TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
sequence adaptations affecting cleavage of the vp1/2a junction by the 3c protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor p1-2a is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3c protease to vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. it was shown previously that modification of a single amino acid residue (k210e) within the vp1 protein and close to the vp1/2a cleavage site, inhibited cleavage of this junction and produced 'self-tagged' virus particles. a second site substitution (e83k) within vp1 was also observed within the rescued virus [gullberg et al. (2013). j virol 87: , 11591-1160 ...201425000961
comparative evaluation of non-structural protein-antibody detecting elisas for foot-and-mouth disease sero-surveillance under intensive vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious and contagious disease of livestock animals with transboundary and economical importance. animals in the endemic settings are regularly vaccinated in addition to intensive surveillance for control of the disease. under intensive vaccination, detection of infected animals among the vaccinated population is essential to monitor the infection and to track down the virus movement. sero-surveillance and retrospective disease diagnosis is performed primari ...201424996132
swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sifitm3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (ifitm3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. it restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. in this report, the swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) gene was cloned. it shares the functionally conserved cd225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (y19, f74, f77, r86 and y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. ectopic exp ...201424973762
protection against rift valley fever virus infection in mice upon administration of interferon-inducing rna transcripts from the fmdv this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome on the infection of mice with rift valley fever virus (rvfv). groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic rna resembling the 5'-terminal s region, the internal ribosome entry site (ires) or the 3'-ncr of the fmdv genome. rna inoculation was performed 24h befor ...201424973761
influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (mat-abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. here, we report the anti-fmdv humoral responses elicited in calves with or without mat-abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in a ...201424968156
magnesium-dependent folding of a picornavirus ires element modulates rna conformation and eif4g interaction.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements are high-order rna structures that promote internal initiation of translation to allow protein synthesis under situations that compromise the general cap-dependent translation mechanism. picornavirus ires elements are highly efficient elements with a modular rna structure organization. here we investigated the effect of mg(2+) concentration on the local flexibility and solvent accessibility of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires element measu ...201424961997
a pig tonsil cell culture model for evaluating oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments.oral, low-dose ifn-α treatments proved effective in several models of viral infections and immunopathological conditions. also, they do not give rise to the serious side effects observed after parenteral inoculation of high doses (10(5)u/kg b.w. and higher). there is convincing evidence that such treatments work through an early, effective interaction with oral lymphoid tissues before the ifn-α molecules are rapidly destroyed by gut enzymes. yet, the paucity of detailed information about these c ...201424951265
[progress in insertion sites for foreign sequence of foot and mouth disease virus].with the progess in studying gene structure and function of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), fmdv can express exogenous genes in different sites. through transforming and modifying fmdv can achieve different application purposes such as improving virus titer, introducing tag, improving immune responses, and reducing pathogenicity. from the perspective of fmdv receiving inserted exogenous gene, this paper mainly describes the latest relevant developments of fmdv's expression to exogenous gene ...201424945052
induction of protective immune response against both pprv and fmdv by a novel recombinant pprv expressing fmdv vp1.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are both highly contagious diseases of small domestic and wild ruminants caused by the ppr virus (pprv) and the fmd virus (fmdv). in this study, a recombinant pprv expressing the fmdv vp1 gene (rpprv/vp1) was generated and fmdv vp1 expression did not impair replication of the recombinant virus in vitro and immunogenicity in inducing neutralizing antibody against ppr in goats. vaccination with one dose of rpprv/vp1 induced fmdv neu ...201424898430
foot-and-mouth disease virus low-fidelity polymerase mutants are attenuated.previous studies have shown that rna viruses can be attenuated by either increased or decreased viral polymerase replication fidelity. although foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants with an attenuated phenotype have been isolated using mutagens, no fmdv mutant with a low-fidelity polymerase has been documented to date. here, we describe the generation of several fmdv rdrp mutants using site-directed mutagenesis via a reverse genetic system ...201424888311
estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle.the quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not well known. to estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of fmdv, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of fmdv by virus isolation (vi) and/or rt-pcr. serum was tested for ...201424886222
evaluation of a 3a-truncated foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs for its potential as a marker vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals in the world. the disease can be effectively controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals with the conventional inactivated vaccine. however, one major concern of the inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) vaccine is that it does not allow serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals, and therefore interferes with serologic surveillance and the epidemiology of disease ...201424885414
the use of an adeno-associated viral vector for efficient bicistronic expression of two genes in the central nervous system.recombinant adeno-associated viral (aav) vectors are one of the most promising therapeutic delivery systems for gene therapy to the central nervous system (cns). preclinical testing of novel gene therapies requires the careful design and production of aav vectors and their successful application in a model of cns injury. one major limitation of aav vectors is their limited packaging capacity (<5 kb) making the co-expression of two genes (e.g., from two promoters) difficult. an internal ribosomal ...201424838969
