evaluation of spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (a, o, sat2).this work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) different types to evaluate its replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell culture and in baby mice.201527047027
importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.the aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. the evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as re ...201527044149
erratum to: the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines. 201627038829
ires-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cultured cells derived from fmdv-susceptible and -insusceptible animals.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) possess a positive sense, single stranded rna genome. internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element exists within its 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of the viral rna. translation of the viral rna is initiated by internal entry of the 40s ribosome within the ires element. this process is facilitated by cellular factors known as ires trans-acting factors (itafs). foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and ...201627036295
low-dose oral interferon modulates expression of inflammatory and autoimmune genes in cattle.while the safety and efficacy profiles of orally administered bovine interferon (ifn) alpha have been documented, the mechanism(s) that result in clinical benefits remain elusive. one approach to delineating the molecular pathways of ifn efficacy is through the use of gene expression profiling technologies. in this proof-of-concept study, different (0, 50, 200 and 800 units) oral doses of natural bovine ifn (type i) were tested in cattle to determine if oral ifn altered the expression of genes t ...201627032505
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid coding (p1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (p1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a isolated in india was analysed. the exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the vp3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. the rate of evolution of the indian isolates at the capsid ...201627020544
comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against fmdv in pk15 cells pretreated with ifn-γ.interferon gamma (ifn-γ) can induce a host antiviral response to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vivo and in vitro. to elucidate the mechanism of ifn-γ anti fmdv infection in host cells, high-throughput rna sequencing was analyzed for systemic changes in gene expression profiles in pk15 cells infected by fmdv with or without ifn-γ pretreatment. more than 25 million reads, covering 1.2-1.5 gb, were analyzed from each experiment panel. fmdv challenge altered the transcription of genes invol ...201627018244
emergence of antigenic variants within serotype a fmdv in the middle east with antigenically critical amino acid substitutions.a new immunologically distinct strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a emerged in the middle east in 2003 that replaced the previously circulating strains (a-iran-96 and a-iran-99) in the region. this resulted in introduction of a new vaccine of this strain (a/tur/2006) in 2006. though this vaccine strain has been predominantly used to control fmd in the region, recent viruses isolated in 2012 and 2013 have shown antigenic drift and a poor match with it. in this study, we r ...201627016651
inability of fmdv replication in equine kidney epithelial cells is independent of integrin αvβ3 and αvβ6.integrins can function as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in epithelium. horses are believed to be insusceptible to this disease, but the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. to detect whether fmdv can use integrin to attach to equine epithelial, we compared the utilities of αvβ3 and αvβ6 between bovine and equine kidney epithelial cells (kecs). equine kecs showed almost equal efficiency to those of bovine. further, the integrin αv, β3, and β6 subunits from bovine and equin ...201627011223
application of the thermofluor pastry technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. current fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. fmdv exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. a lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control fmd ...201627002540
development of an isothermoal amplification-based assay for rapid visual detection of an orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of a severe infectious skin disease (also known as contagious ecthyma) in goats, sheep and other small ruminants. importantly, orfv also infect humans which causes a public health concern in the context of changing environment and increase in human populations. the rapid detection is critical in effective control of the disease and urgently needed.201626993468
bovine mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral rna.innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. myxovirus-resistant (mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line bpte-simx1, in which bovine mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with ifn alpha for 6 hr before fmdv infection. the copy numbers of the negative and ...201626982472
differential persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in african buffalo is related to virus virulence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. in particular, the three southern african territories (sat) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the african buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple sat serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. however, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. fmd in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study fmdv persisten ...201626962214
full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent b-cell epitope dendrimer peptide.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have reported (cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a b-cell epitope [vp1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a t-cell epitope [3a(21-35)] of fmdv [b4t(thi)] elicits potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type c fmdv challenge. herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copi ...201626956030
development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.we report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (trsv)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was inserted between the trsv movement protein (mp) and coat protein (cp) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the rna2-encoded viral polyprotein. gfp was released from the polyprotein via an n-terminal homologous mp- ...201626950504
