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prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in european surveillance programmes: expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.this study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. it is part of a european union (eu) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the eu over the last 15 years). these 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts ...201525496774
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
both foot-and-mouth disease virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus replication are inhibited by mx1 protein originated from porcine.mx1 protein is i type interferons (ifns)-induced 76-kda guanosine triphosphatases (gtpases) that belong to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases. mx1 proteins have attracted attention because some display antiviral activity against pathogenic rna and dna viruses. meanwhile, mx1 gene generally exists in organisms or cells of mammalian, fish and chicken. blocking a wide range of rna virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mrna synthesis is a unique property of mx1 protein. in order to inv ...201525153459
cleavage efficient 2a peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in cho cells.linking the heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mab) production on a single cassette using 2a peptides allows control of lc and hc ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. four 2a peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (f2a), equine rhinitis a virus (e2a), porcine teschovirus-1 (p2a) and thosea asigna virus (t2a), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar igg1 mabs in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell lines. hc and lc wer ...201525621616
synonymous deoptimization of foot-and-mouth disease virus causes attenuation in vivo while inducing a strong neutralizing antibody response.codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. we have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the p1 region rendered a viable fmdv progeny. the resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those ...201526581977
promotion of viral ires-mediated translation initiation under mild hypothermia.internal ribosome entry site (ires)-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. as ires-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an ires element of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), hepatitis c v ...201525951166
mgmt enrichment and second gene co-expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells using separate or dual-gene lentiviral vectors.the dna repair gene o(6)-methylguanine-dna methyltransferase (mgmt) allows efficient in vivo enrichment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (hsc). thus, linking this selection strategy to therapeutic gene expression offers the potential to reconstitute diseased hematopoietic tissue with gene-corrected cells. however, different dual-gene expression vector strategies are limited by poor expression of one or both transgenes. to evaluate different co-expression strategies in the context of mgmt-m ...201525479595
nmr analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases lb and 2a with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4gii.messenger rna is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4e (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eif4g and the rna helicase eif4a. to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eif4g is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eif4e is unclear. we have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth dise ...201526384734
recovery of infectious type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an rna polymerase i/ii-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.we developed an rna polymerase (pol) i- and ii-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cloned cdna. in this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cdna was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (hamrz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (hdvrz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (cmv) and pol i promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. the utilit ...201526091821
construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75.generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2b, 3b and 3c(pro) and its characterization.201527047064
single immunization with a recombinant multiple-epitope protein induced protection against fmdv type asia 1 in cattle.to develop recombinant epitope vaccines against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1, genes encoding six recombinant proteins (a1-a6) consisting of different combinations of b-cell and t-cell epitopes from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv were constructed. these proteins were expressed in escherichia coli and used to immunize animals. our results showed that a6 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after single inoculation in guinea pigs than did the other five rec ...201526365702
characterization of single-domain antibodies against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o from a camelid and imaging of fmdv in baby hamster kidney-21 cells with single-domain antibody-quantum dots probes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and causes significant economic losses to husbandry worldwide. the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs or single domain antibodies, sdabs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies.201526001568
viroporin activity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural 2b protein.viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. among the picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2b protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2b protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201525946195
application of a recombinant capsid polyprotein (p1) expressed in a prokaryotic system to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. in india, the disease is endemic in nature and is controlled primarily by prophylactic bi-annual mass vaccination. in this control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is being used widely for post vaccination seromonitoring. in order to develop an alternative assay to lpbe, the recombinant capsid polyprotein (rp1) of fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o was expressed in escherichia coli and used as ...201525701759
size-exclusion hplc provides a simple, rapid, and versatile alternative method for quality control of vaccines by characterizing the assembly of antigens.the assembly of antigen structure is often crucial to the potency of vaccines. currently adopted methods like animal testing and ultracentrifugation take long time and are difficult to automate for multiple samples. here we develop a size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) method to characterize the assembly of antigen structure during both manufacturing process and storage. three important vaccine antigens including inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which ...201525604799
indirect elisa using recombinant nonstructural protein 3d to detect foot and mouth disease virus infection associated antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious disease of transboundary importance. routine biannual vaccination along with surveillance activities is seen as the principal to control fmd in india. non-structural protein (nsp) based immunoassays are the test of choice for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated population. in this study, 3d protein of fmd virus was expressed in escherichia coli and an indirect elisa (i-elisa) was developed to detect 3d-antibodies in the infected ...201525458472
