PMID(sorted ascending)
first finding of southeast asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in kinmen, taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus aphthovirus within the family picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. the southeast asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype o of the virus, is prevalent in some asian countries, but had not previously been found in taiwan. the topotype was first found in pigs in kinmen island, taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic anal ...201425056674
presentation of epitope sequences from foreign viruses on the surface of apple latent spherical virus latent spherical virus (alsv) has small isometric particles that are comprised of two single-stranded rna species (rna1 and rna2) and three capsid proteins (vp25, vp20, and vp24). we constructed alsv vectors for presenting foreign peptides on the surface of virus particles. in these vectors, peptides can be fused to either of two c-terminal regions of vp20 (amino acid positions between g171 and p172 or between p172 and l173) or the c-terminus (t192) of vp24. an alsv vector presenting the e ...201425058477
effects of germanium biotite supplement on immune responses of vaccinated mini-pigs to foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge.since the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south korea in 2010-2011, a trivalent vaccine has been used as a routine vaccination. despite the high efficacy of the trivalent vaccine, low antibody formation was reported in the pig industry and there is considerable concern about the ability of the vaccine to protect against the andong strain responsible for recent outbreaks in south korea. to overcome these problems, immunostimulators have been widely used to improve vaccine efficacy in ...201525058651
development of a multiplex luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in taiwan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and swine vesicular disease (svd) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. the aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xmap) luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the fmd virus of structural proteins (sp) and nonstructural proteins (nsp).201625074628
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o and application in identification of antigenic variation in relation to vaccine strain selection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has severe implications for animal farming which leads to considerable financial losses because of its rapid spread, high morbidity and loss of productivity. for these reasons, the use of vaccine is often favoured to prevent and control fmd. selection of the proper vaccine is extremely difficult because of the antigenic variation within fmdv serotypes. the aim of the current study was to produce a panel of mabs and use it for the characterization of new isolates of f ...201425085313
a critical role of interferon-induced protein ifp35 in the type i interferon response in cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein 2c.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein 2c is one of the most highly conserved viral proteins among the serotypes of fmdv. however, its effect on host cell response is not very clear. in our previous report, we showed that fmdv protein 2c interacts with cellular protein n-myc and stat interactor (nmi), inducing moderate apoptosis in cells. here, we show that transfection of hek293t cells with pegfp-n1-2c or pegfp-n1-nmi induces activation of type i interferon promoters, leading to delayed ve ...201425085622
induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses.the family picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand rna viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis a virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. picornavirus infections activate a cytosolic rna sensor, mda5, which in turn, induces a type i interferon response, a crucial component of antiviral immunity. moreover, picorn ...201425086453
no significant differences in the breadth of the foot-and-mouth disease serotype a vaccine induced antibody responses in cattle, using different adjuvants, mixed antigens and different routes of administration.inactivated whole virus foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are used worldwide for protection against fmd, but not all vaccines induce protection against all genetic variants of the same fmd virus serotype. the aim of this study is to investigate whether the "breadth" of the antibody response against different strains of the same fmd virus serotype in cattle could be improved by using a different adjuvant, a mix of antigens and/or different routes of administration. to this end, six groups of ...201425092634
inhibition of the foot-and-mouth disease virus subgenomic replicon by rna aptamers.we have previously documented the inhibitory activity of rna aptamers to the rna-dependent rna polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (3d(pol)). here we report their modification and use with a subgenomic replicon incorporating gfp (pgfp-pac replicon), allowing replication to be monitored and quantified in real-time. gfp expression in transfected bhk-21 cells reached a maximum at approximately 8 h post-transfection, at which time change in morphology of the cells was consistent with a virus- ...201425096816
capsid protein vp4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. the mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. during picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein vp4 is released from the virus, interacts wi ...201425102288
sequences outside that of residues 93-102 of 3a protein can contribute to the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to replicate in bovine-derived cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. during 2010 and 2011, there was an epidemic of the mya-98 lineage of the southeast asia (sea) topotype in east asia, including china. changes in the fmdv 3a protein have been previously reported to be associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. in this paper, we report the generation of a full-length infectious cdna clone of fmdv o/sea/ ...201425116389
a recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the vp1 epitope of the type o foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both pcv2 and vp1 epitope antibodies.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. a recombinant pcv2 expressing the neutralizing vp1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. the pcv2 antigen and fmdv-vp1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recpcv2-cl-vp1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma) and a capture enzyme-l ...201425117547
