PMID(sorted descending)
[an immunoenzyme method of isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using beta-lactamase conjugate with virus-specific antibodies].it was shown that in was feasible to use conjugates of virus-specific antibodies and beta-lactamase from bacillus licheniformis 749/c to identify aphthosa virus antigens. the antigen titers determined by enzyme immunoassay (eia) using a beta-lactamase conjugate were 5-64 times higher than the analogous indices of the complement fixation test. unlike eia, that by using the antibody conjugates with peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase there were observed no "background" responses.19892559667
[use of sarcoma 180 tg cells for obtaining ascitic fluid from mice hyperimmune to the foot-and-mouth disease virus].mice immunized with fmdv c3 arg 84 antigen were inoculated intraperitoneally with sarcoma 180 tg. the ascitic fluid obtained by ventral puncture contained high titers of antibodies, similar to those obtained from serum, as determined by neutralization and elisa tests. ascitic volumes were 10 to 20 times greater than those obtainable with.19892559425
protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to three serotypes in foot and mouth disease virus. 19892558525
[antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth virus. iv. synthesis and immunogenic properties of new fragments of the vp1 protein of food-and-mouth virus strain a22].a synthesis of new fragments of vp1 protein with the specificity of a22 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus is described. immunization with the free 136-152 peptide and klh-conjugates of the peptides 136-152 and 197-213 induced 60-80% protection of guinea pigs against challenge with the a22 virus. synthetic peptides corresponding to the 10-24, 50-69 and 175-189 sequences of vp1 did not show any protective activity. we have found that uncoupled peptides 175-189 and 197-213 are able to induce a ...19892556150
hydrolysis of a series of synthetic peptide substrates by the human rhinovirus 14 3c proteinase, cloned and expressed in escherichia coli.the 3c proteins of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), have been demonstrated to be cysteine-type proteinases, involved in the processing of the respective polyproteins expressed by the monocistronic rna genome. nucleotide sequencing data have indicated that the human rhinovirus 14 (hrv-14) rna genome encodes a homologous 3c protein. the hrv-14 3c protein was purified to homogeneity from escherichia coli express ...19892555433
a theoretical study of the acidification of the rhinovirus capsid.electrostatic calculations for human rhinovirus 14 indicate that histidine-base residue pairs in the region of a beta-strand interaction between pentamers may be involved in a ph-induced process that leads to the release of viral rna. other picornavirus sequences are examined for these residue pairs, a subset of which is present in enteroviruses. foot and mouth disease virus possesses one of the residue pairs, and cardioviruses, which undergo a separate ph and halide ion-induced capsid dissociat ...19892555222
serological probes for some foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 kaufbeuren-specific cdna fragments were subcloned into the e. coli expression vector prit.2t. fusion proteins thus produced in bacteria were purified by affinity chromatography and inoculated into rabbits. three sera thus obtained were found to be monospecific for fmdv proteins 3a, 3c, and 3d, respectively. two others were prevalently directed against protein 2c, but in addition, either to protein 2b or to protein 3a. five out of six mature nonstructural vi ...19892554586
specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions in foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein processing.a series of transcripts derived from fmdv cdna plasmids containing defined regions of the genome were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. the products were analysed directly or following incubation with an fmdv-infected cell processing extract. processing by the l proteinase at the l/1a cleavage site occurred when most of the p1-2a protein was absent. substitution of sequences upstream of the 2c/3a cleavage site showed that the 3c proteinase was also able to cleave at an entirely ...19892554577
comparison of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa and a serum neutralization test to evaluate immunity in potency tests of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.sera from cattle vaccinated against either foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, or c1 detmold were tested in a serum neutralization test (snt) and a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lbe), and the titers were compared with the results of intradermolingual challenge tests. the lbe test results were significantly more reproducible (p less than 0.005) than the snt results. the correlation coefficients between snt and lbe were 0.91 for fmdv strains a10 holland and o1 ...19892553819
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus-neutralizing idiotypes from immune bovine and swine with anti-murine idiotype antibody probes.rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies (a-idab) induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) neutralizing mab were used as probes to identify anti-fmdv id in immune serum from bovine and swine. in a competitive ria, at least two of the a-idab exhibited a dose-dependent capacity to compete with labeled virus for anti-fmdv antibodies from a convalescent bovine serum. these a-idab were immobilized on activated sepharose and used to isolate anti-viral id from bovine, swine, and murine fmdv immune sera. ...19892553817
foot-and-mouth disease virus-neutralizing antibodies induced in mice by anti-idiotypic antibodies.a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmab) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used as antibody-1 (ab1) to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies (a-idab) in rabbits. the rabbit a-idab (ab2) were isolated on protein a-sepharose, followed by cycles of separation on idiotype and isotype affinity columns. the specificity of the ab2 for the paratope of ab1 was determined by direct binding to ab1 in solid-phase radioimmunoassay (sp-ria), and by competition ria (c-ria) with virus for binding to the ab ...19892553588
development of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain characterisation--a review. 19892552629
assay sensitivity and differentiation of monoclonal antibody specificity in elisa with different coating buffers.buffers of different ph and ionic strength were employed as coating buffers for antigen adsorption to microtitre plates. their efficiency for coating plates with rinderpest virus (rpv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens was studied by elisa with polyclonal and monoclonal antibody preparations. while the adsorption and detection of rpv antigen with polyclonal antiserum was highly dependent on the ionic strength and ph of coating buffer, adsorption of antigenically active fmdv antige ...19892551906
characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies generated against foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used to induce polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ids) in rabbits. the anti-ids were semi-purified through isotype affinity columns and assayed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay for cross-reactivity. nmabs which map to the same epitope on the virion appear to contain a common idiotype, and the corresponding anti-ids competitively inhibited the virus-nmab reaction. using a m ...19892550021
antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection associated (via) antigen: use of a bioengineered via protein as antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection associated (via) antigen (viral rna polymerase) in cattle sera, was developed using a bioengineered via (biovia) protein antigen. compared with the classical immunodiffusion test, with viral rna polymerase purified from infected cell cultures as antigen, this elisa was more sensitive. however, depending on the cattle population examined, sera with antibodies to viral rna polymerase, ...19892549685
evaluation of techniques to demonstrate foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine tongue epithelium: comparison of the sensitivity of cattle, mice, primary cell cultures, cryopreserved cell cultures and established cell lines.tongue epithelia infected with each of the 7 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to evaluate in vivo and in vitro systems for the detection of fmdv. cattle inoculated by the intradermal route in the tongue (idl) and suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally were compared for susceptibility to fmdv with freshly prepared bovine thyroid cell cultures; cultures from cryopreserved bovine thyroid, bone marrow, mammary gland, myocardium, tongue, ovary and kidney cells; cultures ...19892549683
sequences of capsid protein vp1 of two type a foot-and-mouth disease viruses.we have sequenced the nucleotides of the regions that encode the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) a5bernbeuren/1984 and a iran/1987. amino acid sequences and secondary protein structures are provided. both proteins consist of 212 amino acids. the sequences and secondary structures are compared to those of fmdv a22/cccp/64, a strain previously endemic in the near east. nucleotide divergency among the three sequences is highest for fmdv a5bernbeuren/1984 (18% compare ...19892548339
modification of foot-and-mouth disease virus after serial passages in the presence of antiviral polyclonal sera.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shows a remarkable antigenic variability. like other rna viruses, this virus has a high rate of mutation. it has been proposed that selection exerted by the host's antibodies could play a major role in the rapid evolution of fmdv. the present work reports the selection of fmdv antibody-resistant populations (nr), after serial passages of cloned fmdv a24 cruzeiro strain on secondary monolayers of bovine fetal kidney cells in the presence of subneutralizing anti ...19892548330
[primary structure of the a22 rna polymerase gene of the foot and mouth disease virus].complete nucleotide sequence of gene rna polymerase for the foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a22 has been determined.19892545214
the cell attachment site on foot-and-mouth disease virus includes the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid).the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) is highly conserved in the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), despite being situated in the immunodominant hypervariable region between amino acids 135 and 160. rgd-containing proteins are known to be important in promoting cell attachment in several different systems, and we report here that synthetic peptides containing this sequence are able to inhibit attachment of the virus to baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. inhi ...19892543752
t cell-dependent induction of antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a mouse model.nude and normal balb/c mice were primed by intravenous inoculation of purified, infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a24, strain cruzeiro. frequency estimation of antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) and thy 1+ t cells in the spleens of immunized mice identified that the igm response was similar for both nude and normal mice, whereas substantial numbers of both igg asc and thy 1+ cells were present in normal mice only. in contrast, nude and normal mouse sera both contai ...19892543745
the suitability of different microtitre plates for detection of antibody to virus antigens by indirect optimize enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of virus-specific antibodies, a range of commercially available microtitre plates was evaluated for their ability to bind virus antigen. rinderpest virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus were investigated as target antigens. binding capacity for antigen, binding ratios (attachment of specific antibody versus that of non-immune antibody) and the variation in the results of the tests within and between plates were measured. ...19892541132
the nucleotide sequence of the structural-protein-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3.the nucleotide sequence coding for the structural proteins and nonstructural protein p2a has been determined for a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated in africa. this virus, serotypically designated sat3 (south african territories type 3), shows about 60% homology at the nucleotide level to prototype viruses from the o, a and c serotypes of fmdv. the highest region of variability was shown in structural protein vp1, presumably a consequence of its position on the surface of the virus an ...19892541051
resistance to foot-and-mouth disease virus mediated by trans-acting cellular products.upon serial passage of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c-s8c1, cells with increased resistance to the virus were selected (j. c. de la torre, e. martinez-salas, j. diez, and e. domingo, j. virol. 63:59-63, 1989). two highly resistant cell clones, 74a11 and 74d12, were transformed to puromycin resistance (purr) and were fused to bhk-21 cells transformed to neomycin resistance (neor). the hybrid neor purr cells showed the specific resistance to fmdv c-s8 ...19892539526
manipulation of antipeptide immune response by varying the coupling of the peptide with the carrier protein.antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides of two regions of the surface protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the peptides were conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin via c- or n-terminal amino acid residues by use of different coupling agents. the fine specificity of the resulting antibodies was determined by pepscan methods. in general, amino acid residues specific for antibody recognition tended to be located opposite to those used for coupling with the carrier protein. depe ...19892538727
the three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 a resolution.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been determined at close to atomic resolution by x-ray diffraction without experimental phase information. the virus shows similarities with other picornaviruses but also several unique features. the canyon or pit found in other picornaviruses is absent; this has important implications for cell attachment. the most immunogenic portion of the capsid, which acts as a potent peptide vaccine, forms a disordered protrusion on the virus surface.19892537470
