PMID(sorted ascending)
construction and characterization of yeast two-hybrid cdna library derived from lfbk cell line.the cdna libraries are indispensable and critical tools for performing protein-protein interaction studies. in this study, a high quality yeast two-hybrid cdna library from the lfbk cell line was constructed and characterized. lfbk cell line was originally derived from the swine kidney cells and is highly susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. the total rna was extracted from the lfbk cells and the switching mechanism at the 5' end of rna template (smart) technique was emp ...201525787111
pan-serotype diagnostic for foot-and-mouth disease using the consensus antigen of nonstructural protein amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven fmdv serotypes are described. the amino acid consensus sequence of the 3b protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3b. the consensus 3b (c3b) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-bindi ...201525788546
immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. there is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (vlps), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. the vlps are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. the objective of the present study was to express the vlps of f ...201525790055
transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an fmdv infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep.we wanted to quantify transmission of fmdv asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an fmdv infection in sheep. for this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. in each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2 pen-mates. viral excretion was detected for a long period (>21 days post-inoculation, dpi). transmission of fmdv occurred in the non-vaccinated groups (r0=1.14) but only in the first week after infection ...201525790732
evolutionary analysis of structural protein gene vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 was mostly endemic in asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. in this study, we characterized 377 isolates from asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups i-viii) or were ...201525793223
risk factors for infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in this study, we estimated the level of foot-and-mouth (fmd) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of islamic republic of iran and analyzed putative risk factors for fmd infection. calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of west azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsp-ab) of fmd virus. a proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. within ...201525805320
comparison of stabilisers for development of a lyophilised multiplex reverse-transcription pcr mixture for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus serotypes.multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (mrt-pcr) assay is a sensitive and rapid method for the detection and serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). however, the method has not been used to its full potential, because of factors such as cost, a lack of infrastructure and the complexity of the reaction mixture. this study was undertaken to optimise and validate a thermostable, lyophilised, ready-to-use mrt-pcr kit for the rapid detection of fmdv in field laboratories ...201425812209
determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-saharan africa.the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for rna replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine fmdv isolates of sat1, sat2, sat3, a and o serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. the leader protease (l(pro)) and 3a ...201525818579
apigenin restricts fmdv infection and inhibits viral ires driven translational activity.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by fmd virus (fmdv). fmd outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. results show that apigenin can inhibit fmdv-mediated cytopathogenic effect and fmdv replication in vitro. further studie ...201525835532
risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. recurrence of fmd outbreaks in israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of fmd among ...201525841998
phylogenetic analysis of the leader proteinase (lpro) region of indian foot and mouth disease serotype o this study, the nucleotide sequences of the complete leader proteinase (lpro) region of 21 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o collected during various outbreaks in india were sequenced and compared with vaccine strains. the phylogenetic analysis of these lpro sequences showed a difference in the clustering of the isolates based on the vp1 capsid coding region sequences. the comparison of amino acid sequences at the n terminus end of the lpro region showed very high var ...201525842211
stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine.most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. intact (146s) fmdv particles can dissociate into 12s degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. we therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed elisas to separately quantify 12s and 146s particles. virions completely dissociated into 12s particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. dissociation occur ...201525843267
an appraisal on the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a livestock disease that has serious economic repercussions. here, we report the laboratory results for samples from suspected outbreaks that were sent for confirmation of fmd in pakistan. from january 2010 to december 2011, 132 suspected outbreaks were investigated, and samples from 58 out of the 76 outbreaks sent to the national veterinary laboratory (nvl) were positive. the highest proportion of positives were of serotype o (65.52 %), followed by serotype a (24 ...201525850759
the impact of within-herd genetic variation upon inferred transmission trees for foot-and-mouth disease virus.full-genome sequences have been used to monitor the fine-scale dynamics of epidemics caused by rna viruses. however, the ability of this approach to confidently reconstruct transmission trees is limited by the knowledge of the genetic diversity of viruses that exist within different epidemiological units. in order to address this question, this study investigated the variability of 45 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences (from 33 animals) that were collected during 2007 from eigh ...201525861750
development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control rna for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. for high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks asso ...201525864934
a transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric bamboo mosaic virus particles.we describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. we generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (vp1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antigens accumulated to high levels in bdt38 and bdt19 transgenic cell lines co-ex ...201625879277
impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in kenya.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into fmd-free countries. information on the impact of the disease in fmdv-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. a fmd (virus serotype sat2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in nakuru county, kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of fmd o ...201525889460
serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs (bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.we report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. bannerghatta biological park (bbp), a national park located in the outskirts of bengaluru city, karnataka, india, is bordered by several villages. these villages witnessed massive outbreaks of fmd which spread rapidly to the herbivores at bbp. post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two india ...201525894817
multifunctionality of a picornavirus polymerase domain: nuclear localization signal and nucleotide recognition.the n-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d polymerase contains the sequence mrktklapt (residues 16 to 24) that acts as a nuclear localization signal. a previous study showed that substitutions k18e and k20e diminished the transport to the nucleus of 3d and 3cd and severely impaired virus infectivity. these residues have also been implicated in template binding, as seen in the crystal structures of different 3d-rna elongation complexes. here, we report the biochemical and ...201525903341
foot-and-mouth disease in red deer - experimental infection and test methods performance.the aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) test methods for use in red deer. ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the fmd virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). it tested ...201725907028
quantitative single dilution liquid phase blocking elisa for sero-monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in india.three of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus are prevailing in india. a massive vaccination campaign is on to control and eradicate the disease from the country. however, fmd vaccines provide short term immunity, hence regular assessment of antibody level in the vaccinated herds is indispensible for the success of the control programme. the antibodies are quantitatively estimated, either by virus neutralization test or by end-point dilution liquid-phase-blocking elisa (lpbe ...201525911541
viral bimolecular fluorescence complementation: a novel tool to study intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways.the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) accessory protein nef interacts with a multitude of cellular proteins, manipulating the host membrane trafficking machinery to evade immune surveillance. nef interactions have been analyzed using various in vitro assays, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and more recently mass spectrometry. however, these methods do not evaluate nef interactions in the context of viral infection nor do they define the sub-cellular location of these interactions. in t ...201525915798
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with a fmdv o mya98 lineage virus in pigs 4 and 7 days post vaccination.early protection with a high potency (>6pd50) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) o1 manisa (middle-east south asia lineage) vaccine against challenge with o/vit/2010 (o mya98 lineage) was tested in pigs. only two pigs that were vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had any demonstrable antibodies as a result of vaccination at the time of challenge. however, 80% and 60% of pigs that were vaccinated seven and four days prior to coronary band challenge were protected. vaccination significantly reduced ...201525917677
quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. to quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of fmdv, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. in direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. in indirect contact expe ...201525928658
intra-serotype sat2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against fmdv challenge.the genetic diversity of the three southern african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each sat-specific topotype may be needed. this has serious implications for control of fmd using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vsat2(zim14)-sat2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed ...201525930116
chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides improve the immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in mice.water-soluble polysaccharides from chuanminshen violaceum (cvps) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, monosaccharide composition, and adjuvant potential to specific cellular and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination. the average molecular weight (mw) of the cvps was 968.31 kda. the monosaccharide components of the cvps was rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a relative mass of 6.29%, 21.87%, 16.5 ...201525934108
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype o 2010 south east asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o, topotype south east asia, lineage myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. all four exposure systems were ef ...201525937316
viroporin activity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural 2b protein.viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. among the picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2b protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2b protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201525946195
promotion of viral ires-mediated translation initiation under mild hypothermia.internal ribosome entry site (ires)-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. as ires-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an ires element of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), hepatitis c v ...201525951166
a hydrophobic interaction chromatography strategy for purification of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus.a purification scheme based on hydrophobic interaction chromatography was developed to separate inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from crude supernatant. about 92% recovery and 8.8-fold purification were achieved on butyl sepharose 4 ff. further purification on superdex 200 resulted in another 29-fold purification, with 92% recovery. the columns were coupled through an intermediate ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the virus. the entire process was completed in about 3.5h, with 7 ...201525957800
development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. a rapid and specific test for fmd diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. this project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-lfi) for the rapid detection and serotyping of fmd viruses. the monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against serotypes o, a, and asia 1 were used as cap ...201525977185
different functional sensitivity to mutation at intersubunit interfaces involved in consecutive stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus assembly.small spherical viruses are paradigms of supramolecular self-assembly. identifying the specific structural determinants for virus assembly provides guidelines to develop new antiviral drugs or engineer modified viral particles for medical or technological applications. however, very few systematic studies have been carried out so far to identify those chemical groups at interfaces between virus capsid subunits that are important for viral assembly and function. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...201525979732
review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus affects livestock worldwide. there are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. the objective of this study was to review the most significant fmd epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. severe epidemics were caused by fmd virus (fmdv) lineage o/asia/mya-98 in ja ...201725996568
persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle; tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression.tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of fmdv and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with fmdv serotype a, o or sat2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). fmdv was less frequently detect ...201525996935
characterization of single-domain antibodies against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o from a camelid and imaging of fmdv in baby hamster kidney-21 cells with single-domain antibody-quantum dots probes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and causes significant economic losses to husbandry worldwide. the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs or single domain antibodies, sdabs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies.201526001568
capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage c foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from india.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first reported in india in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (b, c and d) of this serotype have been described until now. in this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype asia1 viruses (n = 99) from india were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. all of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage c (designated as sublineage c(r) ...201526008211
[construction and characterization of an epitope-mutated asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus].to generate an epitope-mutated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) as a marker vaccine, the infectious clone pasia 1-fmdv containing the complete genomic cdna of asia 1 type fmdv was used as backbone, the residues at positions 27 and 31 in the 3d gene were mutated (h27y and n31r). the resulting plasmid pasia 1-fmdv-3dm encoding a mutated epitope was transfected into bhk-21 cells and the recombinant virus rasia 1-3dm was rescued. the recombinant virus showed similar biological characteristics com ...201526021083
robust protection against highly virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine by combination treatment with recombinant adenoviruses expressing porcine alpha and gamma interferons and multiple small interfering rnas.because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. we have developed recombinant aden ...201526041279
expression of porcine mx1 with fmdv ires enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pk-15 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. due to the rapid replication and spread of fmdv, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block fmdv shedding in cases of disease outbreak. here, we generated an ires-mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of fmdv was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (orf) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (pomx1). this construct provides ...201526047650
evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind2001 lineage.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o ind2001 lineage within the middle east-south asia topotype is the major cause of recent fmd incidences in india. a sub-lineage of ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from libya. in this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of ind2001 lineage. phylogenetic analysis of ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three ...201526049591
sat2 foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in a mixed farm in egypt.a dairy farm keeping holstein cattle and buffaloes in the menoufia governorate was investigated during and after the last foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in egypt (starting february 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. all animals were vaccinated against fmd with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing o1 and a/egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of ...201526054223
comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-αvβ6 for foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains. the suitability of zz-r 127 cells for fmdv isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. however, to our knowledge, the suitability of lfbk-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epitheli ...201526082457
transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. a novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. here, we produce transgenic (tg) pigs that constitutively expressed fmdv-specific short interfering rna (sirna) derived from small hairpin rna (shrna). in vitro challenge of tg fibroblasts showed the shrna suppressed viral growth. tg and non-tg pigs were challeng ...201526090904
recovery of infectious type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an rna polymerase i/ii-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.we developed an rna polymerase (pol) i- and ii-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cloned cdna. in this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cdna was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (hamrz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (hdvrz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (cmv) and pol i promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. the utilit ...201526091821
a computational study of the interaction of the foot and mouth disease virus vp1 with monoclonal antibodies.foot and mouth disease is caused by a non-enveloped virus (fmdv), which disposes several antigenic sites at the surface of their capsid proteins. the most relevant and immunodominant antigenic site of fmdv (site a or ansa) includes a key virus-cell interaction element (rgd motif) located in the viral protein 1 (vp1), more precisely at the gh loop. ansa includes a set of overlapped and mainly linear epitopes, which are the main targets of the humoral immune response. taking advantage over specifi ...201526093030
eradication of transboundary animal diseases: can the rinderpest success story be repeated?a matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (tads). the system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). on that basis, 25 tads that have occurred or do occur in southern africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (inco ...201726104982
virus excretion from foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier cattle and their potential role in causing new outbreaks.the role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from fmdv infection. in this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. we col ...201526110772
engineering foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o ind r2/1975 for one-step purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.immobilized metal affinity chromatography (imac) allows for the efficient protein purification via metal affinity tag such as hexa-histidine (his6) sequence. to develop a new chromatography strategy for the purification and concentration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles, we inserted the his6-tag at the earlier reported site in the vp1 g-h loop of the fmd virus serotype o vaccine strain ind r2/1975. display of the his6-tag on the capsid surface, endowed the virus with an increased ...201526123433
a new lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in india.the complete nucleotide sequence of a new lineage of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was determined. the lineage designated as ind2011 first appeared during 2011 in the southern region of india. excluding the poly c tract and poly a tail, the genome of ind2011 ranged from 8,169 to 8,172 nucleotides. variation in the genome length was due to insertions/deletions in lf-utr. the lineage had a higher sequence identity with lineage panasia-1 at p1 and p2 regions, and with lineage panas ...201526129666
