rgd-containing peptides of vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) prevent virus infection in vitro.rgd-containing peptides from the immunodominant region of vp1 between amino acids 135-160 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o1 kaufbeuren (o1k) prevented virus adsorption to piglet kidney (pk) cells. the highly conserved amino acid rgd sequence (arg.-gly.-asp.) was a prerequisite of this effect. to prevent infection with 100-200 tcid50 in 10(6) pk cells, 20-250 micrograms of each peptide should have been added.19911683122
analysis of immune responses in the sheep to synthetic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus using ovine polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.a 40-residue peptide incorporating residues 200-213 and 141-158 of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 capsid protein strain o1 kaufbeuren was injected uncoupled into sheep, and the immune responses analysed. direct-binding and inhibition experiments showed that the polyclonal antibody response was directed mainly against epitopes unique to the 40-residue peptide but absent from the constituent peptides containing residues 200-213 or 141-158, respectively. further confirmation of the presence of un ...19901690176
two mechanisms of antigenic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the amino acid replacements that underlay the diversification of the main antigenic site a (vp1 residues 138 to 150) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c have been identified. sixteen new vp1 sequences of isolates from 1926 until 1989 belonging to subtypes c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, and unclassified are reported. the reactivities in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assays of capsid protein vp1 with a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize sites a or c (the vp ...19911653494
[outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in northern benin during the 1990-1991 dry season].an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease damaged the north-benin during the 1990-1991 dry season (november to may). coming from outside the benin, it spread out very quickly in the country essentially because of trans-humant herds. no measures have been taken to limit this sickness which is endemic and which regularly exhibits outbreaks in benin. antibodies to types a, o and sat2 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus were detected in the sera during this outbreak.19911824131
a single amino acid substitution affects multiple overlapping epitopes in the major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c were assayed with field isolates and variant fmdvs using several immunoassays. of a total of 36 nmabs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein vp1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of fmdv c. eleven epitopes of fmdv c-s8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of vp1 by quantifying the reactivity of nmabs with synthet ...19901690261
high-affinity antibody induced by immunization with a synthetic peptide is associated with protection of cattle against foot-and-mouth disease.previous work has shown that the synthetic peptide c-c-(200-213)-p-p-s-(141-158)-p-c-g, in which residues 200-213 and 141-158 correspond to immunogenic regions of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is capable of inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody but only inconsistent protection of cattle against virulent fmdv challenge. the possibility exists that differences in affinity may well underlie the observed variations in biological effectiveness of the anti-peptide ant ...19911847695
outer membrane phoe protein of escherichia coli as a carrier for foreign antigenic determinants: immunogenicity of epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.outer membrane protein phoe of escherichia coli was used for the expression of antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. five hybrid phoe proteins were constructed containing different combinations of two antigenic determinants of vp1 protein of the virus. the hybrid proteins were expressed in two e. coli strains and the proteins were correctly assembled into the outer membrane. the inserted epitopes were exposed at the surface of the cell and were antigenic in this phoe-associated ...19901690490
fixation of mutations at the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus. can quasispecies define a transient molecular clock?the number of nucleotide (nt) substitutions found in the vp1 gene (encoding viral capsid protein) between any two of 16 closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been quantified as a function of the time interval between isolations [villaverde et al., j. mol. biol. 204 (1988) 771-776]. one of them (isolate c-s12) includes some replacements found in isolates that preceded it and other replacements found in later isolates. the study has revealed alternating periods of rap ...19911653754
mouse protection test as a predictor of the protective capacity of synthetic foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.a passive immunity test (mpt) in suckling mice for the quantification of protective anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies in serum is described. comparisons with titres obtained using conventional serum neutralization tests show that for cattle given synthetic peptide vaccines this in vivo assay is a better indicator of protection, while for convalescent animals and virus-vaccinates both tests are equally valid predictors of immune status. cleavage of fc fragments from anti-virus o ...19911848960
protection conferred by trpe fusion proteins containing portions of the c-terminal region of capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus.major immunogenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been mapped to the c-terminal third of capsid protein vp1; we studied the immunogenicity of a series of trpe-fmdv fusion proteins containing this region of fmdv strain o1 campos. fusion protein trpe-dcn, which contains a dimer of vp1 amino acid sequences consisting of amino acids 200 to 213 linked by a diproline spacer to amino acids 141 to 158 (200-213 approximately p-p-g approximately 141-158), induced the best response. a sin ...19911849980
rapid isolation of monoclonal hybridoma cultures by a 'fusion-cloning' method: the requirement for aminopterin.hybridomas were generated by fusing the balb/c sp2/0 myeloma-like cell line with either: (i) splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), african swine fever virus (asfv) or pig thymocytes; or (ii) lymph node cells from cattle immunized with fmdv. if the fusion mixtures were plated in cloning medium of methyl cellulose and hat medium, small hybridoma colonies developed which rarely survived. fusi ...19911954000
foot-and-mouth disease virus strains isolated from persistently infected cell cultures are attenuated for mice and was previously reported that during serial passage of a bhk-derived cell line persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, (termed c1-bhk-rc1) the virus became increasingly more virulent for bhk-21 cells (de la torre et al 1988). virus strains isolated from different cell passage levels were tested for virulence in mice and cattle. the results showed that in the course of persistence in bhk cells, fmdv became progressively less virulent for mice and cattle.19901964520