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated indian buffalo and cattle.this study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from experimentally infected indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. in each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with fmdv were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. vaccination was carried out with current indian vaccine strain (o/ind/r2/75) and ch ...201424837776
determining the epitope dominance on the capsid of a serotype sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus by mutational analyses.monoclonal-antibody (mab)-resistant mutants were used to map antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which resulted in the identification of neutralizing epitopes in the flexible βg-βh loop in vp1. for fmdv sat2 viruses, studies have shown that at least two antigenic sites exist. by use of an infectious sat2 cdna clone, 10 structurally exposed and highly variable loops were identified as putative antigenic sites on the vp1, vp2, and vp3 capsid proteins of sat2/zimbabwe (zim)/7/83 ...201424829347
cpg odn nanorings induce ifnα from plasmacytoid dendritic cells and demonstrate potent vaccine adjuvant activity.cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) are short single-stranded synthetic dna molecules that activate the immune system and have been found to be effective for preventing and treating infectious diseases, allergies, and cancers. structurally distinct classes of synthetic odn expressing cpg motifs differentially activate human immune cells. k-type odn (k-odn), which have progressed into human clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapeutic agents, are strong activators of b cells and trigger ...201424807558
orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors.sensitivity of biosensors depends on the orientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface. the objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. vhh proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used for making biosensors, and azides were introduced in the vhh to function as bioorthogonal reactive groups. the importance of the orientation of bio-receptors was addressed by comparing sens ...201424793095
diagnostic potential of recombinant nonstructural protein 3b to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in bovines.detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins (nsp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is the preferred diagnostic method to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. in india, an endemic region practising preventive biannual vaccination, 3ab3 indirect elisa (r3ab3 i-elisa) has been employed as the primary screening test for serosurveillance. however, because of the variability observed in the immune response to the nsps, the likelihood of detecting or confirming an infected animal is inc ...201424777827
exploration of sequence space as the basis of viral rna genome segmentation.the mechanisms of viral rna genome segmentation are unknown. on extensive passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in baby hamster kidney-21 cells, the virus accumulated multiple point mutations and underwent a transition akin to genome segmentation. the standard single rna genome molecule was replaced by genomes harboring internal in-frame deletions affecting the l- or capsid-coding region. these genomes were infectious and killed cells by complementation. here we show that the point mutations i ...201424757055
single amino acid substitution of vp1 n17d or vp2 h145y confers acid-resistant phenotype of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is triggered by the acidic ph in endosomes after virus uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. however, dissociation of the fmdv 146s particle in mildly acidic conditions renders inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines much less effective. type asia1 fmdv mutants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were selected to study the molecular basis of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly and improve the acid stability of fmdv ...201424752763
molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the african buffalo in southern africa. 201428235272
spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the eastern zone of tanzania. 201428235270
the changing landscape of the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa north of limpopo and east africa. 201428235269
full genome sequencing to study the evolutionary characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in southern africa. 201428235268
screening for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock-wildlife interface areas of tanzania. 201428235267
evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples.a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct elisa (msd-elisa) method was previously developed for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral antigen detection. here we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two fmd viral antigen detection msd-elisas and compared them with conventional indirect sandwich (is)-elisa. the msd-elisas were able to detect the antigen in saliva samples of experimentally-infected pigs for a longer term compared to the is-elisa. we also used 178 rt-pcr-positive field sample ...201424736560
identification and analysis of differential mirnas in pk-15 cells after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the alterations of micrornas(mirnas) in host cell after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is still obscure. to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of fmdv at the post-transcriptional regulation level, solexa high-throu micrornas (mirnas) play an important role both in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and host-virus interactions. despite investigations of mirna expression ghput sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify differentially exp ...201424675746
development and evaluation of a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus in india.a simple, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is required for deployment in the field. in this study, development of reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay based on the 3d polymerase gene for specific and rapid detection fmd virus (fmdv) was carried out. the assay was optimised with viral rna extracted from serotype o, a and asia 1 fmdv vaccine strains, which resulted a reliable amplification at 65 °c for 60 min. the amplifi ...201425674604