the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-endemic parts of the globe, control is mainly implemented by preventive vaccination with an inactivated purified vaccine. elisas detecting antibodies to the viral nonstructural proteins (nsp) distinguish fmd virus (fmdv)-infected animals in the vaccinated population (diva). however, residual nsps present in the vaccines are suspected to be a cause of occasional false positive results, and therefore, an epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy is considered ...201626935917
quantitative detection of the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o 146s antigen for vaccine production using a double-antibody sandwich elisa and nonlinear standard curves.the efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. at present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146s antigen, of fmd vaccines is sucrose density gradient (sdg) analysis. however, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. in contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity a ...201626930597
expression and purification of virus like particles (vlps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease, which causes severe economic loss to livestock. virus like particles (vlps) produced by recombinant dna technology are gaining importance because of their immunogenic properties and safety in developing a new vaccine for fmd. in the present study, a practical and economically feasible approach of expression, purification and characterization of vlps of fmdv in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae was described. although thr ...201626925448
pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: impact of the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) and route of inoculation.a companion study reported jumonji-c domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is involved in an integrin- and hs-independent pathway of fmdv infection in cho cells. jmjd6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type a24-fmdv (a24-wt) or mutant fmdv (jmjd6-fmdv) carrying e95k/s96l and rgd to kge mutations in vp1. additionally, pathogenesis of mutant jmjd6-fmdv was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (iel) inoculation. interes ...201626914509
foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp3 degrades janus kinase 1 to inhibit ifn-γ signal transduction pathways.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to replicate efficiently in vivo, fmdv has evolved methods to circumvent host antiviral defense mechanisms, including those induced by interferons (ifns). previous research has focused on the effect of fmdv l(pro) and 3c(pro) on type i ifns. in this study, fmdv vp3 was found to inhibit type ii ifn signaling pathways. the overexpression of fmdv vp3 inhibited ...201626901336
role of jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes four integrins (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8) as its primary cell receptor. during cell culture propagation, fmdv frequently adapts to use heparan sulfate (hs), and rarely utilizes an unidentified third receptor. capsid mutations acquired by a soluble integrin resistant fmdv cause (i) adaptation to cho-677 cells (ii) increased affinity to membrane-bound jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) (iii) induced jmjd6 re-localization from the cell surfa ...201626896934
role of a single amino acid substitution of vp3 h142d for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at ph value below 6.5. after the uptake of fmdv by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of fmdv genome inside endosomes. nevertheless, dissociation of fmdv particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated fmd vaccine less effective. to improve the acid stability of inactivated fmd vaccine during the manufacturing proces ...201626873406
novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea, july-august 2014.despite nation-wide immunization with o, a, and asia 1 type vaccines in republic of korea, foot-and-mouth disease type o occurred again in july 2014 after three years and three months. this virus was a mya-98 strain of the southeast asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in east asia in 2014. this was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3a/3b1 region and low pathogenic property.201626866028
immunogenicity of a recombinant sendai virus expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease this study, sev was used as a vector to express capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using reverse genetics. the rescue recombinant sev (rsev-p1) can efficiently propagate and express p1 protein by western blot and ifa analysis. to evaluate the immunogenicity of rsev-p1, balb/c mice were divided into several groups and immunized intramuscularly with various doses of rsev-p1, rsev-egfp, pbs and commercial fmd vaccine, respectively, and then challenged wit ...201626850558
transmission of foot and mouth disease at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park, south africa: can the risk be mitigated?in southern africa, the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is the natural reservoir of foot and mouth disease (fmd). contacts between this species and cattle are responsible for most of the fmd outbreaks in cattle at the edge of protected areas, which generate huge economic losses. during the late 1980's and 90's, the erection of veterinary cordon fences and the regular vaccination of cattle exposed to buffalo contact at the interface of the kruger national park (knp), proved to be efficient to c ...201626848115
correction: transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection. 201626840180
the vp3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the ifn-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease is a frequently occurring disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by infection with the foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv circumvents the type-i ifn response by expressing proteins that antagonize cellular innate immunity, such as leader protease and 3c protease. we identified the fmdv structural protein vp3 as a negative regulator of the virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. expression of fmdv vp3 inhibited the sendai virus-triggered activation of ifn regulator ...201626813975