protective and immunostimulating activity of a low dose of cyclophosphamide in the experimental infection of mice with foot-and-mouth disease virus.administration to mice of a low, non-immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide 4 days before infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus decreases viral replication, enhances the immune response against the virus and prevents pancreatic damage.19892536333
extensive cell heterogeneity during persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.coevolution of viruses and the host cells occurred in bhk-21 cell cultures persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. diez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). in the present report we provide evidence of an extreme phenotypic heterogeneity of the cells, which was generated in the course of persistence. a total of 248 stable cell clones isolated from fmdv carrier cultures at e ...19892535753
a possible homology between immunodeficiency virus p24 core protein and picornaviral vp2 coat protein: prediction of hiv p24 antigenic sites.with the use of a sensitive sequence comparison algorithm, a homology has been suggested between the primary structures of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) p24 core protein and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmd) vp2 coat protein. since the fmd sequence is homologous to picornaviral vp2 sequences with known three-dimensional architecture and since the siv p24 sequence can be convincingly aligned with that from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), it was possible to predict an eight-stranded bet ...19892498082
identification of virus neutralizing epitopes on naturally occurring variants of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.four naturally occurring antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a12 were examined for their capacity to be neutralized by a number of monoclonal antibodies (mab) which recognize different sites on the virus surface. the vp1 coding region of the rna genome was sequenced and amino acid changes were determined for the variants. one of the neutralizing sites accounted for the differing antigenic properties of the variants and the epitope was mapped to amino acid residues 150-156 of ...19892483013
selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibodies, as revealed by an in situ assay.antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c (isolate c-s8c1) were selected upon serial passage of the virus in cell culture in the absence of anti-fmdv antibodies. the variants rose from frequencies of less than 10(-2) in the initial plaque-purified fmdv c-s8c1 preparation, to 0.1 to 1 in three passaged populations. the proportion of antigenic variants was quantified using a new in situ plaque immunotest. a nitrocellulose filter is applied to the agar overlay of a fmd ...19892481712
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. iii. immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides of the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth virus].immunogenic and protective properties of uncoupled and klh-conjugated peptides covering the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been studied. the uncoupled peptides 136-148 o1k, 136-152 o1k, 131-149 a22 and 140-149 a22 were shown to be immunogenic in guinea pigs and induced 50-100% protection against homologous virus. on the other hand, the a22 specific peptides, in contrast to the o1k peptides, were not immunogeni ...19892480134
serological prospects for peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 141 to 160 amino acid sequence of the protein vp1 of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) neutralize a wider range of type o isolates than anti-virion serum. extending this peptide at the amino terminus reduced the number of strains neutralized by the antipeptide sera. reactions with antisera to peptides representing non-contiguous native sequences showed that it was also possible to increase the number of strains effectively neutraliz ...19892479714
helper t-cell determinants in vaccine design.mice belonging to the h-2d haplotype do not respond to the 141-160 peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein vp1. however, when defined 'foreign' helper t-cell determinants from ovalbumin or sperm whale myoglobin are added they do respond. these observations are likely to have important implications for the design of peptide vaccines.19892476143
implications of a quasispecies genome structure: effect of frequent, naturally occurring amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we provide evidence that the quasispecies nature (extreme genetic heterogeneity) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is relevant to the virus evading an immune response. a monoclonal antibody neutralizing the viral infectivity (clone sd6) recognizes an epitope located around a highly conserved sequence (amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp-leu-ala at positions 141-145) in the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c1. the amino acid substitutions ala-138----thr and leu-147----ile ...19892474821
[recombinant plasmids containing hybrid protein genes with antigenic determinants of the foot and mouth virus].plasmids have been constructed which contain genes coding for fused proteins including beta-galactosidase or human leukocyte interferon alpha 2 and monomeric or pentameric form of the main antigenic determinant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype 01k. expression of the hybrid genes has been studied. it is shown that fused proteins, containing beta-galactosidase and the antigenic determinant (monomer or pentamer), interact specifically with anti-fmdv anti-sera and with antibodies ...19892473757
antigenic comparison of different foot-and-mouth disease virus types using monoclonal antibodies defining multiple neutralizing epitopes on fmdv a5 subtypes.thirteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were elicited with a5 spain-86 virus, the cause of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreak in spain. the mabs were tested for ability to bind 140s virions and 12s protein subunits by liquid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria), and to bind vp1 capsid protein by western immunoblot assay. one of the thirteen mab was virion (140s) specific, seven recognized 140s and 12s subunits, one bound to 140s, 12s and vp1 and four were 12s specific. these mabs ...19892473578
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. mapping three conformational sites with synthetic peptide reagents.four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs), recognizing three functionally independent, conformational sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) failed to react with immobilized structural proteins or synthetic peptides but bound to the isolated capsid protein vp1 and peptides in solution. inhibition elisa techniques were, therefore, applied using peptide antigens and anti-peptide sera to block mab binding to virus particles, permitting the identification of those portions of the v ...19892471812