expression of cry1ab and cry2ab by a polycistronic transgene with a self-cleavage peptide in rice.insect resistance to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) crystal protein is a major threat to the long-term use of transgenic bt crops. gene stacking is a readily deployable strategy to delay the development of insect resistance while it may also broaden insecticidal spectrum. here, we report the creation of transgenic rice expressing discrete cry1ab and cry2ab simultaneously from a single expression cassette using 2a self-cleaving peptides, which are autonomous elements from virus guiding the polycistr ...201425333312
inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. insect adaptation to pi ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of pis. in this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. the two pis were linked using either the proce ...201424237606
complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the bovine cd8αα-bola-2*02201 order to clarify the structural characteristics of the bovine mhc class i molecule (bola-i) complexed with cd8αα (cd8αα-bola-i), bovine cd8αα, bola-i (bola-2*02201) and β2m were expressed and purified, and were then assembled with a peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv-vp1yy9) and crystallized. the crystal diffracted to 1.7 å resolution and belonged to space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a=53.9, b=103.8, c=61.8 å, α=γ=90, β=96°. the asymmetric unit contained one comp ...201424915083
first finding of southeast asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in kinmen, taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus aphthovirus within the family picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. the southeast asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype o of the virus, is prevalent in some asian countries, but had not previously been found in taiwan. the topotype was first found in pigs in kinmen island, taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic anal ...201425056674
laboratory animal models to study foot-and-mouth disease: a review with emphasis on natural and vaccine-induced immunity.laboratory animal models have provided valuable insight into foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pathogenesis in epidemiologically important target species. while not perfect, these models have delivered an accelerated time frame to characterize the immune responses in natural hosts and a platform to evaluate therapeutics and vaccine candidates at a reduced cost. further expansion of these models in mice has allowed access to genetic mutations not available for target species, providing a powerf ...201425000962
3cpro of foot-and-mouth disease virus antagonizes the interferon signaling pathway by blocking stat1/stat2 nuclear translocation.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious, debilitating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with devastating economic consequences. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to antagonize the host type i interferon (ifn) response. previous studies have reported that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) and 3c(pro) of fmdv are involved in the inhibition of type i ifn production. however, whether the proteins of fmdv can inhibit type i ifn signaling is less well understood. in this stud ...201424554650
picornavirus infection leading to immunosuppression.viruses, such as hiv, hepatitis a, poliovirus, coxsackievirus b3 and foot-and-mouth disease virus, use a variety of mechanisms to suppress the human immune system in order to evade clearance by the host. therefore, investigating how a few changes in the viral genome of a nonlethal virus can lead to an alteration in disease, from survivable to immunosuppression and death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. in addition, we propose that gaining a better insight into how the ...201425214881
cellular micrornas and picornaviral infections.micrornas (mirnas) are a subtype of short, endogenous, and non-coding rnas, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. the mirna-mediated gene silencing mechanism is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. picornaviridae is a large family of rna viruses, which includes a number of causative agents of many human and animal diseases viz., poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and coxsackievir ...201424921242
potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. despite this, ...201424810855
pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in south korea, 2010-12.water deer (hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. we collected 305 water deer from gangwon (n=168), south chungcheong (n=89), and gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used pcr and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. in 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), rotavirus, and brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. in 2010, the water dee ...201424779466
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
in vitro surrogate models to aid in the development of antivirals for the containment of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus aphthovirus (family picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) and equine rhinitis a virus (erav), phylogenetically most closely related to fmdv, were explored as surrogates for fmdv in antiviral studies. although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so ...201424583031
adjuvant effects of l. acidophilus lw1 on immune responses to the foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine in mice.the adjuvant effects of lactobacillus acidophilus on dna vaccination are not fully understood. it has been hypothesized that swine-derived lactobacillus acidophilus sw1 (lasw1) could function as an immune adjuvant to enhance antigen-specific immune responses after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccination in mice. to evaluate the effect of oral lasw1 on the immune response to a dna vaccine (prc/cmv-vp1) harboring fmd vp1 gene, anti-fmdv antibody and its isotypes, t-cell proliferation, and cyt ...201425119375
construction of self-replicating subgenomic dengue virus 4 (denv4) replicon.dengue virus serotypes 1-4 are members of mosquito-borne flavivirus genus of flaviviridae family that encode one long open reading frame (orf) that is translated to a polyprotein. both host and virally encoded proteases function in the processing of the polyprotein by co-translational and posttranslational mechanisms to yield 10 mature proteins prior to viral rna replication. to study cis- and trans-acting factors involved in viral rna replication, many groups [1-8] have constructed cdnas encodi ...201424696335
rna structure disrupting g320-t transversion within the short fragment of the 5' untranslated region prevents rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.a full-length cdna clone of an indian foot-and-mouth disease virus strain, asia 1 ind 491/1997 was assembled downstream of the t7 promoter in the pbluescript ii sk (+) vector by sequential ligation of four pcr-generated subgenomic fragments. rna transcribed from that construct were transfected into bhk-21 and lfbk cells to rescue infectious virus. the in vitro growth kinetics, plaque morphology, infectivity titer, antigenic profile and virulence characteristics in unweaned mice infected with the ...201424269793
induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses.the family picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand rna viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis a virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. picornavirus infections activate a cytosolic rna sensor, mda5, which in turn, induces a type i interferon response, a crucial component of antiviral immunity. moreover, picorn ...201425086453
modification of picornavirus genomic rna using 'click' chemistry shows that unlinking of the vpg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral rna.picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. a unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (vpg) as primer for viral rna synthesis. as a consequence, all newly formed viral rna molecules possess a covalently linked vpg peptide. it is known that vpg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral rna by a host p ...201424243841
all-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution.small viruses that belong, for example, to the picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded rna (ssrna) genome. the capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10(6) all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. first, we found e ...201425362342
l protease from foot and mouth disease virus confers eif2-independent translation for mrnas bearing picornavirus ires.the leader protease (l(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has the ability to cleave eif4g, leading to a blockade of cellular protein synthesis. in contrast to previous reports, our present findings demonstrate that fmdv l(pro) is able to increase translation driven by fmdv ires. additionally, inactivation of eif2 subsequent to phosphorylation induced by arsenite or thapsigargin in bhk cells blocks protein synthesis directed by fmdv ires, whereas in the presence of l(pro), significant ...201425268112
capsid protein vp4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. the mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. during picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein vp4 is released from the virus, interacts wi ...201425102288
ribavirin-resistant variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence.mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate rna virus high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. however, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rdrp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between rdrp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of fmdv, and 4 amino acid substitutions (d5n, a38v, m194i, and m296v) ...201424453363
strategies for purifying variants of human rhinovirus 14 2c protein.the positive strand rna genome of picornaviruses, including human rhinovirus (hrv), poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus, is translated immediately into a polyprotein that is cleaved by virally encoded proteinases into 10-13 mature proteins. these include the four proteins required to assemble the viral particle as well as 3d(pol) (the viral rna polymerase) and 2c, an atpase and putative helicase. 2c is a protein which is responsible, together with 2b and 3a, for anchoring the replic ...201424316192
synonymous deoptimization of foot-and-mouth disease virus causes attenuation in vivo while inducing a strong neutralizing antibody response.codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. we have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the p1 region rendered a viable fmdv progeny. the resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those ...201526581977
cleavage efficient 2a peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in cho cells.linking the heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mab) production on a single cassette using 2a peptides allows control of lc and hc ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. four 2a peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (f2a), equine rhinitis a virus (e2a), porcine teschovirus-1 (p2a) and thosea asigna virus (t2a), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar igg1 mabs in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell lines. hc and lc wer ...201525621616
promotion of viral ires-mediated translation initiation under mild hypothermia.internal ribosome entry site (ires)-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. as ires-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an ires element of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), hepatitis c v ...201525951166
mgmt enrichment and second gene co-expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells using separate or dual-gene lentiviral vectors.the dna repair gene o(6)-methylguanine-dna methyltransferase (mgmt) allows efficient in vivo enrichment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (hsc). thus, linking this selection strategy to therapeutic gene expression offers the potential to reconstitute diseased hematopoietic tissue with gene-corrected cells. however, different dual-gene expression vector strategies are limited by poor expression of one or both transgenes. to evaluate different co-expression strategies in the context of mgmt-m ...201525479595
both foot-and-mouth disease virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus replication are inhibited by mx1 protein originated from porcine.mx1 protein is i type interferons (ifns)-induced 76-kda guanosine triphosphatases (gtpases) that belong to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases. mx1 proteins have attracted attention because some display antiviral activity against pathogenic rna and dna viruses. meanwhile, mx1 gene generally exists in organisms or cells of mammalian, fish and chicken. blocking a wide range of rna virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mrna synthesis is a unique property of mx1 protein. in order to inv ...201525153459
structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (ra27l) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus.buffalopox virus (bpxv), an indian variant of vaccinia virus (vacv), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. a27l is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (opvs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the a27l gene of bpxv-vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature a27l (21s to e110) and c-terminal truncated a27l-lzd (21s to n84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia ...201526319070