effects of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus on reproductive performance of beef cows.this study compared reproductive performance of cows vaccinated against the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus before timed ai or during early pregnancy (exp. 1), as well as rectal temperature (rt) and plasma concentrations of the acute-phase protein haptoglobin in cattle vaccinated or not against the fmd virus (exp. 2). cattle utilized in exp. 1 and 2 originated from herds with no historical occurrences of fmd and that received vaccination against the fmd virus biannually. in exp. 1, 604 lactat ...201626812345
effect of storage conditions on subpopulations of peripheral blood t lymphocytes isolated from naïve cattle and cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry is important in infectious disease research. in animal experiments and other longitudinal studies, the processing, prompt staining, and analysis of fresh samples is a logistical challenge and daily assay variation can confound data interpretation.201626802284
complete genome sequence of a serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus from an outbreak in saudi arabia during 2015.the complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) type a virus isolated from cattle in saudi arabia in 2015 is described here. this virus belongs to an fmd virus lineage named genotype vii, which is normally endemic on the indian subcontinent.201626798100
the vp1 s154d mutation of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances viral replication and of the proteins encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the vp1 protein, a capsid protein, plays an important role in integrin receptor attachment and humoral immunity-mediated host responses. the integrin receptor recognition motif and an important antigenic epitope exist within the g-h loop, which is comprised of amino acids 134-160 of the vp1 protein. fmdv strain, asia1/hn/cha/06, isolated from a pig, was passaged four times in suckling mice and sequenced. sequencing analyses ...201626792712
novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype o vp1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype o vlps in the low ph insect hemolymph. therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (vlp)-based candidate vaccine for serotype o fmdv was develope ...201626790940
swine trim21 restricts fmdv infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.the tripartite motif protein 21 (trim21) is a ubiquitously expressed e3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. trim21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (adin) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. in this study, swine trim21 (strim21) was cloned and its role in adin was investigated. the expression of strim21 is induced by type i interferon in pk-15 cells. strim21 restricts fmdv infect ...201626777733
ires mediated expression of viral 3c protease for enhancing the yield of fmdv empty capsids using baculovirus system.for expression of fmdv empty capsids, high protease activity associated with 3c co-expressed with p1 polyprotein has been reported to adversely affect the yields of capsids. limiting the levels of 3cpro relative to p1-2a polypeptide is thus critical to enhance the yields. in this study, fmdv internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequence which serves as an alternative to the cap-dependent translation initiation mechanism, was used for controlled translation of 3c protease. baculovirus expressing b ...201626775685
foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. the predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. however, there are many limitations. for instance, cultivation of virulent fmd virus (fmdv) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral non-structural proteins (nsps), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based ...201626760264
productive entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus via macropinocytosis independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, sirna interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. we also found that the internalization of fmdv induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinoso ...201626757826
unrecognized circulation of sat 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around queen elizabeth national park in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda in spite of the control measures used. various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of fmd viruses (fmdv) in uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for fmdv. to better understand the epidemiology of fmd at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around queen eliza ...201626739166
evaluation of infectivity, virulence and transmission of fdmv field strains of serotypes o and a isolated in 2010 from outbreaks in the republic of korea.since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have been described in several previously fmd-free asian nations, including the republic of korea (south korea). one outbreak with fmd virus (fdmv) serotype a and two with serotype o occurred in south korea in 2010/2011. the causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in south east asia, far east and east asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. most fmdv strains infect ruminan ...201626735130
pharmacological characterization of the αvβ6 integrin binding and internalization kinetics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus derived peptide a20fmdv2.a20fmdv2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (rgd)-binding integrin. it has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. in a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3h]a20fmdv2), its high affinity (k(d): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at leas ...201626734728
the rescue and evaluation of flag and his epitope-tagged asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the vp1 g-h loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains the primary antigenic site, as well as an arg-gly-asp (rgd) binding motif for the αv-integrin family of cell surface receptors. we anticipated that introducing a foreign epitope tag sequence downstream of the rgd motif would be tolerated by the viral capsid and would not destroy the antigenic site of fmdv. in this study, we have designed, generated, and characterized two recombinant fmdvs with a flag tag or histidine (his) inse ...201626732485
thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.the risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. this study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. if extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for fmdv-endemic countries. t ...201628332656