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. identification and characterization of three functionally independent, conformational sites.eleven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced to the o1bfs 1860/67 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and were characterized for their ability to bind viral and subviral antigens in different elisa tests and to neutralize heterologous type o isolates. neutralization escape variants of the homologous virus, isolated under pressure from five of these mabs, were used in cross-neutralization tests with all of the 11 antibodies. these studies identified three functionally ...19892471811
evidence for at least four antigenic sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus involved in neutralization; identification by single and multiple site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus have been characterized on the basis of their reactivity with a panel of single site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants which had defined three antigenic sites. five antibodies neutralized all these mutants, but by selecting further single site mutants with one of these antibodies it was possible to define a fourth site involved in virus neutralization. two monoclonal antibodies still neutralized these mutan ...19892471793
epitope mapping of foot-and-mouth disease virus with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.epitopes of strain a22 iraq 24/64 of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been mapped with monoclonal antibodies (mabs). three methods were used: (i) an indirect elisa using an overlapping set of peptides, (ii) production of neutralization escape variants against each mab and (iii) sequencing of neutralization escape variants. the study has shown that the virus has at least three overlapping liner neutralizing epitopes within a major antigenic site on vp1. the presence of a second, conformational s ...19892471783
host cell selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a22 iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in bhk monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the a serotype. plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. however, viruses obtained by passage in suspension bhk cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned fr ...19892471782
molecular dynamics of the alpha-helical epitope of a novel synthetic lipopeptide foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.a novel synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccine consisting of a synthetic b-cell and macrophage activator covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope was developed. the low molecular weight vaccine of 3400 daltons is composed of virus vp1 antigenic determinant and the immunologically active lipotripeptide tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-serine (p3css) as built-in adjuvant. the vaccine, tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-seryl-fmdv-vp1 (vp1 ...19892470437
novel low-molecular-weight synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease containing a potent b-cell and macrophage activator.most synthetic peptide vaccines described to date are effective only in combination with proteins and freund's adjuvant. the work describes a novel completely synthetic virus peptide vaccine, which consists of a synthetic activator of b cells and macrophages, covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope. the low-molecular-weight vaccine of 3.4 kda developed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is composed of a synthetic vp1 (135-154) with a sequence homologous to an fm ...19892470215
analysis of neutralizing antigenic sites on the surface of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) directed against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to generate neutralization-resistant variants. both plaque reduction neutralization and microneutralization assays showed that the variants were no longer neutralized by the nmabs used to generate them, although some of the variants still reacted with the nmabs at high antibody concentrations. results of cross-neutralization studies by both plaque reduction neutralization ...19892467993
class i mhc-restricted cytotoxic t cells efficiently recognize haemagglutinin that is defective in protein folding and cell surface expressions.cytotoxic t-cell recognition of an engineered variant of the influenza viral haemagglutinin (ha), expressed in vaccinia virus, was investigated. we show that the insertion of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogenic peptide into the ha results in major disruption of its higher order structure with intracellular rather than cell surface localization accompanying the loss of conformational epitopes detected by antibody. in contradistinction to antibody, recognition of the chimaeric molecu ...19882467191
orientation of epitopes influences the immunogenicity of synthetic peptide dimers.the immunogenicity of synthetic peptide dimers based on epitope sequences derived from the mycobacterial 65-kda antigen and the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein was examined in inbred mice. the analysis was directed towards the potential helper role of a t cell stimulatory mycobacterial epitope (65-85) with respect to poorly immunogenic sites either from the same molecule (422-436) or from vp1 (141-160). the 65-85 repeat homodimer induced an antibody response in cba/ca but not in ...19882464496
extensive antigenic heterogeneity of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c.the antigenic behavior of 46 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c has been studied with a panel of 24 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) prepared against fmdv c1 or fmdv c3 indaial. reactivities were assayed by immunodot, immunoelectrotransfer blot, and neutralization of infectivity. the epitopes recognized by the 10 nonneutralizing mabs are conserved in all isolates analyzed. in contrast, extreme antigenic heterogeneity is documented with regard to reactivity with 14 ma ...19882460992
immunization against foot-and-mouth disease with synthetic peptides representing the c-terminal region of vp1.foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge experiments in guinea-pigs and immunoassays with a range of peptides equivalent to either or both of the sequences 141 to 158 and 200 to 213 of vp1 showed the most effective structure, in terms of protection, to be one in which both 'sites' were present with a minimum of additional amino acids. an 80 residue peptide comprising amino acids 134 to 213 was considerably less effective than 40 or 45 residue peptides. the major site for the induction of protectio ...19882457649
antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus type a10.a set of monoclonal antibodies was used to isolate nonneutralizable foot-and-mouth disease virus variants, and the rnas of the variants were sequenced. cross-neutralization studies and mapping of the amino acid changes indicated two major antigenic sites. the first site was trypsin sensitive and included the vp1 140 to 160 sequence. the second site was trypsin insensitive and included mainly vp3 residues. two minor sites were located near vp1 169 and on the c terminus of vp1. comparison with pol ...19882455819
genetic and immunogenic variations among closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic heterogeneity among closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been measured by direct sequencing of the vp1-coding-region rna for three new fmdvs of serotype c1 and by additional sequences of rna from previously reported isolates, all belonging to a single episode of disease [sobrino et al., gene 50 (1986) 149-159]. in the ten viruses compared, eight different vp1 are represented. the changes include amino acid substitutions at a critical antigenic determinant o ...19882453395
