TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
sat2 foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in a mixed farm in egypt.a dairy farm keeping holstein cattle and buffaloes in the menoufia governorate was investigated during and after the last foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in egypt (starting february 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. all animals were vaccinated against fmd with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing o1 and a/egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of ...201526054223
evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind2001 lineage.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o ind2001 lineage within the middle east-south asia topotype is the major cause of recent fmd incidences in india. a sub-lineage of ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from libya. in this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of ind2001 lineage. phylogenetic analysis of ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three ...201526049591
expression of porcine mx1 with fmdv ires enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pk-15 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. due to the rapid replication and spread of fmdv, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block fmdv shedding in cases of disease outbreak. here, we generated an ires-mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of fmdv was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (orf) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (pomx1). this construct provides ...201526047650
robust protection against highly virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine by combination treatment with recombinant adenoviruses expressing porcine alpha and gamma interferons and multiple small interfering rnas.because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. we have developed recombinant aden ...201526041279
[construction and characterization of an epitope-mutated asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus].to generate an epitope-mutated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) as a marker vaccine, the infectious clone pasia 1-fmdv containing the complete genomic cdna of asia 1 type fmdv was used as backbone, the residues at positions 27 and 31 in the 3d gene were mutated (h27y and n31r). the resulting plasmid pasia 1-fmdv-3dm encoding a mutated epitope was transfected into bhk-21 cells and the recombinant virus rasia 1-3dm was rescued. the recombinant virus showed similar biological characteristics com ...201526021083
capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage c foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from india.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first reported in india in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (b, c and d) of this serotype have been described until now. in this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype asia1 viruses (n = 99) from india were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. all of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage c (designated as sublineage c(r) ...201526008211
persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle; tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression.tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of fmdv and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with fmdv serotype a, o or sat2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). fmdv was less frequently detect ...201525996935
different functional sensitivity to mutation at intersubunit interfaces involved in consecutive stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus assembly.small spherical viruses are paradigms of supramolecular self-assembly. identifying the specific structural determinants for virus assembly provides guidelines to develop new antiviral drugs or engineer modified viral particles for medical or technological applications. however, very few systematic studies have been carried out so far to identify those chemical groups at interfaces between virus capsid subunits that are important for viral assembly and function. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...201525979732
development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. a rapid and specific test for fmd diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. this project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-lfi) for the rapid detection and serotyping of fmd viruses. the monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against serotypes o, a, and asia 1 were used as cap ...201525977185
a hydrophobic interaction chromatography strategy for purification of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus.a purification scheme based on hydrophobic interaction chromatography was developed to separate inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from crude supernatant. about 92% recovery and 8.8-fold purification were achieved on butyl sepharose 4 ff. further purification on superdex 200 resulted in another 29-fold purification, with 92% recovery. the columns were coupled through an intermediate ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the virus. the entire process was completed in about 3.5h, with 7 ...201525957800
clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype o 2010 south east asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o, topotype south east asia, lineage myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. all four exposure systems were ef ...201525937316
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides improve the immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in mice.water-soluble polysaccharides from chuanminshen violaceum (cvps) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, monosaccharide composition, and adjuvant potential to specific cellular and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination. the average molecular weight (mw) of the cvps was 968.31 kda. the monosaccharide components of the cvps was rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a relative mass of 6.29%, 21.87%, 16.5 ...201525934108
intra-serotype sat2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against fmdv challenge.the genetic diversity of the three southern african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each sat-specific topotype may be needed. this has serious implications for control of fmd using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vsat2(zim14)-sat2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed ...201525930116
quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. to quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of fmdv, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. in direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. in indirect contact expe ...201525928658
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with a fmdv o mya98 lineage virus in pigs 4 and 7 days post vaccination.early protection with a high potency (>6pd50) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) o1 manisa (middle-east south asia lineage) vaccine against challenge with o/vit/2010 (o mya98 lineage) was tested in pigs. only two pigs that were vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had any demonstrable antibodies as a result of vaccination at the time of challenge. however, 80% and 60% of pigs that were vaccinated seven and four days prior to coronary band challenge were protected. vaccination significantly reduced ...201525917677