vp1 sequencing protocol for foot and mouth disease virus molecular epidemiology.nucleotide sequences of field strains of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) contribute to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of viral lineages that circulate in different regions of the world. this paper outlines a practical reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing strategy that can be used to generate rna sequences encoding the vp1 (1d) region of fmdv. the protocol contains a panel of pcr and sequencing primers that can be selected to characterise ...201628332654
the impact of importation of live ruminants on the epizootiology of foot and mouth disease in saudi arabia.approximately five million live ruminants are imported annually into saudi arabia. the majority of these animals are imported shortly before the pilgrimage season from sudan and the horn of africa, where foot and mouth disease (fmd) is known to be enzootic. this study was designed to investigate the impact of the importation of these live ruminants on the epizootiology of fmd in saudi arabia. the authors carried out antibody testing on a total of 480 sheep and 233 cattle from the sacrificial liv ...201628332652
multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a24 subunit vaccine in cattle using homologous challenge.the safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (adta24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. adta24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. no detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. at 7 days p ...201626707216
coexpression of cellulases in pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.the term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. in an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce ...201526698316
analysis of the interaction between host factor sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.the nuclear protein src-associated protein of 68 kda in mitosis (sam68) is known to bind rna and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. interestingly, sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (sgs). recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of sam68 to the cytoplasm in fmdv infected cells, its ...201526695943
anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low ph conditions. spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing fmd. kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. moreover, certain chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral ...201626691487
gold nanoparticles impair foot-and-mouth disease virus this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (aunps) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. the anti-fmdv activity of aunps was assessed using plaque reduction assay. mtt assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. the 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. the virus yield reduction assay showed tha ...201626685261
immunogenicity of adenovirus-derived porcine parvovirus-like particles displaying b and t cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease.virus-like particles (vlps) vaccines combine many of the advantages of whole-virus vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines, integrating key features that underlay their immunogenicity, safety and protective potential. we have hypothesized here the effective insertion of the vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-40, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) within the external loops of ppv vp2 could be carried out without altering assembly based on struct ...201626685093
profiling oral and digital lesions in sheep in ireland.during the fmd outbreak in ireland and the uk in 2001, there was significant uncertainty amongstveterinary practitioners and government veterinary inspectors surrounding the clinical diagnosis of fmd insheep. this situation was complicated by reports of idiopathic oral ulcers that closely resembled fmd ongross appearance which at that time were referred to as ovine mouth and gum obscure disease.201526682039
translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna: factors influencing alternative aug selection.the mechanism of alternative aug usage in foot-and-mouth disease virus is not completely understood. using simple computational approaches, we evaluated the contributions of overall codon bias, quantitative codon bias, and %gc of the region between the two alternative augs, region-la, as well as the nucleotide bias of the sequence context flanking each aug with respect to translation initiation efficiency. for all serotypes of this virus, we found that only a small component of the effect of rna ...201526681026
tongue epithelium cells from shrna mediated transgenic goat show high resistance to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the gene 3dpol in fmdv genome encodes the viral rna polymerase, a vital element for fmdv replication. in this study, a conserved 3d-7414shrna targeting fmdv-3dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3d-7414shrna. loss of function assay demonstrated th ...201526671568
stable peptides instead of stapled peptides: highly potent αvβ6-selective integrin ligands.the αvβ6 integrin binds the rgd-containing peptide of the foot and mouth disease virus with high selectivity. in this study, the long binding helix of this ligand was downsized to an enzymatically stable cyclic peptide endowed with sub-nanomolar binding affinity toward the αvβ6 receptor and remarkable selectivity against other integrins. computational studies were performed to disclose the molecular bases underlying the high binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of this peptide. fina ...201626663660
multi‑transgenic minipig models exhibiting potential for hepatic insulin resistance and pancreatic apoptosis.there are currently no multi‑transgenic minipig models of diabetes for the regulation of multiple genes involved in its pathogenesis. the foot and mouth disease virus 2a (f2a)‑mediated polycistronic system possesses several advantages, and the present study developed a novel multi‑transgenic minipig model associated with diabetes using this system. the tissue‑specific polycistronic system used in the present study consisted of two expression cassettes, separated by an insulator: (i) 11‑β‑hydroxy ...201626648014
increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid.this study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-pga) three days before vaccination. antibody against fmd virus serotype o was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a priocheck fmdv type o elisa kit. the results showed that positive antibody reactions against fmdv serotype o antigen among a component of the vac ...201626645341
development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. the rapid detection of orfv is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. a isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to pcr assay.201526631157
time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses.with the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) for rapidly evolving viruses. coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. this study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evoluti ...201526630483
protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs via oral administration of recombinant lactobacillus plantarum expressing vp1.mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, lactobacillus plantarum strains nc8 and wcfs1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a psip411-vp1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with nc8-psip411, nc8-psip411-vp1, wcfs1-psip411, wcfs1-psip411-vp1 or milk. anima ...201526629822
evaluation of two lyophilized molecular assays to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus directly from clinical samples in field settings.accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. however, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. these concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect ...201526617330
construction of nef-positive doxycycline-dependent hiv-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements.conditionally replicating hiv-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for hiv research. we previously developed a genetically modified hiv-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. the nef gene in this hiv-rtta variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtta transcriptional activator. because loss of nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on nef function, we tested ...201626615334
pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.a time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored fmdv vaccine. fmdv genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. a rapid progression of infectio ...201526599543
in silico prediction of ebolavirus rna polymerase inhibition by specific combinations of approved nucleotide analogues.the urgency of ebolavirus drug development is obvious in light of the current local epidemic in western africa with high morbidity and a risk of wider spread. we present an in silico study as a first step to identify inhibitors of ebolavirus polymerase activity based on approved antiviral nucleotide analogues.201526587786
interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle.the factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in ruminants are not well defined. this paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (il-10) early in the course of infection (1-4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of fmd virus in cattle. results showed that serum il-10 in carrier cattle infected with fmd virus type o (n = 4) was detected and peaked at 1 or 2 days post infection and rapidly declined thereafter. in contract, serum il- ...201526582423
data-driven models of foot-and-mouth disease dynamics: a review.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) threatens animal health and leads to considerable economic losses worldwide. progress towards minimizing both veterinary and financial impact of the disease will be made with targeted disease control policies. to move towards targeted control, specific targets and detailed control strategies must be defined. one approach for identifying targets is to use mathematical and simulation models quantified with accurate and fine-scale data to design and evaluate alte ...201526576514
identification of a conserved linear epitope using a monoclonal antibody against non-structural protein 3b of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the family picornaviridae that has caused severe economic losses in many countries of the world. regular vaccinations have been effectively used to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in countries where the disease is enzootic. distinguishing between infected and vaccinated animals in herds after immunization is an important component of effective eradication strategies. nonstructural protein (nsp) 3b of fmdv is part of a larger antigen that is ...201626563318
foot-and-mouth disease seroprevalence in cattle in eritrea.information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotypes in eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. we carried out a cross-sectional study from february to june 2011 in eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of fmd in four administrative regions of the country. we analysed cattle sera ...201526518476
multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protein (l(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. l(pro) exists as two forms, lab and lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. l(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. in addition to its role as a viral proteinase, l(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. to promote ...201526511922
effect of cellular location of human carboxylesterase 2 on cpt-11 hydrolysis and anticancer activity.cpt-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. hydrolysis of cpt-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (ce2) generates sn-38, a topoisomerase i inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. expression of ce2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of cpt-11. ce2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as ...201526509550
peptides interfering 3a protein dimerization decrease fmdv multiplication.nonstructural protein 3a is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. fmdv 3a can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2) that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. in this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. the dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the ...201526505190
further evaluation of an elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) was further evaluated using sequentially collected serum samples of experimentally infected animals, because the sensitivity of the kit used in a previous study was significantly low in field animals. the kit fully detected antibodies in infected animals without vaccination; however, the first detections of antibodies by the kit were later than those by the liquid-phase blocking elisa that is use ...201626498533
a modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class i molecules.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class imolecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to cd8+ t cells. polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class i molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class i molecules. understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (bola), peptide-mhc class i binding specificities may fac ...201526496773
comparative efficacy of virus like particle (vlp) vaccine of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) type o adjuvanted with poly i:c or cpg in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious and economically important diseases of cloven-hoofed livestock. currently used inactivated fmd vaccines have short lived immunity besides risk of handling live virus. we studied recombinant fmd virus like particles (vlps) encoded by fmdv type o/ind/r2/75 polyprotein genes expressed in sf9 cells and adjuvanted with cpg or poly i:c in inducing protective immune response in guinea pigs. guinea pigs immunized with vlp + cpg vaccine had shown ...201526493006
eri silkworm (samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for acmnpv mediated expression of recombinant proteins.the baculovirus expression system (bves) based on autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to acmnpv have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. domesticated eri silkworm (samia ricini), reared in many parts of india, japan and china, is a non-mulberry silkworm. the present study shows that the eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical ino ...201526467714
in vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. no antiviral therapies are available for treating fmd virus (fmdv) infections in animals. the antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (mgo nps) on the fmdv were investigated in cell culture. the viability of the cells after mgo np treatment was determined using the mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bro ...201526435276
spectrum of vp1 region genetic variants in the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o populations derived from infected cattle tongue epithelium.rna virus population exists as a complex distribution of non-identical but closely related sequences known as viral quasispecies. variant strains are selected from this quasispecies population in response to changing environment. the quasispecies dynamics of a virus existing within an infected host differs from that in a cell culture-adapted population. this study was carried out to explore the genetic variations present in the vp1 coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype ...201526435155
employing transposon mutagenesis to investigate foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.probing the molecular interactions within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication complex has been restricted in part by the lack of suitable reagents. random insertional mutagenesis has proven an excellent method to reveal domains of proteins essential for virus replication as well as locations that can tolerate small genetic insertions. such insertion sites can subsequently be adapted by the incorporation of commonly used epitope tags, facilitating their detection with commerci ...201526432090
cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. recently, a series of outbreaks of type a fmdv occurred in southeast asian countries, china, the russia federation, mongolia, kazakhstan and south korea. the fmd virus (a/gdmm/cha/2013) from china's guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in vp1 protein with the epidemic stra ...201526431990
using mathematical modelling to explore hypotheses about the role of bovine epithelium structure in foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced cell lysis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus (fmdv) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and fmd is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). by contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). the reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are ...201526431527
inhibition of ehmt2 induces a robust antiviral response against foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in bovine cells.the genetic regulatory network controlling the innate immune system is well understood in many species. however, the role of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the expression of immunoregulatory genes is less clear, especially in livestock species. histone h3 lysine 9 dimethylation (h3k9me2) is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing within the euchromatin regions. euchromatic histone-lysine n-methyltransferase 2 (ehmt2; also known as g9a) is a crucial enzyme respo ...201626418342
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by commercially available disinfectants and cleaners.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of great concern. it is contagious to cloven-hoofed animals and affects animals in extensive areas worldwide. in general, the primary eradication strategies for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in japan are stamping out the disease and restriction of movement. it is also important to completely disinfect the infected area to prevent the spread of fmdv, including vehicles and people as well. however, there is no report on the effect of commerc ...201526412701
structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein- ...201526389739
specific detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 virus by carboxyl-magnetic beads conjugated with single-domain antibody.immunomagnetic nanobead (imnb) labeled with specific antibody, has been demonstrated to be useful for the capturing and detection of viruses.201526369792
comparative proteomic analysis of wild-type and sap domain mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected porcine cells identifies the ubiquitin-activating enzyme ube1 required for virus replication.leader protein (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) manipulates the activities of several host proteins to promote viral replication and pathogenicity. l(pro) has a conserved protein domain sap that is suggested to subvert interferon (ifn) production to block antiviral responses. however, apart from blocking ifn production, the roles of the sap domain during fmdv infection in host cells remain unknown. therefore, we identified host proteins associated with the sap domain of l(pro) by ...201526354183