coexpression of cellulases in pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.the term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. in an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce ...201526698316
analysis of the interaction between host factor sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.the nuclear protein src-associated protein of 68 kda in mitosis (sam68) is known to bind rna and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. interestingly, sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (sgs). recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of sam68 to the cytoplasm in fmdv infected cells, its ...201526695943
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp): a new approach for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its sero-types in pakistan.successful disease management requires a rapid and sensitive diagnosis method that can recognize early infection even before the manifestation of its clinical signs. the only available field diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are lateral flow devices, commonly known as chromatographic strips. low sensitivity and inability to detect fmd virus (fmdv) at the serotype level are limitations of lateral flow devices. therefore, a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplificati ...201527175198
foot-and-mouth disease seroprevalence in cattle in eritrea.information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotypes in eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. we carried out a cross-sectional study from february to june 2011 in eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of fmd in four administrative regions of the country. we analysed cattle sera ...201526518476
multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protein (l(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. l(pro) exists as two forms, lab and lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. l(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. in addition to its role as a viral proteinase, l(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. to promote ...201526511922
effect of cellular location of human carboxylesterase 2 on cpt-11 hydrolysis and anticancer activity.cpt-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. hydrolysis of cpt-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (ce2) generates sn-38, a topoisomerase i inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. expression of ce2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of cpt-11. ce2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as ...201526509550
peptides interfering 3a protein dimerization decrease fmdv multiplication.nonstructural protein 3a is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. fmdv 3a can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2) that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. in this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. the dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the ...201526505190
pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.a time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored fmdv vaccine. fmdv genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. a rapid progression of infectio ...201526599543
in silico prediction of ebolavirus rna polymerase inhibition by specific combinations of approved nucleotide analogues.the urgency of ebolavirus drug development is obvious in light of the current local epidemic in western africa with high morbidity and a risk of wider spread. we present an in silico study as a first step to identify inhibitors of ebolavirus polymerase activity based on approved antiviral nucleotide analogues.201526587786
interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle.the factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in ruminants are not well defined. this paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (il-10) early in the course of infection (1-4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of fmd virus in cattle. results showed that serum il-10 in carrier cattle infected with fmd virus type o (n = 4) was detected and peaked at 1 or 2 days post infection and rapidly declined thereafter. in contract, serum il- ...201526582423
data-driven models of foot-and-mouth disease dynamics: a review.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) threatens animal health and leads to considerable economic losses worldwide. progress towards minimizing both veterinary and financial impact of the disease will be made with targeted disease control policies. to move towards targeted control, specific targets and detailed control strategies must be defined. one approach for identifying targets is to use mathematical and simulation models quantified with accurate and fine-scale data to design and evaluate alte ...201526576514
development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. the rapid detection of orfv is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. a isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to pcr assay.201526631157
time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses.with the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) for rapidly evolving viruses. coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. this study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evoluti ...201526630483
protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs via oral administration of recombinant lactobacillus plantarum expressing vp1.mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, lactobacillus plantarum strains nc8 and wcfs1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a psip411-vp1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with nc8-psip411, nc8-psip411-vp1, wcfs1-psip411, wcfs1-psip411-vp1 or milk. anima ...201526629822
evaluation of two lyophilized molecular assays to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus directly from clinical samples in field settings.accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. however, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. these concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect ...201526617330
profiling oral and digital lesions in sheep in ireland.during the fmd outbreak in ireland and the uk in 2001, there was significant uncertainty amongstveterinary practitioners and government veterinary inspectors surrounding the clinical diagnosis of fmd insheep. this situation was complicated by reports of idiopathic oral ulcers that closely resembled fmd ongross appearance which at that time were referred to as ovine mouth and gum obscure disease.201526682039
translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna: factors influencing alternative aug selection.the mechanism of alternative aug usage in foot-and-mouth disease virus is not completely understood. using simple computational approaches, we evaluated the contributions of overall codon bias, quantitative codon bias, and %gc of the region between the two alternative augs, region-la, as well as the nucleotide bias of the sequence context flanking each aug with respect to translation initiation efficiency. for all serotypes of this virus, we found that only a small component of the effect of rna ...201526681026