plant-produced viral bovine vaccines: what happened during the last 10 years?vaccination has proved to be an efficient strategy to deal with viral infections in both human and animal species. however, protection of cattle against viral infections is still a major concern in veterinary science. during the last two decades, the development of efficient plant-based expression strategies for recombinant proteins prompted the application of this methodology for veterinary vaccine purposes. the main goals of viral bovine vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of cattle ...201526250843
simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time rt-pcr.multiplexed real-time pcr (qpcr) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. here, reverse transcription qpcr (rt-qpcr) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and bluetongue virus (btv) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. additionally, a background sc ...201525746154
prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in european surveillance programmes: expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.this study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. it is part of a european union (eu) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the eu over the last 15 years). these 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts ...201525496774
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
nmr analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases lb and 2a with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4gii.messenger rna is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4e (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eif4g and the rna helicase eif4a. to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eif4g is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eif4e is unclear. we have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth dise ...201526384734
recovery of infectious type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an rna polymerase i/ii-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.we developed an rna polymerase (pol) i- and ii-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cloned cdna. in this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cdna was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (hamrz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (hdvrz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (cmv) and pol i promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. the utilit ...201526091821
construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75.generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2b, 3b and 3c(pro) and its characterization.201527047064
robust real-time reverse transcription-pcr for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing carryover contamination.during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr) is the most commonly used diagnostic method to detect viral rna. however, while this assay is often conducted during the outbreak period, there is an inevitable risk of carryover contamination. this study shows that the carryover contamination can be prevented by the use of target-specific restriction endonuclease in that assay.201526560537
feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations.within the last decade virus-like particles (vlps) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. to test the feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) particles as a scaffold for epitope presentation and identify sites for epitope fusion or insertion that would not interfere with virus-like-particle formation, chimeric ccmv coat protein (cp) gene constructs were engi ...201526311254
detection of african swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.african swine fever (asf), classical swine fever (csf), and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. pigs infected with asf and csf viruses (asfv and csfv) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability ...201525776540
bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis a viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinitis viruses (brvs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. in this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named rs3x (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the uk in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. compared to other closely related aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (l(pro)), p1, 2b, and 3a proteins. phylogenetic analysis revealed that rs3x was a member of the species bovine rhinit ...201527081310
synthetic rnas mimicking structural domains in the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome elicit a broad innate immune response in porcine cells triggered by rig-i and tlr activation.the innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. we have previously described, the ability of small in vitro rna transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome (ncrnas), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. these synthetic non-infec ...201526193305
encephalomyocarditis virus 3c protease relieves traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) inhibitory effect on traf6-mediated nf-κb signaling through cleavage of tank.traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) is a negative regulator of canonical nf-κb signaling in the toll-like receptor- and b-cell receptor-mediated signaling pathways. however, functions of tank in viral infection-mediated nf-κb activation remain unclear. here, we reported that tank was cleaved by encephalomyocarditis virus 3c at the 197 and 291 glutamine residues, which depends on its cysteine protease activity. in addition, encephalomyocarditis virus 3c impaired the ability of ta ...201526363073
evaluation of a fiber-modified adenovirus vector vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of fmd virus (fmdv). ad5 containing serotype a24 capsid sequences (ad5.a24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against fmd in livestock species. however, ad5-vectored fmdv serotype o1 campos vaccine (ad5.o1c.2b) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. it has been reported tha ...201526607309
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
dose-dependent responses of pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 by the intranasal and intraoral routes.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was successfully initiated in pigs by intraoral inoculation of both 10(6) and 10(3) tcid50 of fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan. by intranasal inoculation, infection was established in pigs with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, but not with 10(3) tcid50 of the isolate. in the pigs inoculated with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, viruses and viral rnas were obtained earlier from the pigs inoculated by the intraoral route than from the p ...201525281431