serological survey of foot-and-mouth disease virus in buffaloes (syncerus caffer) in zambia.a study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) circulating in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) from selected areas in zambia. sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against fmdv while probang samples were used to isolate the fmdv by observing cytopathic effect (cpe). samples with cpe were further analysed using antigen elisa. high fmd seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the ...201526347208
complete genome sequence analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from pakistan.sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o is reported here. genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (vp1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.201526337880
serotype-specific transmission and waning immunity of endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus in cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. the outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. in response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. however, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain et ...201526327324
evaluation of a combinatorial rnai lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven‑hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. fmdv is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. to generate genetically modified fmdv‑resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh)rnas was constructed using the lentivirus (lv) vector, lv‑3shrna. the three shrnas were expressed under the regulation of dna polymerase iii promoters from a bu ...201526323462
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) since 2010 in the republic of korea have occurred in the winter. at the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. in this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chl ...201526319879
early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. early detection of fmd virus (fmdv) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of fmdv rna in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. in the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with fdmv a24 cruzeiro of different virulen ...201726303975
megaprimer-mediated capsid swapping for the construction of custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the selection of appropriate candidate vaccine strain and its adaptation in cell culture to yield high titer of virus is a cumbersome process. an attractive approach to circumvent this tedious process is to replace the capsid coding sequen ...201526303897
synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3d polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). one of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control fmd is 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dpol). in this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against fmdv 3dpol. among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (ic50 = 0.39 μm) of fmdv 3d polymerase and ...201526301555
an integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. to address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic fmd in vietnam. within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with fmd virus (fmdv), of which 10.8% were persistent, asym ...201726301461
identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. a major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use r ...201526296881
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype a isolated from vietnam in 2013.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) found in an isolate collected in northern vietnam in 2013 appears to be closely related to a genetic cluster formed with isolates from china, mongolia, and russia in 2013. all of these are classified to fall within the sea-97 lineage, for which little complete genome data are available.201526294636
foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines.control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (fmd) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. indeed, consistent and new fmd epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control str ...201526290730
xylaria hypoxylon lectin as adjuvant elicited tfh cell responses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by fmd virus (fmdv) is a major health and economic problem in the farming industry. vaccination of livestock against this highly infectious viral disease is crucial, and inactivated fmd vaccine has been effective at controlling infection. however, accumulated data show that the inactivated vaccine generates weak immune responses and that the oil formulation results in undesirable side effects. mushroom lectins have recently been shown to display adjuvant effec ...201526289530
development and characterization of probe-based real time quantitative rt-pcr assays for detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in west eurasia.rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. due to the heterogeneity of fmd viruses (fmdvs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. in this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription ...201526270532
development and evaluation of a rapid antigen detection and serotyping lateral flow antigen detection system for foot-and-mouth disease virus.we developed a lateral flow strip using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which allows for rapid antigen detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this fmdv serotyping strip was able to detect all 7 serotypes and distinguish serotypes o, a, c and asia1. its sensitivities ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) of a 50% tissue culture infectious dose of each fmdv stain; this is equal to those of the commercial product svanodip (boehringer ingelheim svanova, uppsala, sweden), which can detect ...201526270053
marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3a and 3b.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. regular vaccination with chemically inactivated fmd vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like india. however, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. the availabil ...201526260689
virus-resistant pigs might help to stem next genetically engineering pigs to degrade a crucial viral protein, livestock can be made less susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus.201526222499
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