tongue epithelium cells from shrna mediated transgenic goat show high resistance to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the gene 3dpol in fmdv genome encodes the viral rna polymerase, a vital element for fmdv replication. in this study, a conserved 3d-7414shrna targeting fmdv-3dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3d-7414shrna. loss of function assay demonstrated th ...201526671568
validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods.the present work deals with different methods for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) inactivation for serotypes o/pan asia, a/iran05, and sat-2/2012 by heat, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet (uv) in comparison with the traditional methods and their effects on the antigenicity of viruses for production of inactivated vaccines.201527047204
seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in pigs from zuru, nigeria.this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and distribution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in pigs from zuru, kebbi state, nigeria.201527047166
evaluation of spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (a, o, sat2).this work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) different types to evaluate its replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell culture and in baby mice.201527047027
importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.the aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. the evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as re ...201527044149
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by commercially available disinfectants and cleaners.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of great concern. it is contagious to cloven-hoofed animals and affects animals in extensive areas worldwide. in general, the primary eradication strategies for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in japan are stamping out the disease and restriction of movement. it is also important to completely disinfect the infected area to prevent the spread of fmdv, including vehicles and people as well. however, there is no report on the effect of commerc ...201526412701
structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein- ...201526389739
specific detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 virus by carboxyl-magnetic beads conjugated with single-domain antibody.immunomagnetic nanobead (imnb) labeled with specific antibody, has been demonstrated to be useful for the capturing and detection of viruses.201526369792
comparative proteomic analysis of wild-type and sap domain mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected porcine cells identifies the ubiquitin-activating enzyme ube1 required for virus replication.leader protein (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) manipulates the activities of several host proteins to promote viral replication and pathogenicity. l(pro) has a conserved protein domain sap that is suggested to subvert interferon (ifn) production to block antiviral responses. however, apart from blocking ifn production, the roles of the sap domain during fmdv infection in host cells remain unknown. therefore, we identified host proteins associated with the sap domain of l(pro) by ...201526354183
serological survey of foot-and-mouth disease virus in buffaloes (syncerus caffer) in zambia.a study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) circulating in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) from selected areas in zambia. sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against fmdv while probang samples were used to isolate the fmdv by observing cytopathic effect (cpe). samples with cpe were further analysed using antigen elisa. high fmd seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the ...201526347208
complete genome sequence analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from pakistan.sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o is reported here. genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (vp1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.201526337880
serotype-specific transmission and waning immunity of endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus in cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. the outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. in response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. however, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain et ...201526327324
evaluation of a combinatorial rnai lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven‑hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. fmdv is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. to generate genetically modified fmdv‑resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh)rnas was constructed using the lentivirus (lv) vector, lv‑3shrna. the three shrnas were expressed under the regulation of dna polymerase iii promoters from a bu ...201526323462
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) since 2010 in the republic of korea have occurred in the winter. at the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. in this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chl ...201526319879
a modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class i molecules.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class imolecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to cd8+ t cells. polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class i molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class i molecules. understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola), peptide-mhc class i binding specificities may fac ...201526496773
comparative efficacy of virus like particle (vlp) vaccine of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) type o adjuvanted with poly i:c or cpg in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious and economically important diseases of cloven-hoofed livestock. currently used inactivated fmd vaccines have short lived immunity besides risk of handling live virus. we studied recombinant fmd virus like particles (vlps) encoded by fmdv type o/ind/r2/75 polyprotein genes expressed in sf9 cells and adjuvanted with cpg or poly i:c in inducing protective immune response in guinea pigs. guinea pigs immunized with vlp + cpg vaccine had shown ...201526493006
eri silkworm (samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for acmnpv mediated expression of recombinant proteins.the baculovirus expression system (bves) based on autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to acmnpv have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. domesticated eri silkworm (samia ricini), reared in many parts of india, japan and china, is a non-mulberry silkworm. the present study shows that the eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical ino ...201526467714
in vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. no antiviral therapies are available for treating fmd virus (fmdv) infections in animals. the antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (mgo nps) on the fmdv were investigated in cell culture. the viability of the cells after mgo np treatment was determined using the mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bro ...201526435276