viral bimolecular fluorescence complementation: a novel tool to study intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways.the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) accessory protein nef interacts with a multitude of cellular proteins, manipulating the host membrane trafficking machinery to evade immune surveillance. nef interactions have been analyzed using various in vitro assays, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and more recently mass spectrometry. however, these methods do not evaluate nef interactions in the context of viral infection nor do they define the sub-cellular location of these interactions. in t ...201525915798
quantitative single dilution liquid phase blocking elisa for sero-monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in india.three of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus are prevailing in india. a massive vaccination campaign is on to control and eradicate the disease from the country. however, fmd vaccines provide short term immunity, hence regular assessment of antibody level in the vaccinated herds is indispensible for the success of the control programme. the antibodies are quantitatively estimated, either by virus neutralization test or by end-point dilution liquid-phase-blocking elisa (lpbe ...201525911541
risk factors for infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in this study, we estimated the level of foot-and-mouth (fmd) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of islamic republic of iran and analyzed putative risk factors for fmd infection. calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of west azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsp-ab) of fmd virus. a proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. within ...201525805320
evolutionary analysis of structural protein gene vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 was mostly endemic in asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. in this study, we characterized 377 isolates from asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups i-viii) or were ...201525793223
transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an fmdv infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep.we wanted to quantify transmission of fmdv asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an fmdv infection in sheep. for this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. in each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2 pen-mates. viral excretion was detected for a long period (>21 days post-inoculation, dpi). transmission of fmdv occurred in the non-vaccinated groups (r0=1.14) but only in the first week after infection ...201525790732
immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. there is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (vlps), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. the vlps are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. the objective of the present study was to express the vlps of f ...201525790055
pan-serotype diagnostic for foot-and-mouth disease using the consensus antigen of nonstructural protein amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven fmdv serotypes are described. the amino acid consensus sequence of the 3b protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3b. the consensus 3b (c3b) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-bindi ...201525788546
construction and characterization of yeast two-hybrid cdna library derived from lfbk cell line.the cdna libraries are indispensable and critical tools for performing protein-protein interaction studies. in this study, a high quality yeast two-hybrid cdna library from the lfbk cell line was constructed and characterized. lfbk cell line was originally derived from the swine kidney cells and is highly susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. the total rna was extracted from the lfbk cells and the switching mechanism at the 5' end of rna template (smart) technique was emp ...201525787111
local rna flexibility perturbation of the ires element induced by a novel ligand inhibits viral rna translation.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located at the 5'untranslated genomic region of various rna viruses mediates cap-independent initiation of translation. picornavirus ires activity is highly dependent on both its structural organization and its interaction with host factors. small molecules able to interfere with rna function are valuable candidates for antiviral agents. here we show that a small molecule based on benzimidazole (irab) inhibited foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) i ...201525775053
the ph stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is modulated by residues located at the pentameric interface and in the n terminus of vp1.the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. in this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of fmdv acid-induced disassembly by isolating an ...201525762735
expression of multiple taenia solium immunogens in plant cells through a ribosomal skip mechanism.taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. while several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein expl ...201525761936
detection of replication competent adenovirus upon serial passaging of recombinant adenovirus expressing fmdv capsid proteins.replication deficient human adenovirus type 5 (had5) is an important gene delivery vehicle and has been used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as gene therapy, cancer therapy and vaccination. inspite of its various useful features, emergence of replication competent adenovirus (rca) in recombinant virus stocks is a great concern. in the present study, recombinant adenovirus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype-o capsid proteins was propagated in hek-293 cells and purified ...201525748638
a simple method for measuring porcine circovirus 2 whole virion particles and standardizing vaccine formulation.porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) is involved in porcine circovirus-associated disease, that causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. vaccination against pcv2 proved to be very effective in reducing disease occurrence and it is currently performed on a large scale. starting from a previous model concerning foot-and mouth disease virus antigens, we developed a rapid and simple method to quantify pcv2 whole virion particles in inactivated vaccines. this procedure, based on sucro ...201525687800
promising ms2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. in this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (ep141-160) of vp1 were inserted into the coat protein (cp) genes of ms2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (vlp). results showed that the cp-ep141-160 vlp had a strong immunoreaction with the fmd virus (fmdv) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice ...201525676866
a colorimetric bioassay for high-throughput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal viruses. this virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type i interferons. currently, a bioassay based on plaque reduction is used to measure anti-fmdv activity of porcine ifns. the plaque reduction assay is tedious and difficult to utilize for high-throughput analysis. using available fmdv susceptible bovine and porcine cells, we developed and tested a colorimetric assay based on cytopathic effect reduction for its ability ...201525669593
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) from ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (op)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported fmd outbreaks in seven different ugandan districts. overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against fmdv by priocheck fmdv ns elisa ...201525664876