functional aspects of the capsid structure of mengo virus.the three-dimensional structure of the mengo virus capsid has been determined at a resolution of 3.0 a. this achievement is discussed in an historical context, and the general features of picornavirus capsid design are presented. the dynamic functional aspects of the mengo virus capsid--namely its ability to interact with specific receptors on host cells, to dissociate and release the viral genomic rna into the cellular cytoplasm, to assemble with progeny rna molecules and form new virions, and ...19901965133
foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). response to fmdv varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with fmdv serotype a24. another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. two contact llamas, ...19901965585
[primary structure of the gene for protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o1 isolated in the ussr].the nucleotides sequence has been determined for the viral rna and some of its cdnas coding for the major antigenic protein of the epidemic stomatitis o1-194 and o1-1618 vp1 viruses. the expressed microheterogeneity has been registered for the population of the strain o1-194.19901694961
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. i. infectivity studies.the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains type o1 bfs 1860 and type a22 irq 24/64 to retain infectivity after freeze-drying with or without additives being made to virus suspensions was studied. the infectivity titres of freeze-dried antigens was assessed at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution to the liquid phase and storage with or without glycerination. certain additive solutions were necessary to prevent degradation of viru ...19901698805
sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus: evidence for the involvement of the three surface exposed capsid proteins in four antigenic sites.sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus has been performed. distinct clusters of amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to neutralization at each of the four previously defined antigenic sites (mccahon et al., 1989, j. gen. virol. 70, 639-645) have been identified. one site corresponds to the well-known 140-160 region of vp1, a second site is also on vp1, one site is on vp2, and the fourth site is on vp3. all of the amino acid sub ...19901699353
genetic and phenotypic variability during replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.a plaque-purified preparation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1 (c-s8c1-1), grown in cell culture, was used to infect nonimmunized pigs. no variant genomes were detected in the average populations of 50 viruses isolated from infected animals by direct rna sequencing of the carboxy-terminal half of the vp1 gene. however, a mutant with altered phenotypic properties was present in low proportion in an infected animal. the frequency of mutants resistant to neutralization by sd6 m ...19901700543
investigation of the influence of peptide-carrier conjugation on the immunological activity of vp1-peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1-kaufbeuren.we found coupling of short sequences of vp1 to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) by means of glutaraldehyde to be a very complex phenomenon which could only be controlled by strict standardization of components and reaction conditions. considering the results, we may conclude that big immunogenic proteins, like klh, are advantageous for achieving sufficient and specific antibody response with neutralizing activity. when using klh, we did not find simple dependence of immunogenicity or neutralizing ...19901966359
synthetic peptides against foot-and-mouth disease--immunization with vp1-peptides of type o1-kaufbeuren.coupled synthetic peptides, representing the sequences of amino acids 130-160, 141-160 and 145-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k protein vp1, induced virus-binding and virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs, rabbits, and pigs. we also detected antibody response in guinea pigs after immunization with uncoupled peptides and in cattle with 21 aa-peptide-keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (-klh). the best results were obtained from 21 aa-peptide-klh and 31 aa-peptide with or without klh or ...19901966360
inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in skimmed milk with propionic acid, citric acid and hydrogen order to protect farm animals from infections such as foot and mouth disease (fmd) and tuberculosis, the pasteurisation of milk and milk products designated for the feeding of animals is compulsory in switzerland. nowadays, milk products are often treated chemically with acids or with hydrogen peroxide in order to keep bacterial contamination low. the capacity of these chemical treatments to inactivate fmd virus in skimmed milk within 6 h at 5 degrees c was tested in this study. the results i ...19901966751
a study of antigenic variants of foot and mouth disease virus type a in india between 1977 and 1985.the structural polypeptides of thirty-three field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) collected in india between 1977 and 1985 were analysed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. they were placed in eleven groups based on their patterns and compared with results of conventional serological (virus neutralisation and complement fixation) tests. variation occurred in the structural proteins of the viruses isolated between 1977 and 1981; however, the polypeptide patterns of viruses ...19901966752
inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation.cell culture origin or suckling mouse brain origin viruses of akabane disease, aino, bovine ephemeral fever, swine vesicular disease, hog cholera, bluetongue, and minute virus of mice were each suspended in bovine serum. aliquots (1 ml) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60co source while at -68 degrees c. aliquots (100-ml) of serum from a steer experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were similarly irradiated. the samples were assayed for infectivity in ce ...19902123735
efficient recognition by rat t cell clones of an epitope of mycobacterial hsp 65 inserted in escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe.phoe is a pore-forming protein, abundantly expressed in the escherichia coli outer membrane. previous investigations have shown the possibility of inserting antigenic determinants in cell surface-exposed regions of phoe by recombinant dna techniques without disturbing the biogenesis and the functioning of the protein. this method proved to be successful for foot-and-mouth disease virus b cell determinants. we have now shown for the first time that phoe can also be used as a carrier molecule for ...19901702727
attenuation of mengo virus through genetic engineering of the 5' noncoding poly(c) tract.the murine cardioviruses, such as the mengo and encephalomyocarditis viruses, and the bovine aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, are distinguished among positive-strand rna viruses by the presence of long homopolymeric poly(c) tracts within their 5' noncoding sequences. although the specific lengths (60-350 bases) and sequence discontinuities (for example, uridine residues) that sometimes disrupt the homopolymer have served to characterize natural viral isolates, the biological ...19902153940