spectrum of vp1 region genetic variants in the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o populations derived from infected cattle tongue epithelium.rna virus population exists as a complex distribution of non-identical but closely related sequences known as viral quasispecies. variant strains are selected from this quasispecies population in response to changing environment. the quasispecies dynamics of a virus existing within an infected host differs from that in a cell culture-adapted population. this study was carried out to explore the genetic variations present in the vp1 coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype ...201526435155
employing transposon mutagenesis to investigate foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.probing the molecular interactions within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication complex has been restricted in part by the lack of suitable reagents. random insertional mutagenesis has proven an excellent method to reveal domains of proteins essential for virus replication as well as locations that can tolerate small genetic insertions. such insertion sites can subsequently be adapted by the incorporation of commonly used epitope tags, facilitating their detection with commerci ...201526432090
cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. recently, a series of outbreaks of type a fmdv occurred in southeast asian countries, china, the russia federation, mongolia, kazakhstan and south korea. the fmd virus (a/gdmm/cha/2013) from china's guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in vp1 protein with the epidemic stra ...201526431990
using mathematical modelling to explore hypotheses about the role of bovine epithelium structure in foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced cell lysis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus (fmdv) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and fmd is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). by contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). the reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are ...201526431527
identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. a major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use r ...201526296881
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype a isolated from vietnam in 2013.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) found in an isolate collected in northern vietnam in 2013 appears to be closely related to a genetic cluster formed with isolates from china, mongolia, and russia in 2013. all of these are classified to fall within the sea-97 lineage, for which little complete genome data are available.201526294636
foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines.control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (fmd) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. indeed, consistent and new fmd epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control str ...201526290730
xylaria hypoxylon lectin as adjuvant elicited tfh cell responses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by fmd virus (fmdv) is a major health and economic problem in the farming industry. vaccination of livestock against this highly infectious viral disease is crucial, and inactivated fmd vaccine has been effective at controlling infection. however, accumulated data show that the inactivated vaccine generates weak immune responses and that the oil formulation results in undesirable side effects. mushroom lectins have recently been shown to display adjuvant effec ...201526289530
development and characterization of probe-based real time quantitative rt-pcr assays for detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in west eurasia.rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. due to the heterogeneity of fmd viruses (fmdvs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. in this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription ...201526270532
development and evaluation of a rapid antigen detection and serotyping lateral flow antigen detection system for foot-and-mouth disease virus.we developed a lateral flow strip using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which allows for rapid antigen detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this fmdv serotyping strip was able to detect all 7 serotypes and distinguish serotypes o, a, c and asia1. its sensitivities ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) of a 50% tissue culture infectious dose of each fmdv stain; this is equal to those of the commercial product svanodip (boehringer ingelheim svanova, uppsala, sweden), which can detect ...201526270053
marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3a and 3b.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. the availabil ...201526260689
virus-resistant pigs might help to stem next outbreak.by genetically engineering pigs to degrade a crucial viral protein, livestock can be made less susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus.201526222499
establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in mdbk cells.in addition to acute infection and disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause persistent infection in ruminants. such "carrier" animals represent a potential risk for fmdv transmission to susceptible animals. however, the mechanisms and the factors that determine fmdv persistence remain unknown. we describe here the establishment of fmdv type o persistent infection in a bovine epithelial cell line (madin-darby bovine kidney; mdbk). preliminary experiments to assess the permissivity o ...201526215440
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of dendritic cells triggers phosphorylation of erk1/2 inducing class i presentation and apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this pathology is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). over time, the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of this illness became essential. vaccines currently used contain the inactivated form of the virus. however, vaccination generates an immune response different to that induced by the infection. we investigated whether these differences are related to intracellular mechanisms on de ...201526212005
development of protective immunity against inactivated iranian isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 using gamma ray-irradiated vaccine on balb/c mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. the aim of this research was the inactivation of fmdv type o/irn/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (gri) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs.201526202581
clonality and intracellular polyploidy in virus evolution and pathogenesis.in the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. however, despite abundant recombination that may be linked to molecular events essential for genome replication, herein we provide evidence that generation of recombinants with altered biological properties is not essential for the completion of the replic ...201526195777
a malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6pd50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant fmdv a sea-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) due to their ability to amplify the virus. it is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. in this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion a malaysia 97 vaccine (>6pd50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the a sea-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). in a ...201526192355
