TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
influence of conjugation chemistry and b epitope orientation on the immune response of branched peptide antigens.multimeric presentation, a well-proven way of enhancing peptide immunogenicity, has found substantial application in synthetic vaccine design. we have reported that a combination of four copies of a b-cell epitope with one of a t-cell epitope in a single branched construct results in a peptide vaccine conferring total protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, a natural host (cubillos et al. (2008) j. virol. 82, 7223-7230). more recently, a downsized version of this prototype with ...201323458489
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus intra-sample sequence diversity during serial transmission in bovine hosts.rna virus populations within samples are highly heterogeneous, containing a large number of minority sequence variants which can potentially be transmitted to other susceptible hosts. consequently, consensus genome sequences provide an incomplete picture of the within- and between-host viral evolutionary dynamics during transmission. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus that can spread from primary sites of replication, via the systemic circulation, to found distinct sites of loca ...201323452550
biological activity of ovine il-23 expressed using a foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a self-cleaving peptide.hetero-dimeric cytokines often require equi-molar expression of both subunits to achieve biological activity. previously, we expressed ovine il-12 p40 and p35 linked using a self-cleaving 2a peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we now generated a new improved vector for the expression of hetero-dimeric cytokines and demonstrate the more general applicability of this strategy by cloning and expressing ovine il-23 using the 2a peptide to link il-12/il-23 p40 and p19. the resulting pro ...201323419450
growth kinetics and immune response of chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype 'o' produced through replication competent mini genome of serotype asia 1, 63/72, in bhk cell lines.regular vaccinations with potent vaccine, in endemic countries and vaccination to live in non-endemic countries are the methods available to control foot-and-mouth disease. selection of candidate vaccine strain is not only cumbersome but the candidate should grow well for high potency vaccine preparation. alternative strategy is to generate an infectious cdna of a cell culture-adapted virus and use the replicon for development of tailor-made vaccines. we produced a chimeric 'o' virus in the back ...201323384973
observing micro-evolutionary processes of viral populations at multiple scales.advances in sequencing technology coupled with new integrative approaches to data analysis provide a potentially transformative opportunity to use pathogen genome data to advance our understanding of transmission. however, to maximize the insights such genetic data can provide, we need to understand more about how the microevolution of pathogens is observed at different scales of biological organization. here, we examine the evolutionary processes in foot-and-mouth disease virus observed at diff ...201323382425
development of a universal rt-pcr for amplifying and sequencing the leader and capsid-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals with debilitating and devastating consequences for livestock industries throughout the world. key antigenic determinants of the causative agent, fmd virus (fmdv), reside within the surface-exposed proteins of the viral capsid. therefore, characterization of the sequence that encodes the capsid (p1) is important for tracking the emergence or spread of fmd and for selection and development of new vaccines. r ...201323380590
low levels of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease expression are required to achieve optimal capsid protein expression and processing in mammalian cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) is processed by the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to produce vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. within the virus-encoded polyprotein, the p1-2a and 3c(pro) can be expected to be produced at equivalent concentrations. however, using transient-expression assays, within mammalian cells, it is possible to modify the relative amounts of the substrate and protease. it has now been shown that optimal production of the processed capsid pr ...201323364188
co-inoculation of baculovirus and fmdv vaccine in mice, elicits very early protection against foot and mouth disease virus without interfering with long lasting immunity.baculoviruses (bvs) potentiate the immune response against soluble antigens. we investigated whether bv could be used as immunoactivator in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines using the balb/c mouse model. mice were vaccinated with a single dose of inactivated fmdv (ifmdv), ifmdv+bv, bv, or culture medium. humoral and cellular immune responses were higher in animals immunized with ifmdv+bv than in mice vaccinated with ifmdv alone. animals receiving ifmdv+bv had significantly lower viremia at 2 ...201323588086
development and evaluation of multiplex rt-lamp assays for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this paper describes the evaluation of four novel real-time multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in order to overcome the genetic diversity of fmd viruses (fmdv), these multiplex rt-lamp assay pairs were established by combining four newly designed primer sets with two primer sets that had been previously published. using a real-time turbidimeter to detect amplification products ...201323583488
repeated exposure to 5d9, an inhibitor of 3d polymerase, effectively limits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in host cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock caused by a highly variable rna virus (fmdv) that has seven serotypes and more than sixty subtypes. both prophylactic and post-infection means of controlling the disease outbreak, including universally applicable vaccines and emergency response measures such as therapeutic treatments, are on high demand. in this study, we analyzed the long-term exposure outcome to a previously identified inhibitor of 3d polymerase (fmdv 3dp ...201323578728
