypt during 2012/2013. the present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the fmd virus (fmdv) and the prevalence of fmd among cattle and buffalo in gharbia, egypt. the diagnostic sensitivity of two rt-pcr assays for the detection of fmdv was evaluated. the results revealed that sat2 was the causative agent. the percentage of infected of animals varied with the detectio ...201425187028
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.a time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. the earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral rna, viral antigen, and infectious virus. at this time fmdv antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and cd172a-ex ...201425184288
genetic and antigenic characterisation of serotype a fmd viruses from east africa to select new vaccine strains.vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. a total of 56 serotype a fmdvs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from central, east and north african countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequen ...201425171846
preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). current approaches involve either; 1) detection of fmd virus (fmdv) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (lfd), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable rt-qpcr that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. t ...201425165973
a refined guinea pig model of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection for assessing the efficacy of antiviral antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit fmd virus (fmdv) replication in vitro. for the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined fmdv-infection model in guinea pigs (gp) is herewi ...201625164494
the silent point mutations at the cleavage site of 2a/2b have no effect on the self-cleavage activity of 2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 2a region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein is 18 amino acids in length, and 2a self-cleavage site (2a/2b) contains a conserved amino acid motif g2a/p2b. to investigate the synonymous codon usage for glycine at the 2a/2b cleavage site of fmdv, 66 2a/2b1 nucleotide sequences were aligned and found that the synonymous codon usage of g2a is conserved and ggg was the most frequently used. to examine the role of synonymous codons for g2a in self-cleavage efficiency of 2a/2b, ...201425152485
infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a natural killer (nk) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination.natural killer (nk) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (ifn-γ). we developed a system for characterizing the bovine nk response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which causes a disease of cloven-hoofed animals and remains a threat to livestock industries throughout the world. il-2 stimulation of pbmc resulted in poor killing of human k562 cells, which are often used as nk target c ...201425150134
forensic interpretation of molecular variation on networks of disease transmission and genetic inheritance.this paper describes the inference-on-networks (ion) framework for forensic interpretat ion of molecular typing data in cases involving allegations of infectious microbial transmission, association of disease outbreaks with alleged sources, and identifying familial relationships using mitochondrial or y chromosomal dna. the framework is applicable to molecular typing data obtained using any technique, including those based on electrophoretic separations. a key insight is that the networks associ ...201425137141
foot-and-mouth disease in asiatic black bears (ursus thibetanus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, debilitating, and globally significant viral disease typically affecting cloven-hoofed hosts. the diagnosis of fmd in bears in vietnam is described. the current study describes a confirmed case of fmd in a bear species, and the clinical signs compatible with fmd in a malayan sun bear. thirteen asiatic black bears (ursus thibetanus) and 1 malayan sun bear (helarctos malayanus) were apparently affected. in august 2011, an adult bear became letha ...201425135011
investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the mbala and kazungula districts of zambia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. it is known to be endemic in zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. this study was conducted to investigate the presence of fmd virus (fmdv) in reported fmd-suspected cases in cattle from the kazungula and mbala districts of zambia. sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) scrapings (probang samples) were collect ...201425134173
a recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the vp1 epitope of the type o foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both pcv2 and vp1 epitope antibodies.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. a recombinant pcv2 expressing the neutralizing vp1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. the pcv2 antigen and fmdv-vp1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recpcv2-cl-vp1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma) and a capture enzyme-l ...201425117547
sequences outside that of residues 93-102 of 3a protein can contribute to the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to replicate in bovine-derived cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. during 2010 and 2011, there was an epidemic of the mya-98 lineage of the southeast asia (sea) topotype in east asia, including china. changes in the fmdv 3a protein have been previously reported to be associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. in this paper, we report the generation of a full-length infectious cdna clone of fmdv o/sea/ ...201425116389