evidence for more than one important, neutralizing site on foot-and-mouth disease virus. brief report.using polyclonal sera raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus in susceptible animals, evidence was obtained for the existence of at least one further important antigenic site in addition to the neutralizing site on vp1 140-160.19882453185
use of outer membrane protein phoe as a carrier for the transport of a foreign antigenic determinant to the cell surface of escherichia coli k-12.phoe protein is an abundant transmembrane protein from the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane. a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to an antigenic determinant of the c-terminal part of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was inserted into the phoe gene in an area corresponding to a cell surface-exposed region of the phoe protein. the level of expression of the hybrid protein was normal and the protein was incorporated into the outer membrane. the vp1-epitope was exposed ...19872449378
studies on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna using microinjection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna, isolated as virion rna from purified virus particles or as total rna from infected cells, has been microinjected into nuclei and cytoplasms of bhk cells. when injected directly into the nucleus fmdv rna was not infectious, whereas cytoplasmic injection resulted in a high proportion of productive infections. infectivity microinjection assays on dilution series of various fmdv rnas showed that both single-stranded positive sense 35s rna and double-stranded ...19882448416
fusion proteins with multiple copies of the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus protect both the natural host and laboratory animals.proteins consisting of one, two or four copies of the amino acid sequence 137 to 162, which contains the major immunogenic site of vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, attached to the n-terminus of beta-galactosidase have been expressed in escherichia coli cells. in guinea-pigs the protein containing one copy (p71) of the viral determinant elicited only low levels of neutralizing antibody whereas protective levels were elicited by the proteins containing two (p72) or four (p74) copies of the det ...19872447225
reactivity with monoclonal antibodies of viruses from an episode of foot-and-mouth disease.a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1 (fmdv c-s8c1) and 11 mabs raised against other fmdvs have been used to evaluate the reactivity of 14 isolates of fmdv of serotype c1 (series fmdv c-s), 12 of them from one disease episode (spain 1979-1982). the assays used were immunoelectrotransfer blot, immunodot and neutralization of infectivity. none of the isolates could be clearly distinguished by its reactivity with 6 non-neutraliz ...19872446442
improved immunogenicity of a peptide epitope after fusion to hepatitis b core protein.synthetic vaccines for viral diseases can use defined regions of viral proteins as immunogens: the peptide sequence of amino acids 141-160 of the vp1 protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies to protect guinea pigs, cattle and pigs either when coupled to a carrier protein or when administered in liposomes or in incomplete freund's adjuvant. the immune response to these peptides is much lower than that to complete virus particles and the same sequence fu ...19872446137
[synthetic peptides simulating the protective epitopes of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o and a].in a search of novel approaches to cattle protection from foot-and-mouth disease we have prepared a series of peptides from the major antigenic region 130-160 of the vp1 protein. the 144-159 peptide as well as 141-152, 141-148, 148-159 segments (strain o1k) were inactive in all in vitro and in vivo experiments on virus inhibiting. on the other band, synthetic 136-152, 136-148 o1k sequences as well as 131-149, 140-149 a22 sequences afforded 50 to 100% protection, both in the free state and conjug ...19872445357
non-responsiveness to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide overcome by addition of foreign helper t-cell of the immune response to synthetic antigens has shown that uncoupled peptides can realize their potential as vaccines only if they contain domains that react with helper t-cell receptors and ia antigens in addition to antibody binding sites. here we consider whether genetically restricted non-responsiveness to an uncoupled peptide could be overcome by synthesizing a peptide with an additional helper t-cell epitope from a different protein. we demonstrate that h-2d mice, which are non-resp ...19872444892
neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus can be mediated through any of at least three separate antigenic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were used to characterize 30 escape mutants of a type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (o1 kaufbeuren) selected with the five most active antibodies. three non-overlapping antigenic sites were found by elisa and cross-neutralization studies. within two of the sites the epitopes of two or more monoclonal antibodies overlapped. two of the sites were conformation-dependent and could not be detected on virus subunits or isolated denatured polypeptides. th ...19872438378
antigenic comparison of the polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes and other picornaviruses.the cross-reactivity of proteins coded for by the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was assessed by reaction of infected cell lysates with polyclonal and monospecific antisera against the structural and nonstructural proteins of fmdv type a12 strain 119ab. it was shown that the homologous polypeptides from most serotypes are antigenically related. the least cross-reactivity occurred between vp1, vp3, and the protease (3c) of type a12 and south african territories types 1 and ...19872437694
synthesis of fusion proteins with multiple copies of an antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a series of four expression plasmids coding for fusion proteins containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) sequences was constructed. the fusion proteins contain a large part of beta-galactosidase from escherichia coli preceded (n-terminal) by 1, 2, 4 or 8 repeats of the antigenic determinant of fmdv consisting of amino acids 137-162 of the capsid polypeptide vp1. all four fusion proteins were efficiently produced in e. coli host bacteria. immunization of rabbits resulted in fmdv-specific, n ...19862436976
[a new approach to dna synthesis from synthetic oligonucleotides. synthesis of dna coding for the repeated antigenic determinant of foot and mouth disease virus].a rapid method for assembly of dna from synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed which involves separate ligation of top- and bottom-strand oligonucleotides followed by filling in 3'-ends of the duplex formed, blunt end cloning into a specialized vector pbbv, and recovery of the synthetic dna from the recombinant plasmid by means of restriction nuclease bbvii. the method allows for many oligonucleotides to be ligated at once, with no intermediates being isolated, and any dna to be reco ...19872436628
epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles. i. topology.monoclonal antibodies (mab) against an o1 suisse isolate of fmdv were used to identify epitopes on the virus particle and to determine their relative function. six major antigenic sites containing one or more epitopes were identified using competition elisa. an epitope relationship is proposed consisting of a trypsin-sensitive sequential site, termed b2/d9, from the codings for the mab which reacted with it, which was associated with virus infectivity and is probably at or near to the cell-bindi ...19872435060
antigenicity and immunogenicity of synthetic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus.peptides reactive with two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus a10 were identified with the aid of all overlapping (hexa)peptides of the outer structural viral protein vp1 and located on the viral surface. using this procedure, it was possible to define those amino acids within a peptide which were critical in the binding of antibody to that peptide. one eight amino acid long peptide, containing six such amino acids, was virtually indistinguishab ...19872434606
a priori delineation of a peptide which mimics a discontinuous antigenic determinant.a technique was developed for identifying peptides with high affinity for a given antibody. by testing a monoclonal antibody directed against a discontinuous antigenic determinant on foot-and-mouth disease virus, peptides mimicking the determinant were identified even though the tertiary structure of the proteins comprising the virus capsid is unknown. the allowable variations in spacing and stereochemistry of the peptides shown to mimic this epitope suggest protein folding in which amino acid r ...19862432410
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 brugge neutralization epitopes using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were elicited with inactivated, purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o1 strain brugge (140s) and with 12s protein subunits. each mab was tested for its capacity to bind to fmdv o1 brugge 140s virions, 12s subunits and purified vp1 by radioimmunoassay (ria) and to neutralize viral infectivity in mouse protection assays. those mabs which reacted only with 12s subunits in ria did not neutralize infectious virus. one mab, 12fe9.2.1, reacted with 140s, 12s an ...19862428926
the delineation of peptides able to mimic assembled epitopes.present methods allow a detailed study of the immune system's recognition of sequential epitopes. the results so far suggest that peptides homologous with these epitopes may not fulfil the early promise of synthetic vaccines. a procedure is described which now allows the study and evaluation of assembled epitopes. using a monoclonal antibody which had been shown both to strongly neutralize foot-and-mouth disease virus, and to bind to a discontinuous epitope, peptides mimicking this epitope were ...19862426049
synthesis of fusion proteins containing antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.part of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 01,bfs, including the sequence encoding the capsid polypeptide vp1, was cloned in escherichia coli following a new cloning strategy. the clone containing the vp1 sequence was used for the construction of two expression plasmids encoding vp1 fusion proteins. subsequently, substantial amounts of the two vp1-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins, containing either one (amino acid region 140-160) or two (amino acid regions 140-160 and 200-2 ...19862425505
[primary structure of the dna copy of the protein vp1 gene of the foot-and-mouth disease virus a22].the dna-copy of the major antigen (vp1) coding region of the fmdv a22 sero-type has been cloned and sequenced. a comparison of the respective amino acid sequence with those of other vp1 of a-serotype revealed considerable differences in the structure of antigenic determinants.19862421736
epitope mapping of the outer structural protein vp1 of three different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.all overlapping hexapeptides of the outer structural protein vp1 of type o1, type a10, and type c1 were reacted with the appropriate anti-virus, anti-viral subunit and anti-vp1 sera. the results suggest that anti-virus sera may contain activities against viral subunit and vp1 as well as against virus. furthermore the antigenic peptides associated with the intact virion of all three serotypes are found at similar locations on their respective vp1s, and produced neutralizing activities when used f ...19862418582
an epitope located at the c terminus of isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o induces neutralizing activity but poor protection.both whole virus particles and isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 induce neutralizing antibodies. results obtained with pigs vaccinated with either isolated vp1 or intact particles and subsequently challenged show that neutralizing activity induced by intact virus correlates well with protection in pigs, whereas neutralizing activity induced by isolated vp1 confers little or no protection. further evidence suggests that the epitope responsible for the induction of neutralizing ...19862418152
homologous interference by a foot-and-mouth disease virus strain attenuated for attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of the a24 cruzeiro subtype grew less well than wild-type virus in primary bovine fetal kidney (pbk) cells resulting in a 4-log lowered efficiency of plaque formation. both wild-type and attenuated virus grew equally well in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells and in suckling mice. using pbk cells, virus-specific rna of the wild-type accumulated up to 6 hours after infection. in contrast, pbk cells infected with the attenuated strain made l ...19852415086
a liquid-phase elisa and its use in the identification of epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed which would detect antigen/antibody reactions in liquid-phase; that is under test conditions which should not alter the structure or reactivity of either antigen or antibody. this liquid-phase elisa was at least as efficient, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as the double sandwich or antigen-trapping elisa (crowther and abu elzein, 1979), but six to eight times more sensitive than the indirect elisa. the liquid-phase test can be used to as ...19852414308
variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates in kenya: an examination of field isolates by t1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting.ribonuclease t1 oligonucleotide maps of strains of 4 of the endemic serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in kenya between 1964 and 1982 have been compared with data obtained in complement-fixation and neutralization tests. there was a continual change in the oligonucleotide maps obtained for all the serotypes examined. this genetic heterogeneity was generally associated with antigenic variation. viruses isolated during the 12-month course of an epidemic of the sat 1 serotype showed ...19852413611