regulation of porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells by cytokines.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc) are the most potent producers of type-i interferon (ifn) and represent the main interferon (ifn)-α source in response to many viruses. considering the important roles played by type i ifn's, not only as antiviral effectors but also as potent alarming cytokine of the immune system, we investigated how such responses are regulated by various cytokines. to this end, we stimulated enriched pdc in the presence or absence of particular cytokines with a strong activat ...201323577175
vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) impairs baculovirus surface display.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes important economical losses in livestock farming. in order to develop a novel subunit vaccine against fmdv, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that display the protein vp1 of fmdv on their surface, with either polar (fused to gp64) or nonpolar (fused to anchor membrane from vsv-g protein) distribution. insect cells infected with the different recombinant baculoviruses expressed vp1 fusion protein to high levels. however, the recombinant vp1 pr ...201323566950
an infectious recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a fluorescent marker protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. however, the dynamics of fmdv infection are still poorly understood. the application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the fmdv life cycle. here, we have used reverse genetics to determine the capsid packaging limitations for a selected insertion site in the fmdv genome. we show th ...201323559477
association of bola drb3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd).polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. accordingly, we investigated the association of drb3 exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (o, a and asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut ...201323541924
expanding the spectral palette of fluorescent proteins for the green microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii.fluorescent proteins (fps) have become essential tools for a growing number of fields in biology. however, such tools have not been widely adopted for use in microalgal research. the aim of this study was to express and compare six fps (blue mtagbfp, cyan mcerulean, green crgfp, yellow venus, orange tdtomato and red mcherry) in the popular model microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. to circumvent the transgene silencing that often occurs in c. reinhardtii, the fps were expressed from the nuclear ...201323521393
a continuous bovine kidney cell line constitutively expressing bovine αvβ6 integrin has increased susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a worldwide problem limiting the trade of animals and their products from affected countries. the rapid isolation, serotyping, and vaccine matching of fmd virus from disease outbreaks is critical for enabling the implementation of effective vaccination programs and to stop the spread of infection during outbreaks. some primary cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to most strains of fmd virus (fmdv) but are difficult and expensive to prepare and maintain. ...201323515553
influence of the leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader (l) protein is produced in two forms, lab and lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. it has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the lab coding sequence is lethal for the virus, whereas loss of the lb coding sequence results in a virus that is viable in bhk cells. in addition, it is now shown that deletion of the 'spacer' region between these two in ...201323515027
evolutionary conserved motifs constrain the rna structure organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rnas initiate translation using a 5' end-independent mechanism based on internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. despite performing similar functions, ires elements present in genetically distant rnas differ in primary sequence, rna secondary structure and trans-acting factors requirement. the lack of conserved features amongst iress represents obstacles for the understanding of the internal initiation process. rna structure is tightly linked to picornavirus ires activity, cons ...201323507141
the effects of the synonymous codon usage and trna abundance on protein folding of the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3c protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a conserved amino acid sequence and is responsible for most cleavage in the viral polyprotein. the effects of the synonymous codon usage of fmdv 3c gene and trna abundance of the hosts on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in the 3c protease were analyzed based on the structural information of the fmdv 3c protease from protein data bank (pdb: 2bhg) and 210 genes of 3c for all serotypes of fmdv. the strong co ...201323499709
foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in bos grunniens yaks.the carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. to investigate the carrier status of fmdv in animals that live in high altitude, bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with fmdv o/akesu/58.201323497369
bovine fetal epithelium cells expressing shrna targeting viral vp1 gene resisted against foot-and-mouth disease virus.rnai could protect experimental animals from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but pivotal issue is delivery of rnai. in this study, shrna recombinant lentiviral plasmid rnai-lt6 targeting vp1 of fmdv, which strongly suppressed the transient expression of a flag-tagged vp1 protein in 293t cells and significantly inhibited viral replication in bhk-21 cells, was screened and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells. with subsequent somatic cell cloning, three 4-month-old transgenic fetuse ...201323481248
characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase.we have experimentally tested whether the mrktklapt sequence in fmdv 3d protein (residues 16 to 24) can act as a nuclear localization signal (nls). mutants with substitutions in two basic residues within this sequence, k18e and k20e, were generated. a decreased nuclear localization was observed in transiently expressed 3d and its precursor 3cd, suggesting a role of k18 and k20 in nuclear targeting. fusion of mrktklapt to the green fluorescence protein (gfp) increased the nuclear localization of ...201323886493