protection of cattle and swine against foot-and-mouth disease, using biosynthetic peptide vaccines.a single dose of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protein 1 (vp1) peptide, expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with 190 amino acids (aa) of the le' protein of the tryptophan operon of e coli, elicited an immune response in steers sufficient to withstand the challenge of exposure to animals with acute fmd. the 58-micrograms dose of viral peptide, composed of a segment of the vp1 from the a12 strain (a12) of fmd virus (fmdv; a12-32dimer) in a tandem repeat configuration of aa137 th ...19902154148
function of idiotypic networks in vivo: immunisation with idiotype-bearing (id1) antibody induces further production of id1 antibody.injection of balb/c mice with an anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) monoclonal antibody (mab) apparently induced the idiotype network to produce more anti-fmdv (idiotype-bearing) antibody, as determined by hybridoma production. anti-idiotype antibodies were also induced, detected by binding directly to the mab used for the immunizations (the "immunising" antibody). many of the anti-idiotype antibodies were directed against regions in or near the paratope of the immunising mab, since they c ...19911708353
chimeric polioviruses that include sequences derived from two independent antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induce neutralizing antibodies against fmdv in guinea pigs.five poliovirus recombinants containing sequences corresponding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigenic sites were constructed. viable virus was recovered from four of these plasmids, in which the vp1 beta b-beta c loop (antigenic site 1) of poliovirus type 1 sabin had been replaced with sequences derived from the vp1 beta g-beta h loop (antigenic site 1) of fmdv o1 kaufbeuren (o1k), chimera o1.1 (residues 141 to 154), chimera o1.2 (residues 147 to 156), and chimera o1.3 (residues 140 t ...19911709696
conformational variability of a picornavirus capsid: ph-dependent structural changes of mengo virus related to its host receptor attachment site and disassembly.the structure of mengo virus had been determined from crystals grown in the presence of 100 mm phosphate buffer at ph 7.4. it is shown that mengo virus is poorly infectious at the phosphate concentration similar to that in which it was crystallized. maximal infectivity is achieved at 10 mm phosphate or less in physiological saline. the phosphate effect is ameliorated when the ph is lowered to 4.6. although it has not been possible to study the crystal structure of the virus at low phosphate conc ...19902155508
structure of viral b-cell epitopes.four categories of viral epitopes can be distinguished that have been designated cryptotopes, neotopes, metatopes and neutralization epitopes. specific examples of each epitope type are presented and the methods used for locating their positions in viral proteins are described. the epitopes of four well-characterized viruses, namely poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza virus and tobacco mosaic virus are briefly described.19901714092
comparison of vaccine strains and the virus causing the 1986 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in spain: epizootiological analysis.rnas of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in spain (a5sp86) during the 1986 outbreak, and of the three vaccine strains in use at that time in that country, have been compared. although these viruses are serologically indistinguishable, differences have been found among them by t1 fingerprinting. this genetic heterogeneity affects the immunogenic vp1 gene, with amino acid changes located at the carboxyterminal end of the molecule. vp1-coding sequences obtained have been compar ...19902156389
outer membrane protein phoe as a carrier for the exposure of foreign antigenic determinants at the bacterial cell surface.phoe protein is an abundant outer membrane protein of the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane. this protein can be used as an exposure system to produce foregin antigenic determinants and for their transport to the bacterial cell surface. the system is very flexible, since insertions varying in length and nature could be made in different cell surface-exposed regions of phoe, without interfering with the assembly process of the mutant proteins into the outer membrane. two antigenic determinants ...19911715682
heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.synthetic peptide vaccines of the general sequence cys-cys(200-213)-pro-pro-ser-(141-158)-pro-cys-gly, where the numbered residues refer to vp1 sequences of three different strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, have been evaluated in cattle and guinea pigs. high levels of serotype-specific (homotypic) antiviral and antipeptide antibody were produced with each peptide. the a- and o-serotype peptides provided complete protection of guinea pigs against their respective virus challenges. the c-se ...19902157884
infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus derived from a cloned full-length cdna.a full-length cdna plasmid of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been constructed. rna synthesized in vitro by means of a bacteriophage sp6 promoter inserted in front of the cdna led to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of bhk-21 cells. these particles were also found to be highly infectious for primary bovine kidney cells as well as for baby mice. the difficulty in cloning the foot-and-mouth disease virus cytidyl tract in escherichia coli was circumvented by joining two sep ...19902159523
[synthesis, cloning, and expression of artificial genes, coding antigenic determinants of the foot-and-mouth virus substrain a22].chemical-enzymatic synthesis and cloning in escherichia coli of double-stranded dnas, coding for simple and complex antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a22, have been carried out. the simple antigenic determinants are a part of the viral coat protein vp1 (amino acid sequence 131-152 or 131-160) whereas the complex antigenic determinants comprise additionally the amino acid sequence 200-213 of vp1 linked to n-terminus of simple antigenic determinants through a tet ...19911716100
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth virus. vi. functional segments of the immunodominant region of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus strains o1k and a22].b- and t-epitopes have been localized within the protective fragments of vp1 protein, viz., 136-152 of the o1k strain and 135-159 of the a22 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antibodies eliciting after immunization of various animals with the 135-159 a22 peptide are directed to different sites of the peptide. immunogenicity of fragments of the 135-159 a22 peptide on mice correlates with their activity on t-cells of the same animals and protective activity on guinea pigs. the inv ...19911722673
modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) vaccine expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein epitopes on surface of hybrid virus particles. 19911725233
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vaccinated cattle by antibodies to non-structural virus proteins.antibodies raised in cattle against foot-and-mouth disease virus by vaccination or by experimental infection were distinguished. vaccination elicited only antibodies to virus capsid proteins and the polymerase 3d. virus replication in cattle elicited additional antibodies directed against the non-structural proteins 2b, 2c, 3ab1, and/or 3c irrespective of prior vaccination or whether the cattle exhibited symptoms of disease. non-permissive mice inoculated with virus responded in the same way, in ...19902163574