robust expression of heterologous genes by selection marker fusion system in improved chlamydomonas strains.chlamydomonas is a very attractive candidate plant cell factory. however, its main drawback is the difficulty to find the transformants that robustly express heterologous genes randomly inserted in the nuclear genome. we previously showed that domestic squalene synthase (sqs) gene of chlamydomonas was much more efficiently overexpressed in a mutant strain [uv-mediated mutant (uvm) 4] than in wild type. in this study, we evaluated the possibility of a new mutant strain, met1, which contains a tag ...201525660568
development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the 3b protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most highly contagious and economically devastating diseases, and it severely constrains the international trade of animals. vaccination against fmd is a key element in the control of fmd. however, vaccination of susceptible animals raises critical issues, such as the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. the current study developed a reliable and rapid test to detect antibodies against the conserved, nonstructural proteins (nsps) ...201525651918
antigenic properties and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus rescued from full-length cdna clone of serotype o, typical vaccine strain.we cloned the full-length cdna of o manisa, the virus for vaccinating against foot-and-mouth disease. the antigenic properties of the virus recovered from the cdna were similar to those of the parental virus. pathogenesis did not appear in the pigs, dairy goats or suckling mice, but neutralizing antibodies were raised 5-6 days after the virus challenge. the utilization of o manisa as a safe vaccine strain will increase if recombinant viruses can be manipulated by inserting or removing a marker g ...201525648340
how foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor mediates foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.this study reviews the fmdv receptor-binding domain, integrin receptors, and heparan sulfate receptors to provide references for studies regarding the mechanisms underlying fmdv infection.201525645358
characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle in kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the sat serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv). large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on fmd in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. this study analysed 47 epithelia col ...201525644407
establishment and evaluation of a murine ανβ3-integrin-expressing cell line with increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.integrin ανβ3 plays a major role in various signaling pathways, cell apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. to examine the functions and roles of ανβ3 integrin, a stable cho-677 cell line expressing the murine ανβ3 heterodimer (designated as "cho-677-mανβ3" cells) was established using a highly efficient lentiviral-mediated gene transfer technique. integrin subunits αν and β3 were detected at the gene and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa), r ...201525643796
development of a novel thermostable newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene.thermostable newcastle disease virus (ndv) vaccines have been used widely to control newcastle disease for village poultry flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. to explore the potential use of thermostable ndv as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of thermostable avirulent ndv strain ts09-c was developed using reverse genetics technology. the gfp gene, along with the self-cleaving 2a gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and ubiquitin monomer (2aubi), were ...201525626679
a multi-species indirect elisa for detection of non-structural protein 3abc specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus.reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the affected countries. non-structural protein (nsp) serology based on the 3abc protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. this report presents the development of a 3abc-antigen-based indirect elisa, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein g secondary antibody ...201525623051
correction for larocco et al., a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201525617444
prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in east africa using site-directed mutagenesis.epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype a fmdv. previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from asia, europe and latin america. in this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in african serotype a fmdvs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to b ...201525614587
construction and characterization of 3a-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most fmdvs examined to date. specific deletion in the fmdv 3a protein has been associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. however, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. in this study, we constructed epitope-tagged fmdvs containing an 8 aa flag epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (ha) ep ...201525584768
kinetics of cytokine expression in bovine pbmcs and whole blood after in vitro stimulation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.the interest in analysing antigen-specific cytokine responses has substantially increased in recent years, in part due to their use in assessing vaccine efficacy. in the present study, the kinetics of il-2, il-4 and ifn-γ expression was determined in bovine pbmcs by real-time pcr and in whole blood by cytokine-release assay after in vitro stimulation with recall foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen. the results showed that the cytokine mrna of il-2 and ifn-γ in pbmcs were induced early (p ...201525574771
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 in long-horned ankole calf, uganda.after a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in uganda. the emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding vp1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in uganda.201525531186
protective immune response to liposome adjuvanted high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in indian cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines applied for prophylactic use in endemic areas provide short-lived immunity requiring regular boosters. indian fmd control program recommends twice a year vaccination. development of high potency vaccines that provide better immune response can singificantly contribute to control programme by reducing the frequency of vaccination. the present study explores new adjuvants to enhance the protective efficacy of inactivated trivalent fmd vaccines.201525528522
genetic and immunologic relationships between vaccine and field strains for vaccine selection of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in east asia.of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), type a has the most diverse variations. genetic variations also occur frequently at vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. the structural proteins of fmdv, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. in this study we analyzed the type a vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find ...201525528521
genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o responsible for outbreaks in india during recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in india are caused by serotype o ind2001 lineage. the lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (ind2001a, b, c and d). we report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during april 2013-march 2014 in india. the length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. of the nine isolates anal ...201525511252
single immunization with a recombinant multiple-epitope protein induced protection against fmdv type asia 1 in develop recombinant epitope vaccines against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1, genes encoding six recombinant proteins (a1-a6) consisting of different combinations of b-cell and t-cell epitopes from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv were constructed. these proteins were expressed in escherichia coli and used to immunize animals. our results showed that a6 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after single inoculation in guinea pigs than did the other five rec ...201526365702
characterization of single-domain antibodies against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o from a camelid and imaging of fmdv in baby hamster kidney-21 cells with single-domain antibody-quantum dots probes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and causes significant economic losses to husbandry worldwide. the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs or single domain antibodies, sdabs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies.201526001568
viroporin activity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural 2b protein.viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. among the picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2b protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2b protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201525946195
application of a recombinant capsid polyprotein (p1) expressed in a prokaryotic system to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. in india, the disease is endemic in nature and is controlled primarily by prophylactic bi-annual mass vaccination. in this control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is being used widely for post vaccination seromonitoring. in order to develop an alternative assay to lpbe, the recombinant capsid polyprotein (rp1) of fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o was expressed in escherichia coli and used as ...201525701759
size-exclusion hplc provides a simple, rapid, and versatile alternative method for quality control of vaccines by characterizing the assembly of antigens.the assembly of antigen structure is often crucial to the potency of vaccines. currently adopted methods like animal testing and ultracentrifugation take long time and are difficult to automate for multiple samples. here we develop a size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) method to characterize the assembly of antigen structure during both manufacturing process and storage. three important vaccine antigens including inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which ...201525604799
indirect elisa using recombinant nonstructural protein 3d to detect foot and mouth disease virus infection associated antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious disease of transboundary importance. routine biannual vaccination along with surveillance activities is seen as the principal to control fmd in india. non-structural protein (nsp) based immunoassays are the test of choice for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated population. in this study, 3d protein of fmd virus was expressed in escherichia coli and an indirect elisa (i-elisa) was developed to detect 3d-antibodies in the infected ...201525458472
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp): a new approach for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its sero-types in pakistan.successful disease management requires a rapid and sensitive diagnosis method that can recognize early infection even before the manifestation of its clinical signs. the only available field diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are lateral flow devices, commonly known as chromatographic strips. low sensitivity and inability to detect fmd virus (fmdv) at the serotype level are limitations of lateral flow devices. therefore, a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplificati ...201527175198
validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods.the present work deals with different methods for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) inactivation for serotypes o/pan asia, a/iran05, and sat-2/2012 by heat, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet (uv) in comparison with the traditional methods and their effects on the antigenicity of viruses for production of inactivated vaccines.201527047204
seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in pigs from zuru, nigeria.this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and distribution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs from zuru, kebbi state, nigeria.201527047166
evaluation of spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (a, o, sat2).this work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) different types to evaluate its replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell culture and in baby mice.201527047027
importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.the aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. the evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as re ...201527044149
coexpression of cellulases in pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.the term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. in an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce ...201526698316
analysis of the interaction between host factor sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.the nuclear protein src-associated protein of 68 kda in mitosis (sam68) is known to bind rna and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. interestingly, sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (sgs). recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of sam68 to the cytoplasm in fmdv infected cells, its ...201526695943
profiling oral and digital lesions in sheep in ireland.during the fmd outbreak in ireland and the uk in 2001, there was significant uncertainty amongstveterinary practitioners and government veterinary inspectors surrounding the clinical diagnosis of fmd insheep. this situation was complicated by reports of idiopathic oral ulcers that closely resembled fmd ongross appearance which at that time were referred to as ovine mouth and gum obscure disease.201526682039
translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna: factors influencing alternative aug selection.the mechanism of alternative aug usage in foot-and-mouth disease virus is not completely understood. using simple computational approaches, we evaluated the contributions of overall codon bias, quantitative codon bias, and %gc of the region between the two alternative augs, region-la, as well as the nucleotide bias of the sequence context flanking each aug with respect to translation initiation efficiency. for all serotypes of this virus, we found that only a small component of the effect of rna ...201526681026
tongue epithelium cells from shrna mediated transgenic goat show high resistance to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the gene 3dpol in fmdv genome encodes the viral rna polymerase, a vital element for fmdv replication. in this study, a conserved 3d-7414shrna targeting fmdv-3dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3d-7414shrna. loss of function assay demonstrated th ...201526671568