inhibition of the foot-and-mouth disease virus subgenomic replicon by rna aptamers.we have previously documented the inhibitory activity of rna aptamers to the rna-dependent rna polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (3d(pol)). here we report their modification and use with a subgenomic replicon incorporating gfp (pgfp-pac replicon), allowing replication to be monitored and quantified in real-time. gfp expression in transfected bhk-21 cells reached a maximum at approximately 8 h post-transfection, at which time change in morphology of the cells was consistent with a virus- ...201425096816
no significant differences in the breadth of the foot-and-mouth disease serotype a vaccine induced antibody responses in cattle, using different adjuvants, mixed antigens and different routes of administration.inactivated whole virus foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are used worldwide for protection against fmd, but not all vaccines induce protection against all genetic variants of the same fmd virus serotype. the aim of this study is to investigate whether the "breadth" of the antibody response against different strains of the same fmd virus serotype in cattle could be improved by using a different adjuvant, a mix of antigens and/or different routes of administration. to this end, six groups of ...201425092634
a critical role of interferon-induced protein ifp35 in the type i interferon response in cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein 2c.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein 2c is one of the most highly conserved viral proteins among the serotypes of fmdv. however, its effect on host cell response is not very clear. in our previous report, we showed that fmdv protein 2c interacts with cellular protein n-myc and stat interactor (nmi), inducing moderate apoptosis in cells. here, we show that transfection of hek293t cells with pegfp-n1-2c or pegfp-n1-nmi induces activation of type i interferon promoters, leading to delayed ve ...201425085622
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o and application in identification of antigenic variation in relation to vaccine strain selection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has severe implications for animal farming which leads to considerable financial losses because of its rapid spread, high morbidity and loss of productivity. for these reasons, the use of vaccine is often favoured to prevent and control fmd. selection of the proper vaccine is extremely difficult because of the antigenic variation within fmdv serotypes. the aim of the current study was to produce a panel of mabs and use it for the characterization of new isolates of f ...201425085313
development of a multiplex luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in taiwan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and swine vesicular disease (svd) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. the aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xmap) luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the fmd virus of structural proteins (sp) and nonstructural proteins (nsp).201625074628
effects of germanium biotite supplement on immune responses of vaccinated mini-pigs to foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge.since the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south korea in 2010-2011, a trivalent vaccine has been used as a routine vaccination. despite the high efficacy of the trivalent vaccine, low antibody formation was reported in the pig industry and there is considerable concern about the ability of the vaccine to protect against the andong strain responsible for recent outbreaks in south korea. to overcome these problems, immunostimulators have been widely used to improve vaccine efficacy in ...201525058651
presentation of epitope sequences from foreign viruses on the surface of apple latent spherical virus latent spherical virus (alsv) has small isometric particles that are comprised of two single-stranded rna species (rna1 and rna2) and three capsid proteins (vp25, vp20, and vp24). we constructed alsv vectors for presenting foreign peptides on the surface of virus particles. in these vectors, peptides can be fused to either of two c-terminal regions of vp20 (amino acid positions between g171 and p172 or between p172 and l173) or the c-terminus (t192) of vp24. an alsv vector presenting the e ...201425058477
effects of two amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins on the interaction of two cell-adapted panasia-1 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o with heparan sulfate receptor.some cell-adapted strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can utilize heparan sulfate (hs) as a receptor to facilitate viral infection in cultured cells. a number of independent sites on the capsid that might be involved in fmdv-hs interaction have been studied. however, the previously reported residues do not adequately explain hs-dependent infection of two cell-adapted panasia-1 strains (o/tibet/cha/6/99tc and o/fujian/cha/9/99tc) of fmdv serotype o. to identify the molecular determinan ...201425056022
expression of porcine fusion protein irf7/3(5d) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type i, ii, or iii interferons (ifns) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (ad5) vector expressing ifns can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. however, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. in this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poirf7/3(5d), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of ifn activit ...201425031341
induction of protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture and transgenic suckling mice by mirna targeting integrin αv receptor.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus that causes a highly contagious disease in domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. although vaccination has been used to protect animals against fmdv, there are shortcomings in the efficacy of the available vaccines. rna interference (rnai) is triggered by small rna molecules, including short interfering rnas and micrornas (mirnas), and the use of rnai-based methods have demonstrated promise as an alternative method of controlling the transmis ...201425016204