adjuvant effects of l. acidophilus lw1 on immune responses to the foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine in mice.the adjuvant effects of lactobacillus acidophilus on dna vaccination are not fully understood. it has been hypothesized that swine-derived lactobacillus acidophilus sw1 (lasw1) could function as an immune adjuvant to enhance antigen-specific immune responses after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccination in mice. to evaluate the effect of oral lasw1 on the immune response to a dna vaccine (prc/cmv-vp1) harboring fmd vp1 gene, anti-fmdv antibody and its isotypes, t-cell proliferation, and cyt ...201425119375
investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the mbala and kazungula districts of zambia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. it is known to be endemic in zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. this study was conducted to investigate the presence of fmd virus (fmdv) in reported fmd-suspected cases in cattle from the kazungula and mbala districts of zambia. sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) scrapings (probang samples) were collect ...201425134173
foot-and-mouth disease in asiatic black bears (ursus thibetanus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, debilitating, and globally significant viral disease typically affecting cloven-hoofed hosts. the diagnosis of fmd in bears in vietnam is described. the current study describes a confirmed case of fmd in a bear species, and the clinical signs compatible with fmd in a malayan sun bear. thirteen asiatic black bears (ursus thibetanus) and 1 malayan sun bear (helarctos malayanus) were apparently affected. in august 2011, an adult bear became letha ...201425135011
forensic interpretation of molecular variation on networks of disease transmission and genetic inheritance.this paper describes the inference-on-networks (ion) framework for forensic interpretat ion of molecular typing data in cases involving allegations of infectious microbial transmission, association of disease outbreaks with alleged sources, and identifying familial relationships using mitochondrial or y chromosomal dna. the framework is applicable to molecular typing data obtained using any technique, including those based on electrophoretic separations. a key insight is that the networks associ ...201425137141
infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a natural killer (nk) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination.natural killer (nk) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (ifn-γ). we developed a system for characterizing the bovine nk response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which causes a disease of cloven-hoofed animals and remains a threat to livestock industries throughout the world. il-2 stimulation of pbmc resulted in poor killing of human k562 cells, which are often used as nk target c ...201425150134
the silent point mutations at the cleavage site of 2a/2b have no effect on the self-cleavage activity of 2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 2a region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein is 18 amino acids in length, and 2a self-cleavage site (2a/2b) contains a conserved amino acid motif g2a/p2b. to investigate the synonymous codon usage for glycine at the 2a/2b cleavage site of fmdv, 66 2a/2b1 nucleotide sequences were aligned and found that the synonymous codon usage of g2a is conserved and ggg was the most frequently used. to examine the role of synonymous codons for g2a in self-cleavage efficiency of 2a/2b, ...201425152485
both foot-and-mouth disease virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus replication are inhibited by mx1 protein originated from porcine.mx1 protein is i type interferons (ifns)-induced 76-kda guanosine triphosphatases (gtpases) that belong to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases. mx1 proteins have attracted attention because some display antiviral activity against pathogenic rna and dna viruses. meanwhile, mx1 gene generally exists in organisms or cells of mammalian, fish and chicken. blocking a wide range of rna virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mrna synthesis is a unique property of mx1 protein. in order to inv ...201525153459
a refined guinea pig model of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection for assessing the efficacy of antiviral antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit fmd virus (fmdv) replication in vitro. for the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined fmdv-infection model in guinea pigs (gp) is herewi ...201625164494
preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). current approaches involve either; 1) detection of fmd virus (fmdv) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (lfd), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable rt-qpcr that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. t ...201425165973
genetic and antigenic characterisation of serotype a fmd viruses from east africa to select new vaccine strains.vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. a total of 56 serotype a fmdvs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from central, east and north african countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequen ...201425171846
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.a time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. the earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral rna, viral antigen, and infectious virus. at this time fmdv antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and cd172a-ex ...201425184288
molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from gharbia, outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affecting cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) occurred in egypt during 2012/2013. the present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the fmd virus (fmdv) and the prevalence of fmd among cattle and buffalo in gharbia, egypt. the diagnostic sensitivity of two rt-pcr assays for the detection of fmdv was evaluated. the results revealed that sat2 was the causative agent. the percentage of infected of animals varied with the detectio ...201425187028