development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. the rapid detection of orfv is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. a isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to pcr assay.201526631157
time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses.with the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) for rapidly evolving viruses. coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. this study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evoluti ...201526630483
protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs via oral administration of recombinant lactobacillus plantarum expressing vp1.mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, lactobacillus plantarum strains nc8 and wcfs1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a psip411-vp1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with nc8-psip411, nc8-psip411-vp1, wcfs1-psip411, wcfs1-psip411-vp1 or milk. anima ...201526629822
evaluation of two lyophilized molecular assays to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus directly from clinical samples in field settings.accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. however, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. these concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect ...201526617330
pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.a time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored fmdv vaccine. fmdv genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. a rapid progression of infectio ...201526599543
in silico prediction of ebolavirus rna polymerase inhibition by specific combinations of approved nucleotide analogues.the urgency of ebolavirus drug development is obvious in light of the current local epidemic in western africa with high morbidity and a risk of wider spread. we present an in silico study as a first step to identify inhibitors of ebolavirus polymerase activity based on approved antiviral nucleotide analogues.201526587786
interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle.the factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in ruminants are not well defined. this paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (il-10) early in the course of infection (1-4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of fmd virus in cattle. results showed that serum il-10 in carrier cattle infected with fmd virus type o (n = 4) was detected and peaked at 1 or 2 days post infection and rapidly declined thereafter. in contract, serum il- ...201526582423
data-driven models of foot-and-mouth disease dynamics: a review.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) threatens animal health and leads to considerable economic losses worldwide. progress towards minimizing both veterinary and financial impact of the disease will be made with targeted disease control policies. to move towards targeted control, specific targets and detailed control strategies must be defined. one approach for identifying targets is to use mathematical and simulation models quantified with accurate and fine-scale data to design and evaluate alte ...201526576514
foot-and-mouth disease seroprevalence in cattle in eritrea.information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotypes in eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. we carried out a cross-sectional study from february to june 2011 in eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of fmd in four administrative regions of the country. we analysed cattle sera ...201526518476
multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protein (l(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. l(pro) exists as two forms, lab and lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. l(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. in addition to its role as a viral proteinase, l(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. to promote ...201526511922
effect of cellular location of human carboxylesterase 2 on cpt-11 hydrolysis and anticancer activity.cpt-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. hydrolysis of cpt-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (ce2) generates sn-38, a topoisomerase i inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. expression of ce2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of cpt-11. ce2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as ...201526509550
peptides interfering 3a protein dimerization decrease fmdv multiplication.nonstructural protein 3a is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. fmdv 3a can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2) that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. in this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. the dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the ...201526505190
a modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class i molecules.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class imolecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to cd8+ t cells. polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class i molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class i molecules. understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola), peptide-mhc class i binding specificities may fac ...201526496773
comparative efficacy of virus like particle (vlp) vaccine of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) type o adjuvanted with poly i:c or cpg in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious and economically important diseases of cloven-hoofed livestock. currently used inactivated fmd vaccines have short lived immunity besides risk of handling live virus. we studied recombinant fmd virus like particles (vlps) encoded by fmdv type o/ind/r2/75 polyprotein genes expressed in sf9 cells and adjuvanted with cpg or poly i:c in inducing protective immune response in guinea pigs. guinea pigs immunized with vlp + cpg vaccine had shown ...201526493006
eri silkworm (samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for acmnpv mediated expression of recombinant proteins.the baculovirus expression system (bves) based on autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to acmnpv have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. domesticated eri silkworm (samia ricini), reared in many parts of india, japan and china, is a non-mulberry silkworm. the present study shows that the eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical ino ...201526467714
in vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. no antiviral therapies are available for treating fmd virus (fmdv) infections in animals. the antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (mgo nps) on the fmdv were investigated in cell culture. the viability of the cells after mgo np treatment was determined using the mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bro ...201526435276
spectrum of vp1 region genetic variants in the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o populations derived from infected cattle tongue epithelium.rna virus population exists as a complex distribution of non-identical but closely related sequences known as viral quasispecies. variant strains are selected from this quasispecies population in response to changing environment. the quasispecies dynamics of a virus existing within an infected host differs from that in a cell culture-adapted population. this study was carried out to explore the genetic variations present in the vp1 coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype ...201526435155