development of tailored real-time rt-pcr assays for the detection and differentiation of serotype o, a and asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus lineages circulating in the middle east.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in countries where fmd is endemic, identification of the serotypes of the causative virus strains is important for vaccine selection and tracing the source of outbreaks. in this study, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assays using primer/probe sets designed from the vp1 coding region of the virus genomes were developed for the specific detection of serotype o, a and ...201425016065
morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of myocarditis in two pigs infected by foot-and mouth disease virus strains of serotypes o or a.myocarditis is often cited as the cause of fatalities associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. however, the pathogenesis of fmdv-associated myocarditis has not been described in detail. the current report describes substantial quantities of fmdv in association with a marked mononuclear inflammatory reaction, interstitial edema and cardiomyocyte degeneration in the myocardium of two pigs that died during acute infection with either of two different strains of fmdv. despite s ...201425015718
serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of tanzania.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by a virus of the genus aphthorvirus of the family picornaviridae. there is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of fmd virus (fmdv) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. a variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of fmdv in wildlife and cattle. however, many fmdv research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptib ...201425005680
rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in africa.speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of fmd virus (fmdv) by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp), real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) and sequencing. rt-lamp enables amplification o ...201425005362
molecular survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock in tanzania, 2008-2013.phylogeography data are of paramount importance in studying the molecular epidemiology dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, epithelial samples and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids were collected from 361 convalescent animals (cattle and buffaloes) in the field throughout tanzania between 2009 and 2013. the single plex real-time rt-pcr (qrt-pcr) assay for rapid and accurate diagnosis of fmdv employing the callahan 3df-2, 3df-r primers and callahan 3dp-1 probe were used. pr ...201425005022
spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the lake zone of tanzania.this study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) serotypes and evaluate the awareness of livestock keepers about fmd in tanzania. an observational prospective study involving serological analysis, fmdv antigen detection and questionnaire survey was carried out in the lake zone of tanzania. seroprevalence of antibodies to the nonstructural protein 3abc of fmdv and serotype-specific antigen detection were investigated by using svano ...201425005020
recombinant viral capsid protein vp1 suppresses lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting cox-2/pge2 and mig-7.recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus binds to integrins to modulate akt/gsk3-β signaling and suppress migration/invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. here, we showed that the rvp1-mediated inhibition of akt/gsk3-β signaling and cell migration/invasion was accompanied by downregulation in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (pip3), integrin-linked kinase (ilk) and ikk/nf-κb signaling as well as suppressio ...201425004182
sequence adaptations affecting cleavage of the vp1/2a junction by the 3c protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor p1-2a is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3c protease to vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. it was shown previously that modification of a single amino acid residue (k210e) within the vp1 protein and close to the vp1/2a cleavage site, inhibited cleavage of this junction and produced 'self-tagged' virus particles. a second site substitution (e83k) within vp1 was also observed within the rescued virus [gullberg et al. (2013). j virol 87: , 11591-1160 ...201425000961
comparative evaluation of non-structural protein-antibody detecting elisas for foot-and-mouth disease sero-surveillance under intensive vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious and contagious disease of livestock animals with transboundary and economical importance. animals in the endemic settings are regularly vaccinated in addition to intensive surveillance for control of the disease. under intensive vaccination, detection of infected animals among the vaccinated population is essential to monitor the infection and to track down the virus movement. sero-surveillance and retrospective disease diagnosis is performed primari ...201424996132
swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sifitm3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (ifitm3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. it restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. in this report, the swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) gene was cloned. it shares the functionally conserved cd225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (y19, f74, f77, r86 and y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. ectopic exp ...201424973762