phylodynamic reconstruction of o cathay topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the philippines.reconstructing the evolutionary history, demographic signal and dispersal processes from viral genome sequences contributes to our understanding of the epidemiological dynamics underlying epizootic events. in this study, a bayesian phylogenetic framework was used to explore the phylodynamics and spatio-temporal dispersion of the o cathay topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that caused epidemics in the philippines between 1994 and 2005. sequences of the fmdv genome encoding the vp1 sh ...201425209700
picornavirus infection leading to immunosuppression.viruses, such as hiv, hepatitis a, poliovirus, coxsackievirus b3 and foot-and-mouth disease virus, use a variety of mechanisms to suppress the human immune system in order to evade clearance by the host. therefore, investigating how a few changes in the viral genome of a nonlethal virus can lead to an alteration in disease, from survivable to immunosuppression and death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. in addition, we propose that gaining a better insight into how the ...201425214881
virus-host interactions in persistently fmdv-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus in pharyngeal tissues. here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (pbpt) infected with fmdv serotype o1 manisa, where surviving cells were serially passed until a persistently infected culture was generated. characterization of the persistent virus d ...201425216088
poly iclc increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the fmdv capsid coding region of serotype a24 cruzeiro (ad5-ci-a24-2b) protects swine and cattle against fmdv challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. however, since relatively large amounts of ad5-ci-a24-2b are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. poly iclc is ...201425216089
adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines: recent progress.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and rapidly spreading disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in most countries, animals are immunized with inactivated whole virus vaccines to control the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv); however, there are safety and efficacy (especially, cell-mediated immunity) concerns. many efforts are currently devoted to the development of effective vaccines by combining the application of protective antigens together with the search for specific ...201425234962
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage.translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase l(pro) (lab(pro) and lb(pro)). these forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4 g. during infection, lb(pro) removes six residues from its own c-terminus, generating slb(pro). we present the structure of slb(pro) bound to the inhib ...201425240326
within herd transmission and evaluation of the performance of clinical and serological diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in partially immune cattle herds.the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in vaccinated populations relies upon surveillance activities such as clinical inspections (ci) and serological monitoring. new evidence to refine current surveillance guidelines has been provided by evaluating (1) the diagnostic performance of ci and serological tests for detection of fmd virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsp), and (2) the within-herd transmission of the virus in partially immune cattle. data came from 23 affected herds during an ...201425261377
l protease from foot and mouth disease virus confers eif2-independent translation for mrnas bearing picornavirus ires.the leader protease (l(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has the ability to cleave eif4g, leading to a blockade of cellular protein synthesis. in contrast to previous reports, our present findings demonstrate that fmdv l(pro) is able to increase translation driven by fmdv ires. additionally, inactivation of eif2 subsequent to phosphorylation induced by arsenite or thapsigargin in bhk cells blocks protein synthesis directed by fmdv ires, whereas in the presence of l(pro), significant ...201425268112
a universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated rna viruses using the illumina sequencing (ngs) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (wgs) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during pcr amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. we describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genom ...201425269623
membrane topology and cellular dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence and host-range; nevertheless little is known on the interactions that this protein can establish with different cell components. in this work, we have performed in vivo dynamic studies from cells transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein (gfp) fused to the complete 3a (gfp3a) and versions including different 3a mutations. the results revealed the presence of a mobile fraction o ...201425275544
dose-dependent responses of pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 by the intranasal and intraoral routes.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was successfully initiated in pigs by intraoral inoculation of both 10(6) and 10(3) tcid50 of fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan. by intranasal inoculation, infection was established in pigs with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, but not with 10(3) tcid50 of the isolate. in the pigs inoculated with 10(6) tcid50 of the isolate, viruses and viral rnas were obtained earlier from the pigs inoculated by the intraoral route than from the p ...201525281431
rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (facs).antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (facs). first, we constructed a library of sy ...201425303314
identification of the structural basis of thermal lability of a virus provides a rationale for improved vaccines.virus stability and dynamics play critical roles during infection. some viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), are surprisingly prone to thermal dissociation outside the cell. the structural bases and functional implications of this distinctive trait were essentially unknown. this study (1) uncovers the structural determinants of fmdv thermolability, (2) investigates the relationship between virus thermolability and infectivity, and (3) provides a structure-based rationale for e ...201425308865