a study of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of their structural polypeptides.twenty-nine foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) type a virus strains, previously classified serologically as distinct subtypes were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) to determine the extent of variation in the pattern of the structural polypeptides and to evaluate the technique as an aid to existing subtyping techniques. the majority of the subtypes examined had distinct polypeptide patterns, however, some variation also occurred between strains within a subtype. the position of vp2 ...19852412337
capsid intermediates assembled in a foot-and-mouth disease virus genome rna-programmed cell-free translation system and in infected cells.structural protein complexes sedimenting at 140s, 70s (empty capsids), and 14s were isolated from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells. the empty capsids were stable, while 14s complexes were relatively short-lived. radioimmune binding assays involving the use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to six distinct epitopes on type a12 virus and polyclonal antisera to a12 structural proteins demonstrated that native empty capsids were indistinguishable from virus. infected cell 14s particle ...19852411948
immunological properties of hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins.the immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an n-terminal fusion with hepatitis b core antigen. in this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide wi ...19902320575
[virus carriers in foot-and-mouth disease. review].fmdv infection can cause a long lasting virus carrier state in the oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) region of cattle, sheep, goats, african buffalo, wildebeest and kudu. virus can be recovered from op fluids with low titres for several months up to more than 2 years. during this time phases of positive virus recovery are interrupted by negative phases. the number of virus carriers decreases as time progresses. the virus carrier state is always accompanied by fmdv antibodies in serum and op fluid. vac ...19902191649
evaluation of the use of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates in solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa).fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates were used in direct and trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the detection of mouse igg and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the detection limits for both antigens were compared using different combinations of enzymes and substrates. various times and concentrations of chemicals were used to obtain maximum sensitivity for both systems. similar sensitivities were found using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates. tetramethyl benzidine ...19902178352
quantification of intact 146s foot-and-mouth disease antigen for vaccine production by a double antibody sandwich elisa using monoclonal antibodies.a double antibody sandwich (das) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantify 146s antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a10 holland grown in suspension cultures of surviving bovine tongue epithelium. when virus harvests were incubated with trypsin--which affects vp1, the most immunogenic structural protein of fmdv--the concentration of 146s antigen as determined by elisa was reduced by greater than 90%. therefore, the test detected essentially only those v ...19902178351
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. ii. for use in the and inactivated preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains 01 bfs 1860 and a22 irq 24/64 were freeze-dried in the presence or absence of additive solutions and assessed for their reactivity by elisa at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution and subsequent storage with or without glycerination. the type specificity of all antigen preparations was maintained throughout the study period and the potency of antigens, judged by ti ...19902175750
international bank for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine: stability studies with virus concentrates and vaccines prepared from international bank foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has been established at the pirbright laboratory of the afrc institute for animal health. the bank is based on concentrated virus preparations stored in the gaseous phase of liquid nitrogen and is capable of producing up to 0.5 million cattle doses of each of five common strains of the virus (fmdv) for the member nations of the bank. this paper describes the initial and subsequent testing of the virus concentrates and vaccines prepared f ...19902174597
protection of guinea-pigs against foot-and-mouth disease virus by immunization with a phoe-fmdv hybrid protein.a hybrid protein was constructed containing two antigenic determinants of the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inserted in a cell surface-exposed region of escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe. immunization of guinea-pigs with partially purified protein resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibodies and complete protection against challenge with the virus.19902174595
[synthetic immunogenic complexes containing a peptide from the surface protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].synthetic constructions containing a peptide antigenic determinant (c-terminal peptide 205-213 of the surface vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, o1k strain), glucosaminylmuramayl dipeptide (gmdp), and polyionic synthetic carriers were prepared. the polymerized peptide and peptide-bsa conjugates were synthesized as well. among the constructions obtained only peptide-bsa conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic. application of synthetic constructions to design immunogenic complexes ...19902173604
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. ii. application.the complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated to detect antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. log10 serum titres of uninfected, unvaccinated cattle (n = 100) were less than 1.80 in the ctb-elisa. sera from cattle vaccinated with either monovalent or trivalent vaccines were tested in both the ctb-elisa and the serum neutralisation test (snt); titres in both tests correlated positiv ...19902173249
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. i. method and characteristics.a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. for each strain two monoclonal antibodies directed against different antigenic sites of fmdv were used. the assay used either infectious, not inactivated antigen or inactivated antigen. we concluded that the ctb-elisa was sensitive, type-specific, and more reproducible (p less th ...19902173248
unique amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus from a persistent infection in cell culture.maintenance of a persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in bhk-21 cells involves a coevolution of cells and virus (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. díez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). the resident fmdv undergoes a number of phenotypic changes, including a gradual decrease in virion stability. here we report the nucleotide sequence of the p1 genomic segment of the virus rescued after 100 passages of the car ...19902170684