an increased replication fidelity mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus retains fitness in vitro and virulence in a screen for rna mutagen-resistant foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains, we isolated an fmdv mutant with rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) r84h substitution. this mutant, selected under the mutagenic pressure of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu), is resistant not only to 5-fu but also to other two rna mutagens, 5-azacytidine and ribavirin, suggesting that the rdrp r84h mutant is a high fidelity variant. subsequently, the increased fidelity of this mutant was verified through analysis of mutation ...201323880348
protein coexpression using fmdv 2a: effect of "linker" residues.many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) and "2a-like" sequences (e.g., thosea asigna virus 2a; t2a) are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (orfs) to form a single cistron. the activity of f2a "cleavage" may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of f2a and the sequences (d ...201323878801
delivery of synthetic rna can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in mice.we have recently described the antiviral effect in mice of in vitro-transcribed rnas mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome rna. these small, synthetic and non-infectious rna molecules (ncrnas) are potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers in vivo. in this work, the immunomodulatory effect of the ncrna corresponding to the internal ribosome entry site (ires) on immunization with two different fmd vaccine formulations, both based on ...201323859841
antigenic site variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o grown under vaccinal serum antibodies in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is constantly evolving under neutralizing antibody pressure in either naturally infected or vaccinated animals. this study was carried out to understand the dynamics of evolution of antigenic sites. neutralizing antibody-resistant populations of three strains of fmdv serotype o (indr2/1975, ind120/2002 and ind271/2001) were isolated by serial propagation in bhk-21 cells in the presence of sub-neutralizing level of bovine vaccinal sera (bvs). in the partial neu ...201323850868
truncated recombinant non-structural protein 2c-based indirect elisa for fmd sero-surveillance.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a transboundary animal disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. in india, systematic preventive vaccination using inactivated trivalent (o, a and asia 1) vaccine is the strategy being adopted to control fmd. the use of non-structural protein (nsp)-contaminated inactivated vaccine raises concerns over differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (diva) by nsp based immunoassays. however, 2c being a membrane associated protein usually remain absent in v ...201323850716
characterization of cytotoxic t lymphocyte function after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.the induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. although these efforts have yielded much success, challenges remain, including little cross-serotype protection and inadequate duration of immunity. commonly, viral infections are characterized by induction of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl), yet the function of ctl in fmdv immunity is poorly ...201323829779
transgenically mediated shrnas targeting conserved regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus provide heritable resistance in porcine cell lines and suckling mice.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is responsible for substantial economic losses in livestock breeding each year, and the development of new strategies is needed to overcome the limitations of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs. in this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of transgenic porcine cells and suckling mice that simultaneously expressed two short-hairpin rnas (shrnas) targeting the conserved regions of the viral polymerase protein 3d and the non-structural protein 2b. firs ...201323822604
understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission biology: identification of the indicators of infectiousness.the control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in non-endemic countries relies on the rapid detection and removal of infected animals. in this paper we use the observed relationship between the onset of clinical signs and direct contact transmission of fmdv to identify predictors for the onset of clinical signs and identify possible approaches to preclinical screening in the field. threshold levels for various virological and immunological variables were determined using receiver o ...201323822567
construction of self-replicating subgenomic west nile virus replicons for screening antiviral compounds.mosquito-borne flavivirus rna genomes encode one long open reading frame flanking 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-utrs) which contain cis-acting rna elements playing important roles for viral rna translation and replication. the viral rna encodes a single polyprotein, which is processed into three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (ns) proteins. the regions coding for the seven ns proteins are sufficient for replication of the rna. the sequences encoding the structural gene ...201323821276
potential roles of synonymous codon usage and trna concentration in hosts on the two initiation regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the open reading frame of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains two authentic initiation codons and the second initiation codon is often selected in high frequency. in the study, we analyzed the effects of the host-cell synonymous codon usage and the overall trna concentration in the hosts on the region flanked by the two initiation codons (termed as the region 1) and the same length starting from the second initiation codon (defined as the region 2). we find that low-usage codons of host ...201323806792
engagement of soluble resistance-related calcium binding protein (sorcin) with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibits type i interferon response in cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious animal disease caused by fmd virus (fmdv). although fmdv-induced immunosuppression in host has been well established, the exact molecular mechanism for such induction is not very clear. we report here the identification of fmdv vp1 as an interferon-suppressor by interacting with soluble resistance-related calcium binding protein (sorcin). we found that vp1 suppressed tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-α or sendai virus (sev)-induced type i int ...201323764275
comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. nmr studies on the monomeric variant lb(pro) l200f provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)n-hsqc measurements of lb(pro) l200f showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant slb(pro), lacking six c-terminal residues. this indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the c-te ...201323756127
positively charged residues at the five-fold symmetry axis of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus permit novel receptor interactions.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain rgd-dependent integrin receptors. in contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (hs) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of fmdv. in cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the a/turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect cho and hs- ...201323740982
assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structural protein precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) into the capsid proteins vp0, vp1 and vp3 (and 2a). in some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3c(pro) can be toxic for cells. the expression level of 3c(pro) activity has now been reduced relative to the p1-2a, and the effect on the yield of processed capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid particl ...201323740480
montanide isa™ 201 adjuvanted fmd vaccine induces improved immune responses and protection in cattle.despite significant advancements in modern vaccinology, inactivated whole virus vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remain the mainstay for prophylactic and emergency uses. many efforts are currently devoted to improve the immune responses and protective efficacy of these vaccines. adjuvants, which are often used to potentiate immune responses, provide an excellent mean to improve the efficacy of fmd vaccines. this study aimed to evaluate three oil adjuvants namely: montanide isa-201, isa- ...201323735678
cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection: a unique landscape of innate immunity.pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. viruses that cause acute disease tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chronicity of infection, but spread of disease throughout the herd. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses known. upon infection of susceptible species, cloven-hoofed animals, the virus prolif ...201323727070
mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions) and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. although integrin αvβ6 receptor has been identified as primary fmdv receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tiss ...201323724025
recombinant adenovirus expression of fmdv p1-2a and 3c protein and its immune response in mice.the purpose of this research was to develop a new type of recombinant adenovirus vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and confirm whether both 2a and 3c proteases can fully process fmdv p1 polyprotein into vp1 protein. we constructed and characterized recombinant adenoviruses, designated as rad-p1, rad-p1-2a, rad-l-p1, rad-l-2a, and rad-3c. the construct was further confirmed by the enzyme digestion, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing, sequencing, and transfection. the infecti ...201323722010
immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. here we present study using a sublingual (sl) route with the killed serotype asia 1 fmdv vaccine. guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. animals were challenged with homologous fmdv asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. all control guinea pigs ...201323717497
analysis of sat type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. in this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric sat2 and sat3 virus particles to various conditions including low ph, mild temperatur ...201323717387
the effects of the codon usage and translation speed on protein folding of 3d(pol) of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 201323715863
rogue taxa phenomenon: a biological companion to simulation provide a baseline biological comparison to simulation study predictions about the frequency of rogue taxa effects, we evaluated the frequency of a rogue taxa effect using viral data sets which differed in diversity. using a quartet-tree framework, we measured the frequency of a rogue taxa effect in three data sets of increasing genetic variability (within viral serotype, between viral serotype, and between viral family) to test whether the rogue taxa was correlated with the mean sequence div ...201323707704
diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exists as multiple serotypes and strains that infect a range of cloven-hoofed animals with variable severity. clinical diagnosis reinforced by diagnostic tests support timely intervention, whilst virus characterisation helps trace routes of spread and select appropriate vaccine strains. to speed up and simplify diagnosis, penside tests have recently been developed. serology is used to identify undisclosed infection and substantiate freedom from infection and s ...201323689889
evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding fmdv capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of fmdv, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable balb/c mice model. additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. for this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (ad), herpesvirus amplicons (hs) and/or killed virus (kv) vaccine ...201323683999
evaluation and use of in-silico structure-based epitope prediction with foot-and-mouth disease virus.understanding virus antigenicity is of fundamental importance for the development of better, more cross-reactive vaccines. however, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3d structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in bot ...201323667434
emergence of a novel lineage genetically divergent from the predominant ind2001 lineage of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in india, emergence of ind2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o was recorded in the year 2001. after causing sporadic incidences, the ind2001 lineage that re-surged in 2008 out-competed panasia from the field during 2009 and continued its dominance during 2010 and 2011 as well. the lineage has diversified in due course of time, leading to two sub-lineages (ind2001a and ind2001b). the sub-lineage ind2001a include isolates collected during 2001-2002 and sub-lineage ind2001 ...201323643555