recovery of viral rna and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. in developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. these factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise fmd virus in countries where the disease is endemic. ...201425313787
effect of amino acid mutation at position 127 in 3a of a rabbit-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 on viral replication and amino acid mutation (r127→i) in the 3a non-structural protein of an fmdv serotype asia1 rabbit-attenuated zb strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. to explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (i) was changed to arginine (r) in the infectious cdna clone of the rabbit-attenuated zb strain by sitedirected mutagenesis, and the r127-mutated virus was rescued. bhk monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated ...201425326348
expression of cry1ab and cry2ab by a polycistronic transgene with a self-cleavage peptide in rice.insect resistance to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) crystal protein is a major threat to the long-term use of transgenic bt crops. gene stacking is a readily deployable strategy to delay the development of insect resistance while it may also broaden insecticidal spectrum. here, we report the creation of transgenic rice expressing discrete cry1ab and cry2ab simultaneously from a single expression cassette using 2a self-cleaving peptides, which are autonomous elements from virus guiding the polycistr ...201425333312
all-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution.small viruses that belong, for example, to the picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded rna (ssrna) genome. the capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10(6) all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. first, we found e ...201425362342
development of a blocking elisa based on a monoclonal antibody against a predominant epitope in non-structural protein 3b2 of foot-and-mouth disease virus for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.a monoclonal antibody (mcab) against non-structural protein (nsp) 3b of foot-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) (3b4b1) was generated and shown to recognize a conserved epitope spanning amino acids 24-32 of 3b (gpyagpmer) by peptide screening elisa. this epitope was further shown to be a unique and predominant b cell epitope in 3b2, as sera from animals infected with different serotypes of fmdv blocked the ability of mcab 3b4b1 to bind to nsp 2c3ab. also, a polyclonal antibody against nsp 2c was produce ...201425369323
re-emergence of circulatory foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes asia1 in bangladesh and vp1 protein heterogeneity with vaccine strain ind 63/72.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in bangladesh; however serotype asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. the present investigation reports the detection of serotype fmdv asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. the farms were located in jessore and gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. phylogenetic analysis of the complete vp1 gene revealed tha ...201525370946
[enhancement of mouse immune response by recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1-2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine ifn-α].to construct the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) viral structural protein1-2a (vp1-2a) and porcine interferon-α (poifn-α), and study its impact on mouse adaptive immune responses.201425374073
three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its biological functions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an acute, violent, infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, remains widespread in most parts of the world. it can lead to a major plague of livestock and an economical catastrophe. structural studies of fmd virus (fmdv) have greatly contributed to our understanding of the virus life cycle and provided new horizons for the control and eradication of fmdv. to examine host-fmdv interactions and viral pathogenesis from a structural perspective, the structures of vir ...201525377637
cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid proteins: implications for receptor this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a strains during propagation in cell monolayers. viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (bhk-21, lfbk and ib-rs-2) consistently gained positively charged amino acids in the putative heparin-sulfate-binding pocket (vp2 βe-βf loop, vp1 c-terminus and vp3 β-b knob) surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis (vp1 βf-βg loop) and at other discrete sites on the capsid (vp3 βg-βh lo ...201525381054
efficacy of synthetic peptide candidate vaccines against serotype-a foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains a major threat to livestock worldwide, especially in developing countries. to improve the efficacy of vaccination against fmd, various types of vaccines have been developed, including synthetic peptide vaccines. we designed three synthetic peptide vaccines, 59 to 87 aa in size, based on immunogenic epitopes in the vp1, 3a, and 3d proteins of the a/hubwh/cha/2009 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), corresponding to amino acid positions 129 to 16 ...201525381487
genomic changes in an attenuated zb strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 and comparison with its virulent parental strain.the molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 zb strain remains unknown. to understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated zb strains (zb/cha/58(att), zbrf168, and zbrf188) and their virulent parental strains (zbcf22 and ynbs/58). the results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutati ...201425386556
in vitro evolution and affinity-maturation with coliphage qβ display.the escherichia coli bacteriophage, qβ (coliphage qβ), offers a favorable alternative to m13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in qβ rna replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. we describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using qβ display of the vp1 g-h loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). dna encoding the g-h loop was fused to the a1 minor coat protein of qβ resulting in ...201425393763
modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.a salmonid alphavirus (sav) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. in this study, we have compared several modifications to a sav replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. we found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the n-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease ...201525395591
viquas: an improved reconstruction pipeline for viral quasispecies spectra generated by next-generation sequencing.the combined effect of a high replication rate and the low fidelity of the viral polymerase in most rna viruses and some dna viruses results in the formation of a viral quasispecies. uncovering information about quasispecies populations significantly benefits the study of disease progression, antiviral drug design, vaccine design and viral pathogenesis. we present a new analysis pipeline called viquas for viral quasispecies spectrum reconstruction using short next-generation sequencing reads. vi ...201525398613
evolutionary non-linear modelling for selecting vaccines against antigenically variable vitro and in vivo selection of vaccines is time consuming, expensive and the selected vaccines may not be able to provide protection against broad-spectrum viruses because of emerging antigenically novel disease strains. a powerful computational model that incorporates these protein/dna or rna level fluctuations can effectively predict antigenically variant strains, and can minimize the amount of resources spent on exclusive serological testing of vaccines and make wide spectrum vaccines poss ...201525414361
a virus that can take the heat.foot-and-mouth disease virus shows remarkable thermal lability, a property that is a particular problem for vaccine preparations. in this issue of structure, rincón and colleagues show that electrostatic repulsion within the capsid is responsible for this lability, and they present rationally designed mutants with increased thermostability.201425438667
a positively charged lysine residue at vp2 131 position allows for the enhanced adaptability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in bhk-21 cells.field outbreak strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infect host cells through certain arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent integrin family of cellular receptors. in contrast, fmdv adapted in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to infect cells via heparin sulphate (hs) or other unidentified cell surface molecules. it has been reported that during the serial passage of fmdv serotype a in bhk-21 cell culture, vp2 e131k (e2131k) substitution was fixed within the heparin sulph ...201525439090
production and characterization of single-chain antibody (scfv) against 3abc non-structural protein in escherichia coli for sero-diagnosis of foot and mouth disease virus.differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected from vaccinated animals is essential for effective implementation of vaccination based control programme. detection of antibodies against 3abc non-structural protein of fmd virus by immunodiagnostic assays provides reliable indication of fmd infection. sero-monitoring of fmd in the large country like india is a big task where thousands of serum samples are annually screened. currently, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies are widely used in these ...201425439091
[validation of a real time rt-pcr assay to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus and assessment of its performance in acute infection].a specific real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcrrt) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus was validated using the lightcycler thermocycler 2.0 and its reagents as recommended by the world organization for animal health and was assessed for the detection of the virus in acute infection of cattle experimentally vaccinated and challenged with virus a argentina/2001 or a24 cruzeiro. the technique proved to be robust, showing coefficients of variation lower tha ...201425444126
a thiazepino[4,5-a]benzimidazole derivative hampers the rna replication of eurasian serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the stamping-out policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in countries that are free from fmd without vaccination has a dramatic socio-economic impact, huge animal welfare issues and may result in the loss of farm animal genetic resources. as an alternative to pre-emptive culling or emergency vaccination we further explore the possibility to use antiviral drugs in the event of an fmd outbreak. in the present study, we tested the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-fmdv activity o ...201425446115
evolutionary analysis and prediction of peptide vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth-disease virus types a and o in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an endemic disease of cloven-hoofed animals, causes an annual economic loss of us$60-150 million in bangladesh. there is no cross-protection among the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes and vaccination escape mutation may happen. peptide vaccine is a safer alternative. the aim of this study is to predict and map the b and t cell epitopes of vp1 proteins of fmdv serotypes o and a that were circulating in bangladesh from 2011 to 2013. using evolutionary and ...201425452681
swine leukocyte antigen (sla) class i allele typing of danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.the swine major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genomic region (sla) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct mhc class i molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating t cells of the immune system. upon recognition of such peptide-mhc complexes (pmhc) naïve t cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. hence sla plays a crucial role in main ...201425457547
indirect elisa using recombinant nonstructural protein 3d to detect foot and mouth disease virus infection associated antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious disease of transboundary importance. routine biannual vaccination along with surveillance activities is seen as the principal to control fmd in india. non-structural protein (nsp) based immunoassays are the test of choice for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated population. in this study, 3d protein of fmd virus was expressed in escherichia coli and an indirect elisa (i-elisa) was developed to detect 3d-antibodies in the infected ...201525458472
vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop fmdv transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.we quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. the (partial) reproduction ratios (r) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. a 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (ngm) was constructed using these estimates. the dominant eigenvalue of the ngm, the r for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different prop ...201525464822
mgmt enrichment and second gene co-expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells using separate or dual-gene lentiviral vectors.the dna repair gene o(6)-methylguanine-dna methyltransferase (mgmt) allows efficient in vivo enrichment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (hsc). thus, linking this selection strategy to therapeutic gene expression offers the potential to reconstitute diseased hematopoietic tissue with gene-corrected cells. however, different dual-gene expression vector strategies are limited by poor expression of one or both transgenes. to evaluate different co-expression strategies in the context of mgmt-m ...201525479595
early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency 2009-2011, spread of a serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) belonging to the south east asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in japan and korea. the o1 manisa vaccine (belonging to the middle east-south asian topotype) was used at high potency in korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. however, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the o1 manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. in this study, the early protecti ...201525483241
outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in libya and saudi arabia during 2013 due to an exotic o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage virus.foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the vp1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from libya and saudi arabia has revealed a lineage, o-ind-2001, normally found in the indian subcontinent. this paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time rt-pcr assay that can be used ...201625483996
prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in european surveillance programmes: expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.this study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. it is part of a european union (eu) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the eu over the last 15 years). these 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts ...201525496774
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination induces cross-reactive ifn-γ responses in cattle that are dependent on the integrity of the 140s particles.interferon-γ (ifn-γ) recall responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in fmd vaccinated cattle are utilized to study t-lymphocyte immunity against this virus. here, a recall ifn-γ assay based on a commercial elisa was set up using 308 samples from naïve and vaccinated cattle. the assay was used to study cross-reactive responses between different fmdv vaccine strains. blood samples from cattle immunized with monovalent vaccines containing a24/cruzeiro/brazil/55, a/argentina/2001 or o1 ...201525496826
antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75 against currently circulating viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o is the most common cause of fmd outbreaks in india and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely ind2001, panasia and panasia 2. we report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype o viruses isolated from india between 2002 and 2012. all these viruses belong to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype. the serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current ind ...201525500306
induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles.the aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type a fmd were designed: (1) chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (plga) loaded with plasmid dna (chi-plga-dna) and (2) chitosan-trehalos ...201425506214
genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o responsible for outbreaks in india during recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in india are caused by serotype o ind2001 lineage. the lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (ind2001a, b, c and d). we report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during april 2013-march 2014 in india. the length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. of the nine isolates anal ...201525511252
genetic and immunologic relationships between vaccine and field strains for vaccine selection of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in east asia.of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), type a has the most diverse variations. genetic variations also occur frequently at vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. the structural proteins of fmdv, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. in this study we analyzed the type a vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find ...201525528521
protective immune response to liposome adjuvanted high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in indian cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines applied for prophylactic use in endemic areas provide short-lived immunity requiring regular boosters. indian fmd control program recommends twice a year vaccination. development of high potency vaccines that provide better immune response can singificantly contribute to control programme by reducing the frequency of vaccination. the present study explores new adjuvants to enhance the protective efficacy of inactivated trivalent fmd vaccines.201525528522
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 in long-horned ankole calf, uganda.after a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in uganda. the emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding vp1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in uganda.201525531186
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