isotype responses of infected, virus-vaccinated and peptide-vaccinated cattle to foot-and-mouth disease elisa to measure bovine serum immunoglobulin isotypes (igg1, igg2, igm and iga) specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or for synthetic fmdv peptides is described. sera from cattle infected by fmdv, vaccinated with conventional inactivated virus vaccines or vaccinated with synthetic peptides were examined using this assay. generally igg subclasses dominated the antibody responses of all groups after an early igm response had waned. an exception to this pattern was seen in the case o ...19902163575
identification of a nucleotide deletion in parts of polypeptide 3a in two independent attenuated aphthovirus strains.a set of antisera specific for each viral polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to provide a full comparison of polypeptides of two strains attenuated for cattle with respect to their parental virulent strains. both attenuated strains, belonging to serotypes o1 campos and c3 resende, were obtained through serial passages of the corresponding virulent strains in chicken embryos. although mutations were scattered throughout the genome, both attenuated strains showed an electrophoret ...19902164734
estimation of 140s particles in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine by using the computer analyzing system.the quantity of 140s particles in inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine samples produced in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production center (fmd vaccine production center) in thailand was estimated by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and optical density analysis by using the computer applying system. the soft ware; chromato data system (cds) (nihon chromato works co., ltd. japan) which is prepared for the analysis of chromatography, was applied for the estimation of 14 ...19902166853
putative papain-related thiol proteases of positive-strand rna viruses. identification of rubi- and aphthovirus proteases and delineation of a novel conserved domain associated with proteases of rubi-, alpha- and coronaviruses.a computer-assisted comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences of (putative) thiol proteases encoded by the genomes of several diverse groups of positive-stranded rna viruses and distantly related to the family of cellular papain-like proteases is presented. a high level of similarity was detected between the leader protease of foot-and-mouth-disease virus and the protease of murine hepatitis coronavirus which cleaves the n-terminal p28 protein from the polyprotein. statistically significa ...19911652473
human rhinovirus 14 complexed with antiviral compound r 61837.the binding of the antirhinoviral agent r 61837 to human rhinovirus 14 has been examined by x-ray crystallographic methods. the compound r 61837 binds in the same pocket (underneath the canyon floor) as the "win" antirhinoviral agents. it does not penetrate as far into the pocket but causes similar conformational changes in the virus capsid. the movement of residues 1217 to 1221 of viral protein 1 (in the "fmdv loop") is more pronounced for r 61837 than for win compounds. although both r 61837 a ...19911847215
antigenic analysis of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the middle east, 1981 to 1988.during the period 1981-88 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o continued to be isolated from outbreaks in the middle east. field isolates submitted to the world reference laboratory have been examined in relation to reference strains by either complement fixation, virus neutralization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. most isolates were related to the european type o1 reference strains although strains emerging in late 1987 and 1988 were more closely related to o1/manisa. in addit ...19902168609
detection of t1-oligonucleotides of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna [correction of dna] by silver staining.viral (v) rna was isolated from purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol treatment, digested by rnase t1 and separated by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the oligonucleotides were detected by silver staining. about 45 micrograms of vrna corresponding to about 100 ml of infectious bhk-21 cell culture fluid yielded a pattern of nearly 20 bands sufficient to differentiate between the fmd viruses.19901698016
mouse footpad langerhans cells as an indicator for safety of foot and mouth disease virus vaccines.the effect of various vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was tested on langerhans cell density in the footpad epidermis of mice. injection of monovalent, bivalent and trivalent fmdv vaccines caused a reduction in langerhans cell density in the murine skin, which was more marked at the center of the footpad, the site of injection, than at the periphery. testing of the various components of the vaccine showed that saponin caused a marked reduction in langerhans cells while inject ...19901702792
foot-and-mouth disease virus subtyping by sequencing vp1 order to use nucleotide sequencing for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) diagnostic subtyping, it is necessary to shorten the time required for preparation of suitable templates. the time required for analysis was reduced by use of the viral rna present in the total rna extract of tissue from infected cattle as a template in the sanger sequencing reaction. results are now available within 3 days. the sequences determined encode capsid protein vp1 and therefore major neutralization epitopes. ...19902169671
identification of neutralizing antigenic sites on vp1 and vp2 of type a5 foot-and-mouth disease virus, defined by neutralization-resistant variants.five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) obtained against type a5 spain-86 foot-and-mouth disease virus were used to generate a series of neutralization-resistant variants. in vitro and in vivo assays showed that the variants were fully refractory to neutralization by the selecting nmab. on the basis of cross-neutralization and binding assays, two neutralizing antigenic sites have been located on the virus surface; one, located near the c-terminus of vp1, displayed a linear epitope, and t ...19911707983
use of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in liquid-phase blocking elisa.a liquid-phase blocking elisa is used by the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease for the quantification of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. the potential for using inactivated fmdv antigens in the assay has been assessed by titrating bovine convalescent sera to all seven serotypes and comparing the titres obtained with live or inactivated antigens. the titres were similar indicating that either live or inactivated antigens can be used in the liquid-phase blocking eli ...19902170435
immunoglobulin vh and vk genes of the balb/c anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (o1) vp1 response: cloning, characterization and transgenic mice.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes were isolated from balb/c antibody responses to the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain o1. according to antigen binding measured by elisa a weak-binding (81d10, igm) and a strong-binding antibody (113c12, igg2a) were selected. as rna sequencing of productive immunoglobulin vh and vk genes turned out, both chains of the weak-binding antibody (81d10) are encoded by germline (i.e. not mutated) genes w ...19911720503