isolation of novel sequences targeting highly variable viral protein hemagglutinin.rapid evolution is a hallmark of the viral kingdom and a major concern for developing universal vaccines. the isolation of substantial numbers of viral sequence variants at highly variable viral protein domains remains a major challenge. we previously developed a combinatorial method for the isolation of novel sequences to cope with rapid viral variations at the g-h loop of foot and mouth disease virus vp1 protein [1]. here we present a modification of that method in its application in the rando ...201526150973
systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody-secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic responses upon aerosol infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated fmd virus (fmdv), are regularly used worldwide to control the disease. here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. animals immunized with a high-payload monovalent fmd vaccine developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies at 7 days post ...201526157128
complete genome sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses recovered from experimental persistently infected cattle.for the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. no consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.201526159521
quantitative proteomic analysis of bhk-21 cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (silac) was used to quantitatively study the host cell gene expression profile, in order to achieve an unbiased overview of the protein expression changes in bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv serotype asia 1. the silac-based approach identified overall 2,141 proteins, 153 of which showed significant alteration in the expression level 6 h post fmdv infection (57 up-regulated and 96 down-regulated). among these proteins, six cellular proteins, ...201526161868
influence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/chn/mya98/33-p strain leader protein on viral replication and host innate immunity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/chn/mya98/33-p strain was isolated from the esophageal-pharyngeal fluid sample of cattle, and was shown to cause persistent infection. its leader protein contains 200 amino acids with one amino acid deletion, which is upstream and next to the second initiation codon compared with the majority of fmdv mya98 strains. the fmdv genome includes two initiation codons that can produce two different leader proteins, lab (from the first aug) and lb (from the second a ...201526186028
a malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6pd50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant fmdv a sea-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) due to their ability to amplify the virus. it is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. in this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion a malaysia 97 vaccine (>6pd50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the a sea-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). in a ...201526192355
synthetic rnas mimicking structural domains in the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome elicit a broad innate immune response in porcine cells triggered by rig-i and tlr activation.the innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. we have previously described, the ability of small in vitro rna transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome (ncrnas), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. these synthetic non-infec ...201526193305
clonality and intracellular polyploidy in virus evolution and the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. however, despite abundant recombination that may be linked to molecular events essential for genome replication, herein we provide evidence that generation of recombinants with altered biological properties is not essential for the completion of the replic ...201526195777
development of protective immunity against inactivated iranian isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 using gamma ray-irradiated vaccine on balb/c mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. the aim of this research was the inactivation of fmdv type o/irn/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (gri) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs.201526202581
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of dendritic cells triggers phosphorylation of erk1/2 inducing class i presentation and apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this pathology is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). over time, the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of this illness became essential. vaccines currently used contain the inactivated form of the virus. however, vaccination generates an immune response different to that induced by the infection. we investigated whether these differences are related to intracellular mechanisms on de ...201526212005
establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in mdbk addition to acute infection and disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause persistent infection in ruminants. such "carrier" animals represent a potential risk for fmdv transmission to susceptible animals. however, the mechanisms and the factors that determine fmdv persistence remain unknown. we describe here the establishment of fmdv type o persistent infection in a bovine epithelial cell line (madin-darby bovine kidney; mdbk). preliminary experiments to assess the permissivity o ...201526215440
virus-resistant pigs might help to stem next genetically engineering pigs to degrade a crucial viral protein, livestock can be made less susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus.201526222499
plant-produced viral bovine vaccines: what happened during the last 10 years?vaccination has proved to be an efficient strategy to deal with viral infections in both human and animal species. however, protection of cattle against viral infections is still a major concern in veterinary science. during the last two decades, the development of efficient plant-based expression strategies for recombinant proteins prompted the application of this methodology for veterinary vaccine purposes. the main goals of viral bovine vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of cattle ...201526250843
marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3a and 3b.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. the availabil ...201526260689
development and evaluation of a rapid antigen detection and serotyping lateral flow antigen detection system for foot-and-mouth disease virus.we developed a lateral flow strip using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which allows for rapid antigen detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this fmdv serotyping strip was able to detect all 7 serotypes and distinguish serotypes o, a, c and asia1. its sensitivities ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) of a 50% tissue culture infectious dose of each fmdv stain; this is equal to those of the commercial product svanodip (boehringer ingelheim svanova, uppsala, sweden), which can detect ...201526270053