kinetics of cytokine expression in bovine pbmcs and whole blood after in vitro stimulation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.the interest in analysing antigen-specific cytokine responses has substantially increased in recent years, in part due to their use in assessing vaccine efficacy. in the present study, the kinetics of il-2, il-4 and ifn-γ expression was determined in bovine pbmcs by real-time pcr and in whole blood by cytokine-release assay after in vitro stimulation with recall foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen. the results showed that the cytokine mrna of il-2 and ifn-γ in pbmcs were induced early (p ...201525574771
construction and characterization of 3a-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most fmdvs examined to date. specific deletion in the fmdv 3a protein has been associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. however, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. in this study, we constructed epitope-tagged fmdvs containing an 8 aa flag epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (ha) ep ...201525584768
evaluation of the flinders technology associates cards for storage and temperature challenges in field conditions for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for diagnosis and identification of fmdv pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where wide fluctuation of temperature over a large geographical area is common. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valu ...201625598192
size-exclusion hplc provides a simple, rapid, and versatile alternative method for quality control of vaccines by characterizing the assembly of antigens.the assembly of antigen structure is often crucial to the potency of vaccines. currently adopted methods like animal testing and ultracentrifugation take long time and are difficult to automate for multiple samples. here we develop a size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) method to characterize the assembly of antigen structure during both manufacturing process and storage. three important vaccine antigens including inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which ...201525604799
prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in east africa using site-directed mutagenesis.epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype a fmdv. previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from asia, europe and latin america. in this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in african serotype a fmdvs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to b ...201525614587
correction for larocco et al., a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201525617444
cleavage efficient 2a peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in cho cells.linking the heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mab) production on a single cassette using 2a peptides allows control of lc and hc ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. four 2a peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (f2a), equine rhinitis a virus (e2a), porcine teschovirus-1 (p2a) and thosea asigna virus (t2a), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar igg1 mabs in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell lines. hc and lc wer ...201525621616
a multi-species indirect elisa for detection of non-structural protein 3abc specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus.reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the affected countries. non-structural protein (nsp) serology based on the 3abc protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. this report presents the development of a 3abc-antigen-based indirect elisa, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein g secondary antibody ...201525623051
development of a novel thermostable newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene.thermostable newcastle disease virus (ndv) vaccines have been used widely to control newcastle disease for village poultry flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. to explore the potential use of thermostable ndv as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of thermostable avirulent ndv strain ts09-c was developed using reverse genetics technology. the gfp gene, along with the self-cleaving 2a gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and ubiquitin monomer (2aubi), were ...201525626679
establishment and evaluation of a murine ανβ3-integrin-expressing cell line with increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.integrin ανβ3 plays a major role in various signaling pathways, cell apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. to examine the functions and roles of ανβ3 integrin, a stable cho-677 cell line expressing the murine ανβ3 heterodimer (designated as "cho-677-mανβ3" cells) was established using a highly efficient lentiviral-mediated gene transfer technique. integrin subunits αν and β3 were detected at the gene and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa), r ...201525643796
characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle in kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the sat serotypes of fmd virus (fmdv). large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on fmd in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. this study analysed 47 epithelia col ...201525644407
how foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor mediates foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.this study reviews the fmdv receptor-binding domain, integrin receptors, and heparan sulfate receptors to provide references for studies regarding the mechanisms underlying fmdv infection.201525645358
antigenic properties and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus rescued from full-length cdna clone of serotype o, typical vaccine strain.we cloned the full-length cdna of o manisa, the virus for vaccinating against foot-and-mouth disease. the antigenic properties of the virus recovered from the cdna were similar to those of the parental virus. pathogenesis did not appear in the pigs, dairy goats or suckling mice, but neutralizing antibodies were raised 5-6 days after the virus challenge. the utilization of o manisa as a safe vaccine strain will increase if recombinant viruses can be manipulated by inserting or removing a marker g ...201525648340
development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the 3b protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most highly contagious and economically devastating diseases, and it severely constrains the international trade of animals. vaccination against fmd is a key element in the control of fmd. however, vaccination of susceptible animals raises critical issues, such as the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. the current study developed a reliable and rapid test to detect antibodies against the conserved, nonstructural proteins (nsps) ...201525651918