protection against rift valley fever virus infection in mice upon administration of interferon-inducing rna transcripts from the fmdv this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome on the infection of mice with rift valley fever virus (rvfv). groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic rna resembling the 5'-terminal s region, the internal ribosome entry site (ires) or the 3'-ncr of the fmdv genome. rna inoculation was performed 24h befor ...201424973761
influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (mat-abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. here, we report the anti-fmdv humoral responses elicited in calves with or without mat-abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in a ...201424968156
magnesium-dependent folding of a picornavirus ires element modulates rna conformation and eif4g interaction.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements are high-order rna structures that promote internal initiation of translation to allow protein synthesis under situations that compromise the general cap-dependent translation mechanism. picornavirus ires elements are highly efficient elements with a modular rna structure organization. here we investigated the effect of mg(2+) concentration on the local flexibility and solvent accessibility of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires element measu ...201424961997
a pig tonsil cell culture model for evaluating oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments.oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments proved effective in several models of viral infections and immunopathological conditions. also, they do not give rise to the serious side effects observed after parenteral inoculation of high doses (10(5)u/kg b.w. and higher). there is convincing evidence that such treatments work through an early, effective interaction with oral lymphoid tissues before the ifn-α molecules are rapidly destroyed by gut enzymes. yet, the paucity of detailed information about these c ...201424951265
[progress in insertion sites for foreign sequence of foot and mouth disease virus].with the progess in studying gene structure and function of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), fmdv can express exogenous genes in different sites. through transforming and modifying fmdv can achieve different application purposes such as improving virus titer, introducing tag, improving immune responses, and reducing pathogenicity. from the perspective of fmdv receiving inserted exogenous gene, this paper mainly describes the latest relevant developments of fmdv's expression to exogenous gene ...201424945052
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna and capsid protein in lymphoid tissues of convalescent pigs does not indicate existence of a carrier state.a systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five fmdv strains within serotypes a, o and asia-1. furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from ...201624943477
experimental infection of cattle and goats with a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate from the 2010 epidemic in this study, we carried out experimental infections in cattle and goats using a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate from the 2010 epidemic in japan to analyze clinical manifestations, virus-shedding patterns and antibody responses in the animals. we found that the fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolate is virulent in cattle and goats, produces clinical signs, is spread efficiently by direct contact within the same species, and is persistently infectious in cattle. quantitative analysis of levels of v ...201424938483
proof of principle: non-invasive sampling for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild boar using a rope-in-a-bait sampling this study we describe the use of a rope-in-a-bait sampling method ("pswab": pathogen sampling wild animals with baits) for non-invasive saliva sampling aimed at the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral genome in wild boar. the pswabs are produced in the form of a standardized product by embedding a 10 cm long cotton rope in a cereal-based bait matrix. to assess the general suitability of this novel sampling technique an animal experiment was conducted to detect fmd viral genome in ...201424930983
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a circulating in bangladesh.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a strain (ban/ga/sa-197/2013), isolated from gazipur in bangladesh, revealed an 84-nucleotide insertion within the 5'-untranslated region (utr), a lengthened poly(c) tract, and amino acid substitutions at the vp1 region compared to the available genome sequence of the vaccine strain (genbank accession no. hm854025).201424926048
[advances in reverse genetics-based vaccines of foot and mouth disease].reverse-genetic engineering of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) can improve the productivity, antigen matching, antigen stability, immune response ability, and biological safety of vaccines, so vaccine candidates with anticipated biological characteristics can be promptly achieved. negative influence in taming of virulent strains can also be decreased or avoided. reverse genetics not only make up for deficiencies like limitation of viral nature, low success rate, and time and energy consuming ...201424923178
rapeseed oil and ginseng saponins work synergistically to enhance th1 and th2 immune responses induced by the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.previous investigations demonstrated that saponins isolated from the root of panax ginseng c. a. meyer (i.e., ginseng root saponin [gs-r]) had adjuvant activity. in the present study, the combined effects of rapeseed oil (ro) and gs-r on the immune responses elicited by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine were investigated by measuring fmd virus (fmdv)-specific antibody levels, cytokine levels, lymphocyte proliferation, and long-lived igg-secreting plasma cells from bone marrow in a mouse model ...201424920601
intratypic heterologous vaccination of calves can induce an antibody response in presence of maternal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. in this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity.201424906852
assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in thrace.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), due to infection with serotype o virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of bulgaria, thrace region, in 2011. hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of fmd virus (fmdv) infection in a population of wild ungulates became important. this assessment focused on the spread and maintenance of fmdv infection within a hypothetical wild boar and deer population in an environment, which is char ...201624903641
induction of protective immune response against both pprv and fmdv by a novel recombinant pprv expressing fmdv vp1.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are both highly contagious diseases of small domestic and wild ruminants caused by the ppr virus (pprv) and the fmd virus (fmdv). in this study, a recombinant pprv expressing the fmdv vp1 gene (rpprv/vp1) was generated and fmdv vp1 expression did not impair replication of the recombinant virus in vitro and immunogenicity in inducing neutralizing antibody against ppr in goats. vaccination with one dose of rpprv/vp1 induced fmdv neu ...201424898430
foot-and-mouth disease virus low-fidelity polymerase mutants are attenuated.previous studies have shown that rna viruses can be attenuated by either increased or decreased viral polymerase replication fidelity. although foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants with an attenuated phenotype have been isolated using mutagens, no fmdv mutant with a low-fidelity polymerase has been documented to date. here, we describe the generation of several fmdv rdrp mutants using site-directed mutagenesis via a reverse genetic system ...201424888311
estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle.the quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not well known. to estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of fmdv, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of fmdv by virus isolation (vi) and/or rt-pcr. serum was tested for ...201424886222
evaluation of a 3a-truncated foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs for its potential as a marker vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals in the world. the disease can be effectively controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals with the conventional inactivated vaccine. however, one major concern of the inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) vaccine is that it does not allow serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals, and therefore interferes with serologic surveillance and the epidemiology of disease ...201424885414
the use of an adeno-associated viral vector for efficient bicistronic expression of two genes in the central nervous system.recombinant adeno-associated viral (aav) vectors are one of the most promising therapeutic delivery systems for gene therapy to the central nervous system (cns). preclinical testing of novel gene therapies requires the careful design and production of aav vectors and their successful application in a model of cns injury. one major limitation of aav vectors is their limited packaging capacity (<5 kb) making the co-expression of two genes (e.g., from two promoters) difficult. an internal ribosomal ...201424838969
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated indian buffalo and cattle.this study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from experimentally infected indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. in each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with fmdv were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. vaccination was carried out with current indian vaccine strain (o/ind/r2/75) and ch ...201424837776
determining the epitope dominance on the capsid of a serotype sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus by mutational analyses.monoclonal-antibody (mab)-resistant mutants were used to map antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which resulted in the identification of neutralizing epitopes in the flexible βg-βh loop in vp1. for fmdv sat2 viruses, studies have shown that at least two antigenic sites exist. by use of an infectious sat2 cdna clone, 10 structurally exposed and highly variable loops were identified as putative antigenic sites on the vp1, vp2, and vp3 capsid proteins of sat2/zimbabwe (zim)/7/83 ...201424829347
cpg odn nanorings induce ifnα from plasmacytoid dendritic cells and demonstrate potent vaccine adjuvant activity.cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) are short single-stranded synthetic dna molecules that activate the immune system and have been found to be effective for preventing and treating infectious diseases, allergies, and cancers. structurally distinct classes of synthetic odn expressing cpg motifs differentially activate human immune cells. k-type odn (k-odn), which have progressed into human clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapeutic agents, are strong activators of b cells and trigger ...201424807558
orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors.sensitivity of biosensors depends on the orientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface. the objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. vhh proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used for making biosensors, and azides were introduced in the vhh to function as bioorthogonal reactive groups. the importance of the orientation of bio-receptors was addressed by comparing sens ...201424793095
diagnostic potential of recombinant nonstructural protein 3b to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in bovines.detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins (nsp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is the preferred diagnostic method to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. in india, an endemic region practising preventive biannual vaccination, 3ab3 indirect elisa (r3ab3 i-elisa) has been employed as the primary screening test for serosurveillance. however, because of the variability observed in the immune response to the nsps, the likelihood of detecting or confirming an infected animal is inc ...201424777827