development and characterization of probe-based real time quantitative rt-pcr assays for detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in west eurasia.rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. due to the heterogeneity of fmd viruses (fmdvs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. in this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription ...201526270532
xylaria hypoxylon lectin as adjuvant elicited tfh cell responses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by fmd virus (fmdv) is a major health and economic problem in the farming industry. vaccination of livestock against this highly infectious viral disease is crucial, and inactivated fmd vaccine has been effective at controlling infection. however, accumulated data show that the inactivated vaccine generates weak immune responses and that the oil formulation results in undesirable side effects. mushroom lectins have recently been shown to display adjuvant effec ...201526289530
foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines.control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (fmd) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. indeed, consistent and new fmd epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control str ...201526290730
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype a isolated from vietnam in 2013.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) found in an isolate collected in northern vietnam in 2013 appears to be closely related to a genetic cluster formed with isolates from china, mongolia, and russia in 2013. all of these are classified to fall within the sea-97 lineage, for which little complete genome data are available.201526294636
identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. a major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use r ...201526296881
an integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. to address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic fmd in vietnam. within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with fmd virus (fmdv), of which 10.8% were persistent, asym ...201726301461
synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3d polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). one of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control fmd is 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dpol). in this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against fmdv 3dpol. among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (ic50 = 0.39 μm) of fmdv 3d polymerase and ...201526301555
megaprimer-mediated capsid swapping for the construction of custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the selection of appropriate candidate vaccine strain and its adaptation in cell culture to yield high titer of virus is a cumbersome process. an attractive approach to circumvent this tedious process is to replace the capsid coding sequen ...201526303897
early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. early detection of fmd virus (fmdv) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of fmdv rna in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. in the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with fdmv a24 cruzeiro of different virulen ...201726303975
feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations.within the last decade virus-like particles (vlps) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. to test the feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) particles as a scaffold for epitope presentation and identify sites for epitope fusion or insertion that would not interfere with virus-like-particle formation, chimeric ccmv coat protein (cp) gene constructs were engi ...201526311254
structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (ra27l) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus.buffalopox virus (bpxv), an indian variant of vaccinia virus (vacv), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. a27l is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (opvs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the a27l gene of bpxv-vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature a27l (21s to e110) and c-terminal truncated a27l-lzd (21s to n84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia ...201526319070
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) since 2010 in the republic of korea have occurred in the winter. at the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. in this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chl ...201526319879
evaluation of a combinatorial rnai lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven‑hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. fmdv is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. to generate genetically modified fmdv‑resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh)rnas was constructed using the lentivirus (lv) vector, lv‑3shrna. the three shrnas were expressed under the regulation of dna polymerase iii promoters from a bu ...201526323462
serotype-specific transmission and waning immunity of endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus in cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. the outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. in response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. however, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain et ...201526327324
complete genome sequence analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from pakistan.sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o is reported here. genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (vp1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.201526337880
rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in jilin province china.the aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in jilin province, china, using the assay. a lamp assay targeting a highly conserved region of the f1l gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (cev). three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of jilin province, china, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the lamp assay. the results showed that the s ...201626346652
serological survey of foot-and-mouth disease virus in buffaloes (syncerus caffer) in zambia.a study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) circulating in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) from selected areas in zambia. sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against fmdv while probang samples were used to isolate the fmdv by observing cytopathic effect (cpe). samples with cpe were further analysed using antigen elisa. high fmd seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the ...201526347208
epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china.this manuscript provides insight into the epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china. the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this serotype, which china reported for the first time after 47 years in 2005, suggests that it may have become endemic in the region.201126353050
molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from pakistan, 2005-2008.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in pakistan where three virus serotypes are present (o, a and asia 1). fifty-eight clinical samples collected between 2005 and 2008 from animals with suspected fmd in various locations in pakistan were subjected to virus isolation on primary cell culture, antigen elisa and real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). viruses were isolated from 32 of these samples and identified as fmdv type o (n = 31) or type a ( ...201126353051