employing transposon mutagenesis to investigate foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.probing the molecular interactions within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication complex has been restricted in part by the lack of suitable reagents. random insertional mutagenesis has proven an excellent method to reveal domains of proteins essential for virus replication as well as locations that can tolerate small genetic insertions. such insertion sites can subsequently be adapted by the incorporation of commonly used epitope tags, facilitating their detection with commerci ...201526432090
cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. recently, a series of outbreaks of type a fmdv occurred in southeast asian countries, china, the russia federation, mongolia, kazakhstan and south korea. the fmd virus (a/gdmm/cha/2013) from china's guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in vp1 protein with the epidemic stra ...201526431990
using mathematical modelling to explore hypotheses about the role of bovine epithelium structure in foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced cell lysis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus (fmdv) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and fmd is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). by contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). the reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are ...201526431527
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by commercially available disinfectants and cleaners.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of great concern. it is contagious to cloven-hoofed animals and affects animals in extensive areas worldwide. in general, the primary eradication strategies for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in japan are stamping out the disease and restriction of movement. it is also important to completely disinfect the infected area to prevent the spread of fmdv, including vehicles and people as well. however, there is no report on the effect of commerc ...201526412701
structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein- ...201526389739
specific detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 virus by carboxyl-magnetic beads conjugated with single-domain antibody.immunomagnetic nanobead (imnb) labeled with specific antibody, has been demonstrated to be useful for the capturing and detection of viruses.201526369792
comparative proteomic analysis of wild-type and sap domain mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected porcine cells identifies the ubiquitin-activating enzyme ube1 required for virus replication.leader protein (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) manipulates the activities of several host proteins to promote viral replication and pathogenicity. l(pro) has a conserved protein domain sap that is suggested to subvert interferon (ifn) production to block antiviral responses. however, apart from blocking ifn production, the roles of the sap domain during fmdv infection in host cells remain unknown. therefore, we identified host proteins associated with the sap domain of l(pro) by ...201526354183
serological survey of foot-and-mouth disease virus in buffaloes (syncerus caffer) in zambia.a study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) circulating in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) from selected areas in zambia. sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against fmdv while probang samples were used to isolate the fmdv by observing cytopathic effect (cpe). samples with cpe were further analysed using antigen elisa. high fmd seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the ...201526347208
complete genome sequence analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from pakistan.sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o is reported here. genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (vp1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.201526337880
serotype-specific transmission and waning immunity of endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus in cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. the outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. in response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. however, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain et ...201526327324
evaluation of a combinatorial rnai lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven‑hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. fmdv is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. to generate genetically modified fmdv‑resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh)rnas was constructed using the lentivirus (lv) vector, lv‑3shrna. the three shrnas were expressed under the regulation of dna polymerase iii promoters from a bu ...201526323462
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) since 2010 in the republic of korea have occurred in the winter. at the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. in this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chl ...201526319879
identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. a major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use r ...201526296881
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype a isolated from vietnam in 2013.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) found in an isolate collected in northern vietnam in 2013 appears to be closely related to a genetic cluster formed with isolates from china, mongolia, and russia in 2013. all of these are classified to fall within the sea-97 lineage, for which little complete genome data are available.201526294636
foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines.control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (fmd) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. indeed, consistent and new fmd epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control str ...201526290730
xylaria hypoxylon lectin as adjuvant elicited tfh cell responses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by fmd virus (fmdv) is a major health and economic problem in the farming industry. vaccination of livestock against this highly infectious viral disease is crucial, and inactivated fmd vaccine has been effective at controlling infection. however, accumulated data show that the inactivated vaccine generates weak immune responses and that the oil formulation results in undesirable side effects. mushroom lectins have recently been shown to display adjuvant effec ...201526289530
development and characterization of probe-based real time quantitative rt-pcr assays for detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in west eurasia.rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. due to the heterogeneity of fmd viruses (fmdvs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. in this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription ...201526270532
development and evaluation of a rapid antigen detection and serotyping lateral flow antigen detection system for foot-and-mouth disease virus.we developed a lateral flow strip using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which allows for rapid antigen detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this fmdv serotyping strip was able to detect all 7 serotypes and distinguish serotypes o, a, c and asia1. its sensitivities ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) of a 50% tissue culture infectious dose of each fmdv stain; this is equal to those of the commercial product svanodip (boehringer ingelheim svanova, uppsala, sweden), which can detect ...201526270053
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