influence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/chn/mya98/33-p strain leader protein on viral replication and host innate immunity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/chn/mya98/33-p strain was isolated from the esophageal-pharyngeal fluid sample of cattle, and was shown to cause persistent infection. its leader protein contains 200 amino acids with one amino acid deletion, which is upstream and next to the second initiation codon compared with the majority of fmdv mya98 strains. the fmdv genome includes two initiation codons that can produce two different leader proteins, lab (from the first aug) and lb (from the second a ...201526186028
quantitative proteomic analysis of bhk-21 cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (silac) was used to quantitatively study the host cell gene expression profile, in order to achieve an unbiased overview of the protein expression changes in bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv serotype asia 1. the silac-based approach identified overall 2,141 proteins, 153 of which showed significant alteration in the expression level 6 h post fmdv infection (57 up-regulated and 96 down-regulated). among these proteins, six cellular proteins, ...201526161868
systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody-secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic responses upon aerosol infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated fmd virus (fmdv), are regularly used worldwide to control the disease. here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. animals immunized with a high-payload monovalent fmd vaccine developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies at 7 days post ...201526157128
isolation of novel sequences targeting highly variable viral protein hemagglutinin.rapid evolution is a hallmark of the viral kingdom and a major concern for developing universal vaccines. the isolation of substantial numbers of viral sequence variants at highly variable viral protein domains remains a major challenge. we previously developed a combinatorial method for the isolation of novel sequences to cope with rapid viral variations at the g-h loop of foot and mouth disease virus vp1 protein [1]. here we present a modification of that method in its application in the rando ...201526150973
a new lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in india.the complete nucleotide sequence of a new lineage of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was determined. the lineage designated as ind2011 first appeared during 2011 in the southern region of india. excluding the poly c tract and poly a tail, the genome of ind2011 ranged from 8,169 to 8,172 nucleotides. variation in the genome length was due to insertions/deletions in lf-utr. the lineage had a higher sequence identity with lineage panasia-1 at p1 and p2 regions, and with lineage panas ...201526129666
engineering foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o ind r2/1975 for one-step purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.immobilized metal affinity chromatography (imac) allows for the efficient protein purification via metal affinity tag such as hexa-histidine (his6) sequence. to develop a new chromatography strategy for the purification and concentration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles, we inserted the his6-tag at the earlier reported site in the vp1 g-h loop of the fmd virus serotype o vaccine strain ind r2/1975. display of the his6-tag on the capsid surface, endowed the virus with an increased ...201526123433
virus excretion from foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier cattle and their potential role in causing new outbreaks.the role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from fmdv infection. in this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. we col ...201526110772
early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency vaccine.in 2009-2011, spread of a serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) belonging to the south east asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in japan and korea. the o1 manisa vaccine (belonging to the middle east-south asian topotype) was used at high potency in korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. however, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the o1 manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. in this study, the early protecti ...201525483241
vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop fmdv transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.we quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. the (partial) reproduction ratios (r) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. a 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (ngm) was constructed using these estimates. the dominant eigenvalue of the ngm, the r for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different prop ...201525464822
megaprimer-mediated capsid swapping for the construction of custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the selection of appropriate candidate vaccine strain and its adaptation in cell culture to yield high titer of virus is a cumbersome process. an attractive approach to circumvent this tedious process is to replace the capsid coding sequen ...201526303897
synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3d polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). one of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control fmd is 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dpol). in this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against fmdv 3dpol. among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (ic50 = 0.39 μm) of fmdv 3d polymerase and ...201526301555
antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75 against currently circulating viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o is the most common cause of fmd outbreaks in india and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely ind2001, panasia and panasia 2. we report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype o viruses isolated from india between 2002 and 2012. all these viruses belong to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype. the serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current ind ...201525500306
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination induces cross-reactive ifn-γ responses in cattle that are dependent on the integrity of the 140s particles.interferon-γ (ifn-γ) recall responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in fmd vaccinated cattle are utilized to study t-lymphocyte immunity against this virus. here, a recall ifn-γ assay based on a commercial elisa was set up using 308 samples from naïve and vaccinated cattle. the assay was used to study cross-reactive responses between different fmdv vaccine strains. blood samples from cattle immunized with monovalent vaccines containing a24/cruzeiro/brazil/55, a/argentina/2001 or o1 ...201525496826
multifunctionality of a picornavirus polymerase domain: nuclear localization signal and nucleotide recognition.the n-terminal region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d polymerase contains the sequence mrktklapt (residues 16 to 24) that acts as a nuclear localization signal. a previous study showed that substitutions k18e and k20e diminished the transport to the nucleus of 3d and 3cd and severely impaired virus infectivity. these residues have also been implicated in template binding, as seen in the crystal structures of different 3d-rna elongation complexes. here, we report the biochemical and ...201525903341
serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs (bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.we report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and pasteurella multocida from indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. bannerghatta biological park (bbp), a national park located in the outskirts of bengaluru city, karnataka, india, is bordered by several villages. these villages witnessed massive outbreaks of fmd which spread rapidly to the herbivores at bbp. post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two india ...201525894817
impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in kenya.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into fmd-free countries. information on the impact of the disease in fmdv-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. a fmd (virus serotype sat2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in nakuru county, kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of fmd o ...201525889460
development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control rna for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. for high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks asso ...201525864934
the impact of within-herd genetic variation upon inferred transmission trees for foot-and-mouth disease virus.full-genome sequences have been used to monitor the fine-scale dynamics of epidemics caused by rna viruses. however, the ability of this approach to confidently reconstruct transmission trees is limited by the knowledge of the genetic diversity of viruses that exist within different epidemiological units. in order to address this question, this study investigated the variability of 45 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences (from 33 animals) that were collected during 2007 from eigh ...201525861750
an appraisal on the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a livestock disease that has serious economic repercussions. here, we report the laboratory results for samples from suspected outbreaks that were sent for confirmation of fmd in pakistan. from january 2010 to december 2011, 132 suspected outbreaks were investigated, and samples from 58 out of the 76 outbreaks sent to the national veterinary laboratory (nvl) were positive. the highest proportion of positives were of serotype o (65.52 %), followed by serotype a (24 ...201525850759
stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine.most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. intact (146s) fmdv particles can dissociate into 12s degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. we therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed elisas to separately quantify 12s and 146s particles. virions completely dissociated into 12s particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. dissociation occur ...201525843267
phylogenetic analysis of the leader proteinase (lpro) region of indian foot and mouth disease serotype o isolates.in this study, the nucleotide sequences of the complete leader proteinase (lpro) region of 21 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o collected during various outbreaks in india were sequenced and compared with vaccine strains. the phylogenetic analysis of these lpro sequences showed a difference in the clustering of the isolates based on the vp1 capsid coding region sequences. the comparison of amino acid sequences at the n terminus end of the lpro region showed very high var ...201525842211
risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. recurrence of fmd outbreaks in israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of fmd among ...201525841998
apigenin restricts fmdv infection and inhibits viral ires driven translational activity.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by fmd virus (fmdv). fmd outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. results show that apigenin can inhibit fmdv-mediated cytopathogenic effect and fmdv replication in vitro. further studie ...201525835532
determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-saharan africa.the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for rna replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine fmdv isolates of sat1, sat2, sat3, a and o serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. the leader protease (l(pro)) and 3a ...201525818579
different functional sensitivity to mutation at intersubunit interfaces involved in consecutive stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus assembly.small spherical viruses are paradigms of supramolecular self-assembly. identifying the specific structural determinants for virus assembly provides guidelines to develop new antiviral drugs or engineer modified viral particles for medical or technological applications. however, very few systematic studies have been carried out so far to identify those chemical groups at interfaces between virus capsid subunits that are important for viral assembly and function. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...201525979732
development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. a rapid and specific test for fmd diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. this project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-lfi) for the rapid detection and serotyping of fmd viruses. the monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against serotypes o, a, and asia 1 were used as cap ...201525977185
a hydrophobic interaction chromatography strategy for purification of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus.a purification scheme based on hydrophobic interaction chromatography was developed to separate inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from crude supernatant. about 92% recovery and 8.8-fold purification were achieved on butyl sepharose 4 ff. further purification on superdex 200 resulted in another 29-fold purification, with 92% recovery. the columns were coupled through an intermediate ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the virus. the entire process was completed in about 3.5h, with 7 ...201525957800
clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype o 2010 south east asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o, topotype south east asia, lineage myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (inp) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. all four exposure systems were ef ...201525937316
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides improve the immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in mice.water-soluble polysaccharides from chuanminshen violaceum (cvps) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, monosaccharide composition, and adjuvant potential to specific cellular and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination. the average molecular weight (mw) of the cvps was 968.31 kda. the monosaccharide components of the cvps was rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a relative mass of 6.29%, 21.87%, 16.5 ...201525934108
intra-serotype sat2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against fmdv challenge.the genetic diversity of the three southern african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each sat-specific topotype may be needed. this has serious implications for control of fmd using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vsat2(zim14)-sat2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed ...201525930116
quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. to quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of fmdv, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. in direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. in indirect contact expe ...201525928658
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