experimental infection of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with sat-1 and sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential role of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) sat types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. in two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a sat-1 or sat-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-i ...201126353052
comparative proteomic analysis of wild-type and sap domain mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected porcine cells identifies the ubiquitin-activating enzyme ube1 required for virus replication.leader protein (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) manipulates the activities of several host proteins to promote viral replication and pathogenicity. l(pro) has a conserved protein domain sap that is suggested to subvert interferon (ifn) production to block antiviral responses. however, apart from blocking ifn production, the roles of the sap domain during fmdv infection in host cells remain unknown. therefore, we identified host proteins associated with the sap domain of l(pro) by ...201526354183
encephalomyocarditis virus 3c protease relieves traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) inhibitory effect on traf6-mediated nf-κb signaling through cleavage of tank.traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) is a negative regulator of canonical nf-κb signaling in the toll-like receptor- and b-cell receptor-mediated signaling pathways. however, functions of tank in viral infection-mediated nf-κb activation remain unclear. here, we reported that tank was cleaved by encephalomyocarditis virus 3c at the 197 and 291 glutamine residues, which depends on its cysteine protease activity. in addition, encephalomyocarditis virus 3c impaired the ability of ta ...201526363073
single immunization with a recombinant multiple-epitope protein induced protection against fmdv type asia 1 in develop recombinant epitope vaccines against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1, genes encoding six recombinant proteins (a1-a6) consisting of different combinations of b-cell and t-cell epitopes from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv were constructed. these proteins were expressed in escherichia coli and used to immunize animals. our results showed that a6 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after single inoculation in guinea pigs than did the other five rec ...201526365702
specific detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 virus by carboxyl-magnetic beads conjugated with single-domain antibody.immunomagnetic nanobead (imnb) labeled with specific antibody, has been demonstrated to be useful for the capturing and detection of viruses.201526369792
nmr analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases lb and 2a with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4gii.messenger rna is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4e (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eif4g and the rna helicase eif4a. to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eif4g is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eif4e is unclear. we have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth dise ...201526384734
structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein- ...201526389739
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by commercially available disinfectants and cleaners.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of great concern. it is contagious to cloven-hoofed animals and affects animals in extensive areas worldwide. in general, the primary eradication strategies for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in japan are stamping out the disease and restriction of movement. it is also important to completely disinfect the infected area to prevent the spread of fmdv, including vehicles and people as well. however, there is no report on the effect of commerc ...201526412701
inhibition of ehmt2 induces a robust antiviral response against foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in bovine cells.the genetic regulatory network controlling the innate immune system is well understood in many species. however, the role of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the expression of immunoregulatory genes is less clear, especially in livestock species. histone h3 lysine 9 dimethylation (h3k9me2) is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing within the euchromatin regions. euchromatic histone-lysine n-methyltransferase 2 (ehmt2; also known as g9a) is a crucial enzyme respo ...201626418342
using mathematical modelling to explore hypotheses about the role of bovine epithelium structure in foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced cell lysis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus (fmdv) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and fmd is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). by contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). the reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are ...201526431527
cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. recently, a series of outbreaks of type a fmdv occurred in southeast asian countries, china, the russia federation, mongolia, kazakhstan and south korea. the fmd virus (a/gdmm/cha/2013) from china's guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in vp1 protein with the epidemic stra ...201526431990
employing transposon mutagenesis to investigate foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.probing the molecular interactions within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication complex has been restricted in part by the lack of suitable reagents. random insertional mutagenesis has proven an excellent method to reveal domains of proteins essential for virus replication as well as locations that can tolerate small genetic insertions. such insertion sites can subsequently be adapted by the incorporation of commonly used epitope tags, facilitating their detection with commerci ...201526432090
spectrum of vp1 region genetic variants in the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o populations derived from infected cattle tongue epithelium.rna virus population exists as a complex distribution of non-identical but closely related sequences known as viral quasispecies. variant strains are selected from this quasispecies population in response to changing environment. the quasispecies dynamics of a virus existing within an infected host differs from that in a cell culture-adapted population. this study was carried out to explore the genetic variations present in the vp1 coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype ...201526435155
in vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. no antiviral therapies are available for treating fmd virus (fmdv) infections in animals. the antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (mgo nps) on the fmdv were investigated in cell culture. the viability of the cells after mgo np treatment was determined using the mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bro ...201526435276
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
eri silkworm (samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for acmnpv mediated expression of recombinant proteins.the baculovirus expression system (bves) based on autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to acmnpv have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. domesticated eri silkworm (samia ricini), reared in many parts of india, japan and china, is a non-mulberry silkworm. the present study shows that the eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical ino ...201526467714
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