the mechanism of translation of cowpea mosaic virus middle component rna: no evidence for internal initiation from experiments in an animal cell transient expression system.the possibility that internal initiation of translation is responsible for the synthesis of the middle component (m) rna-encoded 95k protein of cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv) has been investigated by constructing plasmids in which the entire sequence of cpmv m rna was cloned downstream of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. expression of these plasmids in an animal cell expression system revealed that no synthesis of the proteins encoded by the downstream cpmv open reading frame takes place fr ...19911765773
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. i. method and characteristics.a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. for each strain two monoclonal antibodies directed against different antigenic sites of fmdv were used. the assay used either infectious, not inactivated antigen or inactivated antigen. we concluded that the ctb-elisa was sensitive, type-specific, and more reproducible (p less th ...19902173248
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. ii. application.the complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated to detect antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. log10 serum titres of uninfected, unvaccinated cattle (n = 100) were less than 1.80 in the ctb-elisa. sera from cattle vaccinated with either monovalent or trivalent vaccines were tested in both the ctb-elisa and the serum neutralisation test (snt); titres in both tests correlated positiv ...19902173249
[synthetic immunogenic complexes containing a peptide from the surface protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].synthetic constructions containing a peptide antigenic determinant (c-terminal peptide 205-213 of the surface vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, o1k strain), glucosaminylmuramayl dipeptide (gmdp), and polyionic synthetic carriers were prepared. the polymerized peptide and peptide-bsa conjugates were synthesized as well. among the constructions obtained only peptide-bsa conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic. application of synthetic constructions to design immunogenic complexes ...19902173604
protection of guinea-pigs against foot-and-mouth disease virus by immunization with a phoe-fmdv hybrid protein.a hybrid protein was constructed containing two antigenic determinants of the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inserted in a cell surface-exposed region of escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe. immunization of guinea-pigs with partially purified protein resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibodies and complete protection against challenge with the virus.19902174595
international bank for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine: stability studies with virus concentrates and vaccines prepared from international bank foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has been established at the pirbright laboratory of the afrc institute for animal health. the bank is based on concentrated virus preparations stored in the gaseous phase of liquid nitrogen and is capable of producing up to 0.5 million cattle doses of each of five common strains of the virus (fmdv) for the member nations of the bank. this paper describes the initial and subsequent testing of the virus concentrates and vaccines prepared f ...19902174597
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. ii. for use in the and inactivated preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains 01 bfs 1860 and a22 irq 24/64 were freeze-dried in the presence or absence of additive solutions and assessed for their reactivity by elisa at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution and subsequent storage with or without glycerination. the type specificity of all antigen preparations was maintained throughout the study period and the potency of antigens, judged by ti ...19902175750
quantification of intact 146s foot-and-mouth disease antigen for vaccine production by a double antibody sandwich elisa using monoclonal antibodies.a double antibody sandwich (das) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantify 146s antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a10 holland grown in suspension cultures of surviving bovine tongue epithelium. when virus harvests were incubated with trypsin--which affects vp1, the most immunogenic structural protein of fmdv--the concentration of 146s antigen as determined by elisa was reduced by greater than 90%. therefore, the test detected essentially only those v ...19902178351
evaluation of the use of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates in solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa).fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates were used in direct and trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the detection of mouse igg and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the detection limits for both antigens were compared using different combinations of enzymes and substrates. various times and concentrations of chemicals were used to obtain maximum sensitivity for both systems. similar sensitivities were found using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates. tetramethyl benzidine ...19902178352
[virus carriers in foot-and-mouth disease. review].fmdv infection can cause a long lasting virus carrier state in the oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) region of cattle, sheep, goats, african buffalo, wildebeest and kudu. virus can be recovered from op fluids with low titres for several months up to more than 2 years. during this time phases of positive virus recovery are interrupted by negative phases. the number of virus carriers decreases as time progresses. the virus carrier state is always accompanied by fmdv antibodies in serum and op fluid. vac ...19902191649
virus survival in the environment.viruses pass into the environment from clinically ill or carrier hosts; although they do not replicate outside living animals or people, they are maintained and transported to susceptible hosts. population concentrations and movement, both animal and human, have been steadily increasing in this century, enhancing transmission of respiratory and enteric viruses and compounding the difficulty of preventing environmental transmission. studies on environmental survival factors of viruses have been m ...19911782426
evidence for dissimilar properties of comoviral and picornaviral rna polymerases.the poliovirus rna polymerase has been synthesized in spodoptera frugiperda cells by using the baculovirus expression system. crude sonicates of these cells exhibited an rna-elongating activity of a synthetic oligo(u) primer with poly(a) or cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv) rna as a template. a similar polymerase activity was found in extracts of insect cells in which foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) proteins, including the putative polymerase, were produced. the analogous cpmv 87k protein and sever ...19911848591