exploration of sequence space as the basis of viral rna genome segmentation.the mechanisms of viral rna genome segmentation are unknown. on extensive passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in baby hamster kidney-21 cells, the virus accumulated multiple point mutations and underwent a transition akin to genome segmentation. the standard single rna genome molecule was replaced by genomes harboring internal in-frame deletions affecting the l- or capsid-coding region. these genomes were infectious and killed cells by complementation. here we show that the point mutations i ...201424757055
single amino acid substitution of vp1 n17d or vp2 h145y confers acid-resistant phenotype of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is triggered by the acidic ph in endosomes after virus uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. however, dissociation of the fmdv 146s particle in mildly acidic conditions renders inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines much less effective. type asia1 fmdv mutants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were selected to study the molecular basis of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly and improve the acid stability of fmdv ...201424752763
molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the african buffalo in southern africa. 201428235272
spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the eastern zone of tanzania. 201428235270
the changing landscape of the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa north of limpopo and east africa. 201428235269
full genome sequencing to study the evolutionary characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa. 201428235268
screening for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock-wildlife interface areas of tanzania. 201428235267
evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples.a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) method was previously developed for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral antigen detection. here we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two fmd viral antigen detection msd-elisas and compared them with conventional indirect sandwich (is)-elisa. the msd-elisas were able to detect the antigen in saliva samples of experimentally-infected pigs for a longer term compared to the is-elisa. we also used 178 rt-pcr-positive field sample ...201424736560
serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of cameroon.little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because fmd vaccination is not practiced. we carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of fmd virus (fmdv) infections among different livestock production systems in the far north of cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. ...201624735162
genome sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage from outbreaks in libya, saudi arabia, and bhutan during 2013.the complete genomes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered in libya and saudi arabia in 2013 are described here. these viruses belong to an fmd virus lineage (ind-2001, topotype middle east-south asia, serotype o) which is normally endemic in the indian subcontinent. a contemporary virus sequence from bhutan is also reported here.201424723708
first isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in benin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. in west africa, where constant circulation of fmd virus (fmdv) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. this study describes the first isolation and characterization of fmdv in benin. fmdv was isolated from 42 samples. antigen capture elisa (ag-elisa) and vp1 coding ...201424720890
a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to rapidly diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus c.a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was developed to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv c). by testing 10-fold serial dilutions of fmdv c samples, sensitivity of the fmdv c rt-lamp was found to be 10 times higher than that of conventional reverse transcription- pcr (rt-pcr). no cross-reactivity with a, asia 1, or o fmdv or swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) indicated that fmdv c rt-lamp may be an exciting novel method for det ...201424690607
dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs.we evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (gb) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to this aim, we measured the total fmdv-specific antibody responses and igm production after vaccination against fmd both experimentally and in the field. gb supplementation with fmdv vaccination stimulated the production of anti-fmdv antibodies, and effectively increased ifn-γ and tnf-α levels. these results suggest that gb may be a novel alter ...201424690605
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o of ethiopian isolates.a total of 13 serotype o and 5 serotype a fmd ethiopian isolates and some isolates from other countries (six for serotype a and four for serotype o) were sequenced on the structural protein (p1) coding region. the deduced amino acid sequences were aligned and investigated in an attempt to determine the amino acid variation. differences were observed at 115 (15.6%) and 119 (16.1%) amino acid positions for serotype o and serotype a, respectively. the variation in the derived amino acid sequences i ...201424684893