a region of the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells: involvement with the role of l protease in translational control.plasmids encoding bicistronic mrnas have been constructed and used to identify a region from the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells. the loss of about 30 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' terminus or about 50 nt from the 3' terminus of the 435-nt region completely abolished the activity of this region. the expression of the fmdv l protease severely inhibited the expression of other genes unless they ...19902170677
use of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in liquid-phase blocking elisa.a liquid-phase blocking elisa is used by the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease for the quantification of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. the potential for using inactivated fmdv antigens in the assay has been assessed by titrating bovine convalescent sera to all seven serotypes and comparing the titres obtained with live or inactivated antigens. the titres were similar indicating that either live or inactivated antigens can be used in the liquid-phase blocking eli ...19902170435
the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for its physical and biological properties.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been solved at a resolution of 2.9 a by x-ray diffraction techniques. the overall structural organisation of the particle is similar to that seen in other picornaviruses but there are several unique features. many of these help to explain its characteristic physical and biological properties. in particular the canyon or pit found at the surface of other picornaviruses is lacking, which has important implications for cell attachment and the proces ...19902169674
foot-and-mouth disease virus subtyping by sequencing vp1 order to use nucleotide sequencing for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) diagnostic subtyping, it is necessary to shorten the time required for preparation of suitable templates. the time required for analysis was reduced by use of the viral rna present in the total rna extract of tissue from infected cattle as a template in the sanger sequencing reaction. results are now available within 3 days. the sequences determined encode capsid protein vp1 and therefore major neutralization epitopes. ...19902169671
a cellular 57 kda protein binds to two regions of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a ribosome-associated 57 kda protein from rabbit reticulocytes was linked to the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus by mild uv-irradiation. binding studies with different rna fragments revealed that this protein interacts with two distinct sites within the translational control region. one site is located approximately 400 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and the second binding site could be confined to 60 nucleotides preceding this codon. ...19902169432
functional analysis of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.mutagenesis of the large untranslated sequence at the 5' end of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus revealed that a region of approximately 450 nucleotides preceding the open reading frame of the viral polyprotein is involved in the regulation of translation initiation at two internal start sites. variations in two domains of this region reduced the translation efficiency up to 10-fold, whereas an intermediate segment seemed to be less essential. a pyrimidine-rich sequence preceding the s ...19902168956
antigenic analysis of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the middle east, 1981 to 1988.during the period 1981-88 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o continued to be isolated from outbreaks in the middle east. field isolates submitted to the world reference laboratory have been examined in relation to reference strains by either complement fixation, virus neutralization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. most isolates were related to the european type o1 reference strains although strains emerging in late 1987 and 1988 were more closely related to o1/manisa. in addit ...19902168609
the effect of peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence on the adsorption of foot-and-mouth disease virus to tissue culture cells.sequencing of the vp1 of a large number of subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has revealed the presence of a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) sequence located in a highly exposed region. this sequence has been shown to be essential for the interaction of certain extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins with a superfamily of cell-surface receptors called integrins. we have examined the effects of synthetic peptides containing the rgd sequence on the binding of eight d ...19902168107
synthesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cdna cassettes containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor p1-2a with and without those encoding the proteases l and 3c were introduced into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acmnpv) expression vectors. procapsid proteins 1ab, 1c and 1d were produced in cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, when l and 3c were present in the constructs, indicating that these fmdv proteases were active in insect cells. unlike p1 processing in pol ...19902167924
estimation of 140s particles in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine by using the computer analyzing system.the quantity of 140s particles in inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine samples produced in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production center (fmd vaccine production center) in thailand was estimated by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and optical density analysis by using the computer applying system. the soft ware; chromato data system (cds) (nihon chromato works co., ltd. japan) which is prepared for the analysis of chromatography, was applied for the estimation of 14 ...19902166853
identification of a nucleotide deletion in parts of polypeptide 3a in two independent attenuated aphthovirus strains.a set of antisera specific for each viral polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to provide a full comparison of polypeptides of two strains attenuated for cattle with respect to their parental virulent strains. both attenuated strains, belonging to serotypes o1 campos and c3 resende, were obtained through serial passages of the corresponding virulent strains in chicken embryos. although mutations were scattered throughout the genome, both attenuated strains showed an electrophoret ...19902164734
isotype responses of infected, virus-vaccinated and peptide-vaccinated cattle to foot-and-mouth disease elisa to measure bovine serum immunoglobulin isotypes (igg1, igg2, igm and iga) specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or for synthetic fmdv peptides is described. sera from cattle infected by fmdv, vaccinated with conventional inactivated virus vaccines or vaccinated with synthetic peptides were examined using this assay. generally igg subclasses dominated the antibody responses of all groups after an early igm response had waned. an exception to this pattern was seen in the case o ...19902163575
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