robust expression of heterologous genes by selection marker fusion system in improved chlamydomonas strains.chlamydomonas is a very attractive candidate plant cell factory. however, its main drawback is the difficulty to find the transformants that robustly express heterologous genes randomly inserted in the nuclear genome. we previously showed that domestic squalene synthase (sqs) gene of chlamydomonas was much more efficiently overexpressed in a mutant strain [uv-mediated mutant (uvm) 4] than in wild type. in this study, we evaluated the possibility of a new mutant strain, met1, which contains a tag ...201525660568
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) from ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (op)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported fmd outbreaks in seven different ugandan districts. overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against fmdv by priocheck fmdv ns elisa ...201525664876
a colorimetric bioassay for high-throughput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal viruses. this virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type i interferons. currently, a bioassay based on plaque reduction is used to measure anti-fmdv activity of porcine ifns. the plaque reduction assay is tedious and difficult to utilize for high-throughput analysis. using available fmdv susceptible bovine and porcine cells, we developed and tested a colorimetric assay based on cytopathic effect reduction for its ability ...201525669593
development and evaluation of a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus in india.a simple, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is required for deployment in the field. in this study, development of reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay based on the 3d polymerase gene for specific and rapid detection fmd virus (fmdv) was carried out. the assay was optimised with viral rna extracted from serotype o, a and asia 1 fmdv vaccine strains, which resulted a reliable amplification at 65 °c for 60 min. the amplifi ...201425674604
promising ms2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. in this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (ep141-160) of vp1 were inserted into the coat protein (cp) genes of ms2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (vlp). results showed that the cp-ep141-160 vlp had a strong immunoreaction with the fmd virus (fmdv) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice ...201525676866
a simple method for measuring porcine circovirus 2 whole virion particles and standardizing vaccine formulation.porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) is involved in porcine circovirus-associated disease, that causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. vaccination against pcv2 proved to be very effective in reducing disease occurrence and it is currently performed on a large scale. starting from a previous model concerning foot-and mouth disease virus antigens, we developed a rapid and simple method to quantify pcv2 whole virion particles in inactivated vaccines. this procedure, based on sucro ...201525687800
application of a recombinant capsid polyprotein (p1) expressed in a prokaryotic system to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. in india, the disease is endemic in nature and is controlled primarily by prophylactic bi-annual mass vaccination. in this control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is being used widely for post vaccination seromonitoring. in order to develop an alternative assay to lpbe, the recombinant capsid polyprotein (rp1) of fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o was expressed in escherichia coli and used as ...201525701759
simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time rt-pcr.multiplexed real-time pcr (qpcr) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. here, reverse transcription qpcr (rt-qpcr) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and bluetongue virus (btv) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. additionally, a background sc ...201525746154
detection of replication competent adenovirus upon serial passaging of recombinant adenovirus expressing fmdv capsid proteins.replication deficient human adenovirus type 5 (had5) is an important gene delivery vehicle and has been used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as gene therapy, cancer therapy and vaccination. inspite of its various useful features, emergence of replication competent adenovirus (rca) in recombinant virus stocks is a great concern. in the present study, recombinant adenovirus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype-o capsid proteins was propagated in hek-293 cells and purified ...201525748638
expression of multiple taenia solium immunogens in plant cells through a ribosomal skip mechanism.taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. while several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein expl ...201525761936
the ph stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is modulated by residues located at the pentameric interface and in the n terminus of vp1.the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. in this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of fmdv acid-induced disassembly by isolating an ...201525762735
local rna flexibility perturbation of the ires element induced by a novel ligand inhibits viral rna translation.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located at the 5'untranslated genomic region of various rna viruses mediates cap-independent initiation of translation. picornavirus ires activity is highly dependent on both its structural organization and its interaction with host factors. small molecules able to interfere with rna function are valuable candidates for antiviral agents. here we show that a small molecule based on benzimidazole (irab) inhibited foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) i ...201525775053
detection of african swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.african swine fever (asf), classical swine fever (csf), and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. pigs infected with asf and csf viruses (asfv and csfv) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability ...201525776540
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