establishment and evaluation of stable cell lines inhibiting foot-and-mouth disease virus by rna interference.rna interference (rnai) has been proved to be a powerful tool for foot-and-mouth disease virus fmdv inhibition in vitro and in vivo. we established five stable baby hamster kidney 21 cell lines (bhk-21) containing five short hairpin rnas (shrnas) expression plasmids (p3d1shrna, p3d2shrna, p3d3shrna, p3d4shrna, and p3d5shrna) targeting 3d gene of fmdv. immunofluorescent assay, virus titration, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-rt-pcr) were conducted to ...201424683539
hsv-1 amplicon vectors as genetic vaccines.hsv-1 amplicon vectors have been used as platforms for the generation of genetic vaccines against both dna and rna viruses. mice vaccinated with such vectors encoding structural proteins from both foot-and-mouth disease virus and rotavirus were partially protected from challenge with wild-type virus (d'antuono et al. vaccine 28: 7363-7372, 2010; laimbacher et al. mol ther 20: 1810-1820, 2012), indicating that hsv-1 amplicon vectors are attractive tools for the development of complex and safe gen ...201424671679
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus: structure-function relationships in a proteolytic virulence factor.the leader proteinase (lpro) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the host innate immune response by at least three different mechanisms. the most well-characterised of these is the prevention of the synthesis of cytokines such as interferons immediately after infection, brought about by specific proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4g. this prevents the recruitment of capped cellular mrna; however, the viral rna can be translated under these conditions. the two other ...201424670358
immunological evaluation of mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles based foot and mouth disease virus dna vaccine, pvac fmdv vp1-ompa in guinea pigs.a dna vaccine for foot and mouth disease (fmd) based on mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated in guinea pigs. the dna construct was comprised of fmd virus full length-vp1 gene and outer membrane protein a (omp a) gene of salmonella typhimurium as a toll-like receptor (tlr)-ligand in pvac vector. groups of guinea pigs immunized either intramuscularly or intra-nasally were evaluated for induction of virus neutralizing antibodies, th1(igg2) and th2 (igg1) responses, lymphocyte prolifera ...201424656961
early protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle using an inactivated vaccine formulated with montanide essai ims d 12802 vg pr adjuvant.foot and mouth disease is an acute disease of cattle with a broad distribution around the world. due to the fast spread of fmdv infections, control measures must be applied immediately after an outbreak, such as the use of vaccines that induce fast protection. previously, it was shown that mice vaccinated with fmd inactivated virus (ifmdv) formulated with montanide™ essai ims d 12802 vg pr adjuvant (802-ifmdv) were protected when they were challenged 4 and 7 days post-vaccination (dpv) with homo ...201424631088
emergence of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador and preliminary evaluation of a field strain as a vaccine candidate.foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o has been circulating regularly throughout most provinces of ecuador, one of the two south american countries that still remain endemic, although satisfactory vaccination coverage was reported. this study concentrates in the characterization of isolates collected during 2008-2011, focusing particularly on the antigenic and immunogenic relationships of the field viruses with the o1/campos vaccine strain in use in the region and with an experimental vaccine f ...201424625343
comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a vaccine matching.vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. the impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. to determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis. in this study, we performed three in vitro test methods to determine which one gives the lowest variability and the highest discriminatory capacity. binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepare ...201424623625
determination of cattle foot-and-mouth disease virus by micro-elisa method.the development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) detection methods is crucial for animal food security, tackling regional fmdv epidemic, and global fmdv prognostic control. for these purposes, a fast and sensitive analysis method is required. in this study, we developed a microchip-based elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), micro-elisa, to realize fmdv detection. nickel(ii) chelating chemistry was utilized to immobilize recombinant protein (antigen) on polystyrene micro-beads in orde ...201424614730
foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection.early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (iel) inoculations of a cdna-derived fmdv-a24 wild type virus (fmdv-wt) or a mutant derived from the same clone (fmdv-mut). after aerosolization of fmdv-wt, primary infection sites had significantly greater quantities of fmdv, viral rna, and type i/iii interferon (ifn) activity compared to corresponding tissues from cattle infected with fmdv-mu ...201424606678
redistribution of demethylated rna helicase a during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: role of jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 in rha demethylation.previously, rna helicase a (rha) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of rha methylated arginine residues at its c-terminus. the potential interaction between rha and jumonji c-domain (jmjc) protein 6 (jmjd6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. treatment with n-oxalylglycine (nog) inhibitor of jmjc demethylases prevented fmdv-induced rha demethylation and re-localization, and a ...201424606677