comparison of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for orf virus with quantitative real-time pcr.orf virus (orfv) causes orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. therefore, a rapid, highly specific and accurate method for the diagnosis of orfv infections is essential to ensure that the appropriate treatments are administered and to reduce economic losses.201323634981
control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, south outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype o virus occurred in cattle and pigs in south korea during november 2010-april 2011. the highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program.201323632094
comparative analysis of cloned cdnas encoding chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine integrin receptors for foot-and-mouth disease analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cdnas encoding the integrin αν, β1, β3, β6 and β8 subunits from chinese yellow cattle and gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. the lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin β subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative n-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine ...201323620003
nucleotide mismatches of foot-and-mouth disease virus during there is a lack of error correction mechanisms during rna replication, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a very high mismatch rate, which leads to a high mutation rate, in the range of 10(-3) to 10(-5) per nucleotide site per genome replication. we examined the nucleotide mismatch of fmdv during replication, based on the whole genomes of the 7 serotypes retrieved from ncbi. with the mega bio-software, spss, and microsoft excel, we studied the nucleotide differences compared to the seque ...201323613248
development of a quick and simple detection methodology for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 using a generic rapidassay device.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have resulted in tremendous economic losses. thus, the development of a rapid and easily performed test for fmd detection is important for controlling a fmd outbreak and containing its spread. the purpose of this project is to develop a lateral flow immunochromatographic (lfi) strip test for rapid detection of fmd virus serotypes o, a and asia 1.201323607273
induction of partial protection against foot and mouth disease virus in guinea pigs by neutralization with the integrin β6-1 subunit.the mechanism by which the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection of cells is thought to involve the attachment of the viral capsid to host integrins on the surface of target cells. however, the role of integrins in fmdv infection still needs to be fully understood, although it has been demonstrated that integrin αvβ6 interferes with fmdv in vitro and results in neutralization of its infectivity. in the present study, we describe the cloning and sequencing of suckling mouse inte ...201323604096
enhancement of the immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice by oral administration of a novel polysaccharide from the roots of radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rc).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a kind of the important animal infectious disease caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of the polysaccharide from the radix cyathulae officinalis kuan (rcps) for its adjuvant potential on the fmdv-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. in this study, our findings shows that oral administration of rcps significantly enhanced the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, sple ...201323603047
foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. it can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. in addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. the disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease viru ...201324308718
expression of bovine mx1 protein inhibits the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 proteins belonging to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases inhibit replication of a wide range of rna viruses. in this study, we examined whether bovine mx1 protein could interfere with the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for this purpose we established cloned bhk-21 cells expressing bovine mx1 protein (bm1 cells) and infected them with fmdv serotype o. cloned bhk-21 cells expressing neomycin resistance instead of mx1 protein (bh1 cells) and original bhk-21 cells serve ...201324294956
historical perspective on agroterrorism: lessons learned from 1945 to 2012.this article presents a historical perspective on agroterrorism cases from 1945 until 2012. the threat groups and perpetrators associated with bio- and agroterrorism are clustered into several groups: apocalyptic sects, lone wolves, political groups, and religious groups. we used open-source information, and 4 biological agroterrorism cases are described: (1) in 1952, mau mau poisoned cattle in kenya by using a plant toxin from the african milk bush plant; (2) in 1985, the usda claimed that mexi ...201323971803
control of the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most feared of transboundary animal diseases. accidental or deliberate release of the causative agent can have both direct and indirect effects that result in massive economic losses and disruption. the direct effects of an fmd outbreak include immediate losses to agricultural production and disruption of local economies, while the indirect effects are mainly related to disease control measures such as restriction of market access at local and global le ...201323971796
2a and the auxin-based degron system facilitate control of protein levels in plasmodium falciparum.analysis of gene function in plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite, is restricted by the lack of robust and simple reverse genetic tools. approaches to manipulate protein levels post-translationally are powerful tools to study protein-off effects especially in the haploid malaria parasite where genetic knockouts of essential genes are lethal. we investigated if the auxin-inducible degron system is functional in p. falciparum and found that degron-tagged yellow fluoresc ...201324236031