efficacy of synthetic peptide candidate vaccines against serotype-a foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains a major threat to livestock worldwide, especially in developing countries. to improve the efficacy of vaccination against fmd, various types of vaccines have been developed, including synthetic peptide vaccines. we designed three synthetic peptide vaccines, 59 to 87 aa in size, based on immunogenic epitopes in the vp1, 3a, and 3d proteins of the a/hubwh/cha/2009 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), corresponding to amino acid positions 129 to 16 ...201525381487
cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid proteins: implications for receptor this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a strains during propagation in cell monolayers. viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (bhk-21, lfbk and ib-rs-2) consistently gained positively charged amino acids in the putative heparin-sulfate-binding pocket (vp2 βe-βf loop, vp1 c-terminus and vp3 β-b knob) surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis (vp1 βf-βg loop) and at other discrete sites on the capsid (vp3 βg-βh lo ...201525381054
three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its biological functions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an acute, violent, infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, remains widespread in most parts of the world. it can lead to a major plague of livestock and an economical catastrophe. structural studies of fmd virus (fmdv) have greatly contributed to our understanding of the virus life cycle and provided new horizons for the control and eradication of fmdv. to examine host-fmdv interactions and viral pathogenesis from a structural perspective, the structures of vir ...201525377637
re-emergence of circulatory foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes asia1 in bangladesh and vp1 protein heterogeneity with vaccine strain ind 63/72.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in bangladesh; however serotype asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. the present investigation reports the detection of serotype fmdv asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. the farms were located in jessore and gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. phylogenetic analysis of the complete vp1 gene revealed tha ...201525370946
evolutionary non-linear modelling for selecting vaccines against antigenically variable vitro and in vivo selection of vaccines is time consuming, expensive and the selected vaccines may not be able to provide protection against broad-spectrum viruses because of emerging antigenically novel disease strains. a powerful computational model that incorporates these protein/dna or rna level fluctuations can effectively predict antigenically variant strains, and can minimize the amount of resources spent on exclusive serological testing of vaccines and make wide spectrum vaccines poss ...201525414361
viquas: an improved reconstruction pipeline for viral quasispecies spectra generated by next-generation sequencing.the combined effect of a high replication rate and the low fidelity of the viral polymerase in most rna viruses and some dna viruses results in the formation of a viral quasispecies. uncovering information about quasispecies populations significantly benefits the study of disease progression, antiviral drug design, vaccine design and viral pathogenesis. we present a new analysis pipeline called viquas for viral quasispecies spectrum reconstruction using short next-generation sequencing reads. vi ...201525398613
modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.a salmonid alphavirus (sav) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. in this study, we have compared several modifications to a sav replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. we found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the n-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease ...201525395591
a positively charged lysine residue at vp2 131 position allows for the enhanced adaptability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in bhk-21 cells.field outbreak strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infect host cells through certain arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent integrin family of cellular receptors. in contrast, fmdv adapted in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to infect cells via heparin sulphate (hs) or other unidentified cell surface molecules. it has been reported that during the serial passage of fmdv serotype a in bhk-21 cell culture, vp2 e131k (e2131k) substitution was fixed within the heparin sulph ...201525439090
antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75 against currently circulating viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o is the most common cause of fmd outbreaks in india and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely ind2001, panasia and panasia 2. we report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype o viruses isolated from india between 2002 and 2012. all these viruses belong to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype. the serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current ind ...201525500306
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination induces cross-reactive ifn-γ responses in cattle that are dependent on the integrity of the 140s particles.interferon-γ (ifn-γ) recall responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in fmd vaccinated cattle are utilized to study t-lymphocyte immunity against this virus. here, a recall ifn-γ assay based on a commercial elisa was set up using 308 samples from naïve and vaccinated cattle. the assay was used to study cross-reactive responses between different fmdv vaccine strains. blood samples from cattle immunized with monovalent vaccines containing a24/cruzeiro/brazil/55, a/argentina/2001 or o1 ...201525496826
megaprimer-mediated capsid swapping for the construction of custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the selection of appropriate candidate vaccine strain and its adaptation in cell culture to yield high titer of virus is a cumbersome process. an attractive approach to circumvent this tedious process is to replace the capsid coding sequen ...201526303897
synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3d polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). one of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control fmd is 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dpol). in this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against fmdv 3dpol. among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (ic50 = 0.39 μm) of fmdv 3d polymerase and ...201526301555
early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency 2009-2011, spread of a serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) belonging to the south east asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in japan and korea. the o1 manisa vaccine (belonging to the middle east-south asian topotype) was used at high potency in korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. however, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the o1 manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. in this study, the early protecti ...201525483241
vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop fmdv transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.we quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. the (partial) reproduction ratios (r) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. a 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (ngm) was constructed using these estimates. the dominant eigenvalue of the ngm, the r for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different prop ...201525464822
multifunctionality of a picornavirus polymerase domain: nuclear localization signal and nucleotide recognition.the n-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d polymerase contains the sequence mrktklapt (residues 16 to 24) that acts as a nuclear localization signal. a previous study showed that substitutions k18e and k20e diminished the transport to the nucleus of 3d and 3cd and severely impaired virus infectivity. these residues have also been implicated in template binding, as seen in the crystal structures of different 3d-rna elongation complexes. here, we report the biochemical and ...201525903341
serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs (bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.we report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. bannerghatta biological park (bbp), a national park located in the outskirts of bengaluru city, karnataka, india, is bordered by several villages. these villages witnessed massive outbreaks of fmd which spread rapidly to the herbivores at bbp. post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two india ...201525894817
impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in kenya.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into fmd-free countries. information on the impact of the disease in fmdv-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. a fmd (virus serotype sat2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in nakuru county, kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of fmd o ...201525889460
development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control rna for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. for high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks asso ...201525864934
the impact of within-herd genetic variation upon inferred transmission trees for foot-and-mouth disease virus.full-genome sequences have been used to monitor the fine-scale dynamics of epidemics caused by rna viruses. however, the ability of this approach to confidently reconstruct transmission trees is limited by the knowledge of the genetic diversity of viruses that exist within different epidemiological units. in order to address this question, this study investigated the variability of 45 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences (from 33 animals) that were collected during 2007 from eigh ...201525861750
an appraisal on the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a livestock disease that has serious economic repercussions. here, we report the laboratory results for samples from suspected outbreaks that were sent for confirmation of fmd in pakistan. from january 2010 to december 2011, 132 suspected outbreaks were investigated, and samples from 58 out of the 76 outbreaks sent to the national veterinary laboratory (nvl) were positive. the highest proportion of positives were of serotype o (65.52 %), followed by serotype a (24 ...201525850759
stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine.most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. intact (146s) fmdv particles can dissociate into 12s degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. we therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed elisas to separately quantify 12s and 146s particles. virions completely dissociated into 12s particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. dissociation occur ...201525843267
phylogenetic analysis of the leader proteinase (lpro) region of indian foot and mouth disease serotype o this study, the nucleotide sequences of the complete leader proteinase (lpro) region of 21 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o collected during various outbreaks in india were sequenced and compared with vaccine strains. the phylogenetic analysis of these lpro sequences showed a difference in the clustering of the isolates based on the vp1 capsid coding region sequences. the comparison of amino acid sequences at the n terminus end of the lpro region showed very high var ...201525842211
risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. recurrence of fmd outbreaks in israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of fmd among ...201525841998
apigenin restricts fmdv infection and inhibits viral ires driven translational activity.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by fmd virus (fmdv). fmd outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. results show that apigenin can inhibit fmdv-mediated cytopathogenic effect and fmdv replication in vitro. further studie ...201525835532
determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-saharan africa.the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for rna replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine fmdv isolates of sat1, sat2, sat3, a and o serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. the leader protease (l(pro)) and 3a ...201525818579
a computational study of the interaction of the foot and mouth disease virus vp1 with monoclonal antibodies.foot and mouth disease is caused by a non-enveloped virus (fmdv), which disposes several antigenic sites at the surface of their capsid proteins. the most relevant and immunodominant antigenic site of fmdv (site a or ansa) includes a key virus-cell interaction element (rgd motif) located in the viral protein 1 (vp1), more precisely at the gh loop. ansa includes a set of overlapped and mainly linear epitopes, which are the main targets of the humoral immune response. taking advantage over specifi ...201526093030
transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. a novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. here, we produce transgenic (tg) pigs that constitutively expressed fmdv-specific short interfering rna (sirna) derived from small hairpin rna (shrna). in vitro challenge of tg fibroblasts showed the shrna suppressed viral growth. tg and non-tg pigs were challeng ...201526090904
comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-αvβ6 for foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line lfbk-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains. the suitability of zz-r 127 cells for fmdv isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. however, to our knowledge, the suitability of lfbk-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epitheli ...201526082457
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