novel antibody binding determinants on the capsid surface of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus.five neutralizing antigenic sites have been described for serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) based on monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies. however, a mutant virus selected to escape neutralization of mab binding at all five sites was previously shown to confer complete cross-protection with the parental virus in guinea pig challenge studies, suggesting that amino acid residues outside the mab binding sites contribute to antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of fmdv. ...201424584474
the expression of il6 and 21 in crossbred calves upregulated by inactivated trivalent fmd vaccine.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease and a whole-virus inactivated trivalent virus vaccine is the mainstay for controlling the disease in india. the protective humoral immune response to fmd vaccination is a complex, but, tightly regulated process mediated by the interplay of interleukins (il). based on the specific role of il6 and 21 in adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that inactivated trivalent fmd vaccine would stimulate il6 and 21 expression in the circu ...201424555796
infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. intra-oropharyngeal (iop) and intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions. there were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. iop inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas inp ...201424548596
neutralizing antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent (type o, a, c and asia 1) vaccines in growing calves with pre-existing maternal antibodies.the presence of maternal antibodies is a major obstacle for eliciting protective immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in young, growing animals. in this report, we analyzed the ability of inactivated quadrivalent oil emulsified and aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted fmd vaccines to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in growing calves that had maternal antibodies. our results demonstrate that oil emulsified vaccines but not aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted fmd vaccines could su ...201424508311
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolated from bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious enzootic disease caused by fmd virus. the complete genome sequence of a circulatory fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o isolated from natore, bangladesh, is reported here. genomic analysis revealed antigenic heterogeneity within the vp1 region, a fragment deletion, and insertions at the 5' untranslated region (utr) and 3a region compared to the genome of the available vaccine strain.201424503997
a recombinant adenovirus bicistronically expressing porcine interferon-α and interferon-γ enhances antiviral effects against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a virulent and economically costly disease in domestic livestock. since the current vaccine available against fmd provides no protection until 7days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is by the application of anti-viral agents. the combination of recombinant adenovirus expressing type i interferon (ifn-α) and adenovirus expressing type ii ifn (ifn-γ) has been reported to be an effective anti-vir ...201424485895
immunogenicity of the capsid precursor and a nine-amino-acid site-directed mutant of the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus coexpressed by a recombinant goatpox virus.the myristoylated capsid precursor mp1-2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), when expressed in mammalian cells and processed by the fmdv 3c protease, can self-assemble into virus-like particles (vlps). in the present study, nine amino acids of the 3c protease were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis to create a mutant 3c protease, 9m3c. to coexpress mp1-2a and 9m3c and test the resulting proteolytic processing and vlp assembly, two recombinant goatpox viruses (rgtpvs) were constructed by ...201424473707
interconversion between parallel and antiparallel conformations of a 4h rna junction in domain 3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus ires captured by dynamics simulations.rna junctions are common secondary structural elements present in a wide range of rna species. they play crucial roles in directing the overall folding of rna molecules as well as in a variety of biological functions. in particular, there has been great interest in the dynamics of rna junctions, including conformational pathways of fully base-paired 4-way (4h) rna junctions. in such constructs, all nucleotides participate in one of the four double-stranded stem regions, with no connecting loops. ...201424461020
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania between 1967 and 2009.this paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. a total of 44 fmdv isolates, containing representatives of serotypes o, a, sat 1 and sat 2 from 13 regions of tanzania, were selected from the fao world reference laboratory for fmd (wrlfmd) virus collection. vp1 nucleotide sequences were determined for rt-pcr amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum l ...201524460931
b epitope multiplicity and b/t epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.synthetic peptides incorporating protective b- and t-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines. we have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a b-cell epitope (vp1 136 to 154) linked to a t-cell epitope (3a 21 to 35) of fmd virus (fmdv) elicit potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. to assess the relevan ...201324454475
evolution of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid under neutralizing antibody pressure in this study, the indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strain (a ind 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (bcs) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. a considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the bcs for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. t143k substitution preceding the integrin binding 'rgd' ...201424452141
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