a study of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of their structural polypeptides.twenty-nine foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) type a virus strains, previously classified serologically as distinct subtypes were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) to determine the extent of variation in the pattern of the structural polypeptides and to evaluate the technique as an aid to existing subtyping techniques. the majority of the subtypes examined had distinct polypeptide patterns, however, some variation also occurred between strains within a subtype. the position of vp2 ...19852412337
variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates in kenya: an examination of field isolates by t1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting.ribonuclease t1 oligonucleotide maps of strains of 4 of the endemic serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in kenya between 1964 and 1982 have been compared with data obtained in complement-fixation and neutralization tests. there was a continual change in the oligonucleotide maps obtained for all the serotypes examined. this genetic heterogeneity was generally associated with antigenic variation. viruses isolated during the 12-month course of an epidemic of the sat 1 serotype showed ...19852413611
myristoylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein precursors is independent of other viral proteins and occurs in both mammalian and insect cells.the myristoylation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor p1-2a and its amino-terminal cleavage product 1ab, expressed from subgenomic cdna, has been analysed. the modification reaction is independent of other fmdv proteins and occurs in both mammalian and insect cells. blocking of the myristoylation site does not prevent efficient processing of the fmdv capsid precursor. a cdna cassette in which the leader protease sequence is substituted by an atg codon produces myristoyla ...19911848606
homologous interference by a foot-and-mouth disease virus strain attenuated for attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of the a24 cruzeiro subtype grew less well than wild-type virus in primary bovine fetal kidney (pbk) cells resulting in a 4-log lowered efficiency of plaque formation. both wild-type and attenuated virus grew equally well in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells and in suckling mice. using pbk cells, virus-specific rna of the wild-type accumulated up to 6 hours after infection. in contrast, pbk cells infected with the attenuated strain made l ...19852415086
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c induces specific proteolytic cleavage of host cell histone foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, the disappearance of nuclear protein histone h3 and the simultaneous appearance of a new chromatin-associated protein termed pi can be observed (p. r. grigera and s. g. tisminetzky, virology 136:10-19, 1984). we sequenced the amino terminus of protein pi and showed that pi derives from histone h3 by proteolytic cleavage. the 20 n-terminal amino acid residues of histone h3 are specifically cleaved off early during infection. truncated histone ...19902153239
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c inhibits cellular transcription and mediates cleavage of histone h3.foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c is essential for the processing of the viral precursor polyprotein. it is shown here to also inhibit gene expression in baby hamster kidney cells after transient expression from transfected cdna fragments. protease 3c could not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence in contrast to other cdna-encoded virus proteins, but protein synthesized de novo 16 hr after transfection could be detected by radioimmunoprecipitation. the cellular translation apparatus ...19902154880
hepatitis a virus attachment to cultured cell lines.identification of a hepatitis a virus (hav) receptor is important for understanding hav tissue tropism and replication sites and in the design of vaccines and antiviral therapy. the attachment of hav to cultured cell lines was evaluated: calcium-dependent specific attachment of four hav strains to permissive cells occurred, whereas binding to nonpermissive cells did not. investigation of hav antigenic variant strains (neutralization escape mutants) demonstrated identical attachment properties wi ...19911659597
the detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses using solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization.thirteen complementary dna (cdna) probes were used to detect the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna extracted from cell cultures. when labelled with 32p, these probes enabled the detection of 1 pg of fmdv-rna, or 1 virus copy per cell. two fmdv a12 probes that coded for the leader, structural protein vp1 region and part of the polymerase gene respectively, showed no hybridization with other closely related picornaviruses. differentiation between fmdv serotypes a, o and c was pos ...19902156879
functional analysis of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.mutagenesis of the large untranslated sequence at the 5' end of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus revealed that a region of approximately 450 nucleotides preceding the open reading frame of the viral polyprotein is involved in the regulation of translation initiation at two internal start sites. variations in two domains of this region reduced the translation efficiency up to 10-fold, whereas an intermediate segment seemed to be less essential. a pyrimidine-rich sequence preceding the s ...19902168956
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. synthesis of fragments (143-145), (146-148), 149-152), (153-155), and (156-159)]. 19901965772
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) protein fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. condensation of fragments].a 17-membered peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence of (143-159) site of protein vp1 of a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus has been obtained by mixed anhydride method condensations of the earlier synthesized fragments. a norleucine residue has been attached, as a label, to the ends of peptides obtained. the complete deprotection was performed by hydrogenation peptides' hydrochlorides and the products were purified by hplc. the antigenic properties of the synthesized peptides are discuss ...19901965773
cdna-cloning and expression of vp1-specific sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a5 and o1.the rna genome of foot- and mouth disease virus strains a5 westerwald and o1 lausanne has been reverse-transcribed and cloned in lambdaphages or plasmids. identification of cdna-clones containing vp1-specific sequences was achieved by hybridization, restriction mapping, and sequence analysis. vp1-coding cdna-fragments were subcloned into the expression vector pex which led to synthesis of fusion proteins with beta-galactosidase. these fusion proteins reacted with anti-vp1 antibodies on a western ...19901966357
epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles. i. topology.monoclonal antibodies (mab) against an o1 suisse isolate of fmdv were used to identify epitopes on the virus particle and to determine their relative function. six major antigenic sites containing one or more epitopes were identified using competition elisa. an epitope relationship is proposed consisting of a trypsin-sensitive sequential site, termed b2/d9, from the codings for the mab which reacted with it, which was associated with virus infectivity and is probably at or near to the cell-bindi ...19872435060