availability of a fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical samples collected from animals experimentally infected with fmdv.the availability of the fetal goat tongue cell line zz-r 127 for the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. therefore, in the current study, the availability of zz-r 127 cells for the isolation of fmdv was evaluated using clinical samples (e.g., sera, nasal swabs, saliva, feces, and oropharyngeal fluids) collected from animals experimentally infected with an fmdv isolate. virus isolation rates for the zz-r ...201324153031
reconstructing geographical movements and host species transitions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 2.of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus sat serotypes mainly confined to sub-saharan africa, sat 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in north africa and the middle east six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. this study updates the picture of sat 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the vp1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace ...201324149511
[evaluation of synthetic peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease type a].we developed a synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type a.201324028062
targeted delivery of vp1 antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus to m cells enhances the antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune response.application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. in particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from fmdv transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where fmdv infection ...201324009543
multiple introductions of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses into east asia in 2010-2011.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. sporadic introductions of this virus into fmd-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. in 2010 and 2011, incursions of the fmdv o/sea/mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland southeast asia, caused extensive outbreaks across east asia. in this study, 12 full genome fmdv sequences for representative samples collected from the people's republic of china (pr china) ...201324007643
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease induces fragmentation of the golgi compartment and blocks intra-golgi transport.picornavirus infection can cause golgi fragmentation and impose a block in the secretory pathway which reduces expression of major histocompatibility antigens at the plasma membrane and slows secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. in this study, we show that golgi fragmentation and a block in secretion are induced by expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3c(pro) and that this requires the protease activity of 3c(pro). 3c(pro) caused fragmentation of early, medial, and late golgi com ...201323986596
antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein vp1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. the serotype asia1 occurs mainly in asian regions. an in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein vp1 of asia1. a total of 47 vp1 sequences of asia1 isolates from different countries of south asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. the structure of vp1 protein was modeled using a homo ...201323983476
transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. it produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated fmd virus (fmdv). the use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. in this report, we explored transient gene expression (tge) in serum-fr ...201323977353
novel immunogenic baculovirus expressed virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.vaccination is a well accepted strategy for control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in endemic countries. currently, chemically inactivated virus antigens are used for preparation of fmd vaccine. to develop a non-infectious and safe recombinant vaccine, we expressed structural polypeptide of fmdv (o/ind/r2/75) using baculovirus expression system. we show that inclusion of mutated viral 3c protease in frame with the polypeptide (p1-2a), enhanced the yield of structural proteins. the structural pr ...201323969204
optimisation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a co-expression system for biomedical applications.many biomedical applications require the expression or production of therapeutic hetero-multimeric proteins/protein complexes: in most cases only accomplished by co-ordinated co-expression within the same cell. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) and '2a-like' sequences are now widely used for this purpose. since 2a mediates a co-translational 'cleavage' at its own c-terminus, sequences encoding multiple proteins (linked via 2as) can be concatenated into a single orf: a single transgene. it ha ...201323968294
processing of the vp1/2a junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by 3c(pro) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1, and the peptide 2a. the capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2a. in a cell culture-adapted strain of fmdv (o1 manisa [lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (e83k, s134c, and k210e) were identified within the vp1 region of the p1-2a precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). expression of the o1 ...201323966400
a role for endoplasmic reticulum exit sites in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.picornaviruses replicate their genomes in association with cellular membranes. while enteroviruses are believed to utilize membranes of the early secretory pathway, the origin of the membranes used by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for replication are unknown. secretory-vesicle traffic through the early secretory pathway is mediated by the sequential acquisition of two distinct membrane coat complexes, copii and copi, and requires the coordinated actions of sar1, arf1 and rab proteins. sar1 ...201323963534
development of a luminex assay for the detection of swine antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and mouth disease (fmd), swine vesicular disease (svd), and vesicular stomatitis (vs) are highly contagious vesicular diseases of swine but are not easy to differentiate clinically. for the purpose of instant detecting of fmd and differentiating it from the other vesicular diseases, a luminex assay was developed. sera from 64 infected, 307 vaccinated, and 280 naïve pigs were tested by the luminex assay. diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 100%. diagnostic specificity of the assay was 98 ...201323962586