[a new approach to dna synthesis from synthetic oligonucleotides. synthesis of dna coding for the repeated antigenic determinant of foot and mouth disease virus].a rapid method for assembly of dna from synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed which involves separate ligation of top- and bottom-strand oligonucleotides followed by filling in 3'-ends of the duplex formed, blunt end cloning into a specialized vector pbbv, and recovery of the synthetic dna from the recombinant plasmid by means of restriction nuclease bbvii. the method allows for many oligonucleotides to be ligated at once, with no intermediates being isolated, and any dna to be reco ...19872436628
[primary structure of the 3'-terminal region of the rna-polymerase gene in foot-and-mouth virus a22].this study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the primary structure of the 3' end gene of rna polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus a22 550. reported are isolation and purification of the virus, isolation of rna, synthesis of cdna, experience obtained from cloning as well as analysis of hybridisation and isolation of plasmid dna. nucleotide sequences, characterised by specific clones, were tested for potential needle structures. also described are homology comparisons among fmd v ...19901966358
antigenic comparison of the polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes and other picornaviruses.the cross-reactivity of proteins coded for by the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was assessed by reaction of infected cell lysates with polyclonal and monospecific antisera against the structural and nonstructural proteins of fmdv type a12 strain 119ab. it was shown that the homologous polypeptides from most serotypes are antigenically related. the least cross-reactivity occurred between vp1, vp3, and the protease (3c) of type a12 and south african territories types 1 and ...19872437694
the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for its physical and biological properties.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been solved at a resolution of 2.9 a by x-ray diffraction techniques. the overall structural organisation of the particle is similar to that seen in other picornaviruses but there are several unique features. many of these help to explain its characteristic physical and biological properties. in particular the canyon or pit found at the surface of other picornaviruses is lacking, which has important implications for cell attachment and the proces ...19902169674
neutralizing antibodies to all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicited by synthetic peptides.uncoupled peptides from all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein vp1 have been used to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in guinea-pigs. the responses were largely serotype specific, although some significant cross-neutralization was observed. dimeric tandem peptides have also been used to simultaneously elicit neutralizing antibodies to two different fmdv serotypes. the possible existence of structural features common to the b-cell neutralization sites or the guin ...19902155177
[synthetic peptides simulating the protective epitopes of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o and a].in a search of novel approaches to cattle protection from foot-and-mouth disease we have prepared a series of peptides from the major antigenic region 130-160 of the vp1 protein. the 144-159 peptide as well as 141-152, 141-148, 148-159 segments (strain o1k) were inactive in all in vitro and in vivo experiments on virus inhibiting. on the other band, synthetic 136-152, 136-148 o1k sequences as well as 131-149, 140-149 a22 sequences afforded 50 to 100% protection, both in the free state and conjug ...19872445357
improved immunogenicity of a peptide epitope after fusion to hepatitis b core protein.synthetic vaccines for viral diseases can use defined regions of viral proteins as immunogens: the peptide sequence of amino acids 141-160 of the vp1 protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies to protect guinea pigs, cattle and pigs either when coupled to a carrier protein or when administered in liposomes or in incomplete freund's adjuvant. the immune response to these peptides is much lower than that to complete virus particles and the same sequence fu ...19872446137
immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in an experimental murine model. ii. basis of persistent antibody reaction.a murine model was used to study the mechanisms involved in the prolonged immune response to live and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the antibody response elicited by the infection persisted throughout the entire life of the animal, while immunization with inactivated virus induced a transient response. the administration of inactivated virus in a water-in-oil emulsion increased antibody titres to values as high as those obtained by infection. there was a high correlation betwe ...19902160145
unique amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus from a persistent infection in cell culture.maintenance of a persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in bhk-21 cells involves a coevolution of cells and virus (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. díez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). the resident fmdv undergoes a number of phenotypic changes, including a gradual decrease in virion stability. here we report the nucleotide sequence of the p1 genomic segment of the virus rescued after 100 passages of the car ...19902170684
studies on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna using microinjection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna, isolated as virion rna from purified virus particles or as total rna from infected cells, has been microinjected into nuclei and cytoplasms of bhk cells. when injected directly into the nucleus fmdv rna was not infectious, whereas cytoplasmic injection resulted in a high proportion of productive infections. infectivity microinjection assays on dilution series of various fmdv rnas showed that both single-stranded positive sense 35s rna and double-stranded ...19882448416
cultivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk21 cells grown in microcarrier culture system.when bhk21 cells were grown according to the microcarrier's system, they reached the highest concentration in 72 hrs. the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bhk21 microcarrier culture increased 10 times compared with the conventional monolayer culture in rolling bottles.19902161995
synthesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cdna cassettes containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor p1-2a with and without those encoding the proteases l and 3c were introduced into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acmnpv) expression vectors. procapsid proteins 1ab, 1c and 1d were produced in cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, when l and 3c were present in the constructs, indicating that these fmdv proteases were active in insect cells. unlike p1 processing in pol ...19902167924
a cd strategy for the study of polypeptide folding/unfolding. a synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus immunogenic peptide.the circular dichroism spectrum of the 20-residue immunogenic peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (vp1; 141-160 of serotype a, subtype 12) was solvent- and temperature-dependent. careful solvent titration revealed two isodichroic points and plateaux consistent with stepwise unfolding of specific stable conformations. variable temperature studies in cryogenic solvents and urea perturbation were consistent with the existence of three conformational moieties, the left-handed extended heli ...19911726426
structural refinement and analysis of mengo virus.the structure of mengo encephalomyelitis virus was refined at 3 a resolution with a final r-factor of 0.221 and a root-mean-square deviation from idealized bond lengths of 0.019 a for 10 a to 3 a data with f greater than or equal to 3 sigma(f). the hendrickson-konnert refinement was restrained by the phases derived from the molecular replacement averaging procedure and constrained by the icosahedral symmetry of the virus. the virus consists of 60 protomers each having three major subunits, vp1, ...19902156078
intracellular expression and processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursors using vaccinia virus vectors: influence of the l protease.cdna cassettes of fmdv have been constructed which encode the capsid precursor (p1-2a) alone or with the proteases l and 3c which are required for processing of this precursor to the products 1ab, 1c, and 1d. these cassettes have been analyzed using in vitro transcription and translation reactions and within cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses. processing of the precursors occurred more efficiently in cells than in cell-free systems but similar properties were observed. it was not possible ...19902161149
the effect of peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence on the adsorption of foot-and-mouth disease virus to tissue culture cells.sequencing of the vp1 of a large number of subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has revealed the presence of a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) sequence located in a highly exposed region. this sequence has been shown to be essential for the interaction of certain extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins with a superfamily of cell-surface receptors called integrins. we have examined the effects of synthetic peptides containing the rgd sequence on the binding of eight d ...19902168107
a cellular 57 kda protein binds to two regions of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a ribosome-associated 57 kda protein from rabbit reticulocytes was linked to the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus by mild uv-irradiation. binding studies with different rna fragments revealed that this protein interacts with two distinct sites within the translational control region. one site is located approximately 400 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and the second binding site could be confined to 60 nucleotides preceding this codon. ...19902169432
a region of the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells: involvement with the role of l protease in translational control.plasmids encoding bicistronic mrnas have been constructed and used to identify a region from the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells. the loss of about 30 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' terminus or about 50 nt from the 3' terminus of the 435-nt region completely abolished the activity of this region. the expression of the fmdv l protease severely inhibited the expression of other genes unless they ...19902170677
immunological properties of hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins.the immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an n-terminal fusion with hepatitis b core antigen. in this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide wi ...19902320575
capsid intermediates assembled in a foot-and-mouth disease virus genome rna-programmed cell-free translation system and in infected cells.structural protein complexes sedimenting at 140s, 70s (empty capsids), and 14s were isolated from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells. the empty capsids were stable, while 14s complexes were relatively short-lived. radioimmune binding assays involving the use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to six distinct epitopes on type a12 virus and polyclonal antisera to a12 structural proteins demonstrated that native empty capsids were indistinguishable from virus. infected cell 14s particle ...19852411948
a liquid-phase elisa and its use in the identification of epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed which would detect antigen/antibody reactions in liquid-phase; that is under test conditions which should not alter the structure or reactivity of either antigen or antibody. this liquid-phase elisa was at least as efficient, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as the double sandwich or antigen-trapping elisa (crowther and abu elzein, 1979), but six to eight times more sensitive than the indirect elisa. the liquid-phase test can be used to as ...19852414308
an epitope located at the c terminus of isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o induces neutralizing activity but poor protection.both whole virus particles and isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 induce neutralizing antibodies. results obtained with pigs vaccinated with either isolated vp1 or intact particles and subsequently challenged show that neutralizing activity induced by intact virus correlates well with protection in pigs, whereas neutralizing activity induced by isolated vp1 confers little or no protection. further evidence suggests that the epitope responsible for the induction of neutralizing ...19862418152
epitope mapping of the outer structural protein vp1 of three different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.all overlapping hexapeptides of the outer structural protein vp1 of type o1, type a10, and type c1 were reacted with the appropriate anti-virus, anti-viral subunit and anti-vp1 sera. the results suggest that anti-virus sera may contain activities against viral subunit and vp1 as well as against virus. furthermore the antigenic peptides associated with the intact virion of all three serotypes are found at similar locations on their respective vp1s, and produced neutralizing activities when used f ...19862418582
[primary structure of the dna copy of the protein vp1 gene of the foot-and-mouth disease virus a22].the dna-copy of the major antigen (vp1) coding region of the fmdv a22 sero-type has been cloned and sequenced. a comparison of the respective amino acid sequence with those of other vp1 of a-serotype revealed considerable differences in the structure of antigenic determinants.19862421736
synthesis of fusion proteins containing antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.part of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 01,bfs, including the sequence encoding the capsid polypeptide vp1, was cloned in escherichia coli following a new cloning strategy. the clone containing the vp1 sequence was used for the construction of two expression plasmids encoding vp1 fusion proteins. subsequently, substantial amounts of the two vp1-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins, containing either one (amino acid region 140-160) or two (amino acid regions 140-160 and 200-2 ...19862425505
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