two new flavonol glycosides and biological activities of diplotaxis harra (forssk.) boiss.two new flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-o-β-glucopyranoside-4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-o-β-glucopyranoside -4'-o-β-xylopyranoside (2), were isolated from the defatted aqueous methanol extract of the whole plant diplotaxis harra along with 12 known flavonols (3-14). they were characterised by chemical and spectral methods. the 70% aqueous methanol, chloroform and defatted aqueous methanol plant extracts exhibited significant antioxidant effects (nitroblue tetrazolium reduction ...201323962320
co-administration of flagellin augments immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal virus known that affects livestock health and production. this study aimed to investigate the effect of flagellin, a toll-like receptor 5 agonist, on the immune responses to inactivated fmdv antigen in guinea pig model. our results showed that the co-administration of flagellin with fmdv antigen through intradermal route induces earlier and higher anti-fmdv neutralizing antibody responses as compared to fmdv antigen alone. ...201323941960
gene expression profiling reveals the heterogeneous transcriptional activity of oct3/4 and its possible interaction with gli2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.we examined the transcriptional activity of oct3/4 (pou5f1) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mescs) maintained under standard culture conditions to gain a better understanding of self-renewal in mescs. first, we built an expression vector in which the oct3/4 promoter drives the monocistronic transcription of venus and a puromycin-resistant gene via the foot-and-mouth disease virus self-cleaving peptide t2a. then, a genetically-engineered mesc line with the stable integration of this vector was iso ...201324121003
a partial deletion in non-structural protein 3a can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.the role of non-structural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. particularly, a characteristic 10-20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in the naturally occurring, porcinophilic fmdv o1 taiwanese strain, and an approximately 20 amino acid deletion found in egg-adapted derivatives of fmdv serotypes o1 and c3. previous reports using chimeric viru ...201324074589
phylogeny and genetic diversity of foot and mouth disease virus serotype asia1 in india during 1964-2012.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 was first identified in india in 1951 and since then causing significant proportion of fmd outbreaks in the country. in this paper genetic analysis of 219 isolates from india collected over a period of 48 years is described. bayesian approach was used to estimate the date of divergence and evolutionary rate. phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of three lineages (b, c and d) of which lineage b formed one genotype (i) which was prevale ...201324060099
reconstructing the origin and transmission dynamics of the 1967-68 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the united kingdom.a large epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in the united kingdom (uk) over a seven month period in northwest england from late 1967 to the summer of 1968. this was preceded by a number of smaller fmd outbreaks in the country, two in 1967, in hampshire and warwickshire and one in northumberland during 1966. the causative agent of all four events was identified as fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and the source of the large epidemic was attributed to infected bone marrow in lamb products ...201324035793
development of a peptide based latex agglutination assay for serotype identification of foot and mouth disease virus.out of 200 serum samples collected from cattle (142) and buffaloes (58) of various ages and sexand subjected to latex agglutination test (lat) using serotype specific peptides (o, a, asia 1) and also with peptide for non-structural protein 2b (nsp-2b), 114 (70%) samples were positive against fmdv type 'o', 102 (51%) against serotype 'a' and 104 (52%) against serotype 'asia 1'. with nsp-2b peptide a total of 71 (35.5%) samples were positive. the results suggest that lat could be used for the diag ...201323923605
b epitope multiplicity and b/t epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.synthetic peptides incorporating protective b- and t-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines. we have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a b-cell epitope (vp1 136 to 154) linked to a t-cell epitope (3a 21 to 35) of fmd virus (fmdv) elicit potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. to assess the relevan ...201324454475
identification of cytotoxic t lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal t cell vaccine.classical swine fever (csf), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. vaccine induced cd8(+) t cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) epitopes, it is an exc ...201324358361
diagnosis and control measures of the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease a type in the republic of january 2010, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred for the first time in 8 years in korea. the outbreaks were because of a serotype, different from the o type, which had occurred previously in 2000 and 2002. the fmd outbreaks were identified in seven farms, consisting of six cattle farms where viruses were detected and one deer farm where only fmdv antibody was detected. the seven farms were within 9.3 km of each other. all susceptible animals within 10 km radius of the outbreak farms were p ...201322630568
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o phylodynamics: genetic variability associated with epidemiological factors in of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control is the high genetic variability of the fmd virus (fmdv). in endemic settings such as the indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating outbreaks in disease-free areas. in countries trying to control and eradicate fmd using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field fmdv strains is an obstacle for iden ...201322846206
virus-like particles produced in plants as potential vaccines.virus-like particles (vlps) have been produced as candidate vaccines in plants virtually since the introduction of biofarming. even today, vlps remain the best candidates for safe, immunogenic, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines. well-characterized human animal viruses such as hbv, hcv, hiv and hpv, rotaviruses, norovirus, foot and mouth disease viruses and even influenza virus proteins have all been successfully investigated for vlp formation. proteins have been produced in transgenic plants ...201323414411
challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an african perspective.the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of fmd viruses (southern african territories [sat] 1, sat2, sat3, a, o, and c), with the exception of asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. due to underreporting of fmd, the current strains circulating throughout sub-saharan africa are in many cases unknown. for sat1, sat2, and serotype a viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that ...201432670853
an increase in acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid is mediated by a tyrosine replacement of the vp2 histidine previously associated with vp0 cleavage.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid is highly acid labile, but introduction of amino acid replacements, including an n17d change in vp1, can increase its acid resistance. using mutant vp1 n17d as a starting point, we isolated a virus with higher acid resistance carrying an additional replacement, vp2 h145y, in a residue highly conserved among picornaviruses, which has been proposed to be responsible for vp0 cleavage. this mutant provides an example of the multifunctionality of picorna ...201424352460
interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 3a with host protein dctn3 is important for viral virulence in cattle.nonstructural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most fmdvs examined to date. the role of 3a in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular protein dctn3 as a specific host binding partner for 3a. dctn3 is a subunit of the dynactin complex, a cofactor for dynein, a motor protein. the dynactin-dynein duplex has been implicated in several su ...201424352458
evaluation of cross-protection against three topotypes of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs vaccinated with multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c).epitope-based vaccines are always questioned for their cross-protection against the antigenically variable foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we proved the cross-protection effect of a multi-epitope vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c) against three topotypes of o type fmdv. a total of 45 naïve pigs were vaccinated with different doses of multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(i:c). at 28 days post-vaccination, 45 vaccinated and 6 unvaccinated control pigs (two pigs ...201424345411
accuracy of traditional and novel serology tests for predicting cross-protection in foot-and-mouth disease vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigenic-match between vaccine and field viruses has traditionally been estimated in vitro by computing the r1 value using virus neutralization test (vnt) or elisa titers. in this study we compared the accuracy in predicting cross-protection between the r1 value estimated by vnt and two recently developed tests that measure igg subtypes and avidity. data analyzed consisted of 64 serum samples from fmdv a24/cruzeiro vaccinated bovines challenged with the heter ...201424342253
experimental infection of cattle and goats with a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate from the 2010 epidemic in this study, we carried out experimental infections in cattle and goats using a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate from the 2010 epidemic in japan to analyze clinical manifestations, virus-shedding patterns and antibody responses in the animals. we found that the fmdv o/jpn/2010 isolate is virulent in cattle and goats, produces clinical signs, is spread efficiently by direct contact within the same species, and is persistently infectious in cattle. quantitative analysis of levels of v ...201424938483
proof of principle: non-invasive sampling for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild boar using a rope-in-a-bait sampling this study we describe the use of a rope-in-a-bait sampling method ("pswab": pathogen sampling wild animals with baits) for non-invasive saliva sampling aimed at the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral genome in wild boar. the pswabs are produced in the form of a standardized product by embedding a 10 cm long cotton rope in a cereal-based bait matrix. to assess the general suitability of this novel sampling technique an animal experiment was conducted to detect fmd viral genome in ...201424930983
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a circulating in bangladesh.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a strain (ban/ga/sa-197/2013), isolated from gazipur in bangladesh, revealed an 84-nucleotide insertion within the 5'-untranslated region (utr), a lengthened poly(c) tract, and amino acid substitutions at the vp1 region compared to the available genome sequence of the vaccine strain (genbank accession no. hm854025).201424926048
[advances in reverse genetics-based vaccines of foot and mouth disease].reverse-genetic engineering of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) can improve the productivity, antigen matching, antigen stability, immune response ability, and biological safety of vaccines, so vaccine candidates with anticipated biological characteristics can be promptly achieved. negative influence in taming of virulent strains can also be decreased or avoided. reverse genetics not only make up for deficiencies like limitation of viral nature, low success rate, and time and energy consuming ...201424923178
rapeseed oil and ginseng saponins work synergistically to enhance th1 and th2 immune responses induced by the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.previous investigations demonstrated that saponins isolated from the root of panax ginseng c. a. meyer (i.e., ginseng root saponin [gs-r]) had adjuvant activity. in the present study, the combined effects of rapeseed oil (ro) and gs-r on the immune responses elicited by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine were investigated by measuring fmd virus (fmdv)-specific antibody levels, cytokine levels, lymphocyte proliferation, and long-lived igg-secreting plasma cells from bone marrow in a mouse model ...201424920601
intratypic heterologous vaccination of calves can induce an antibody response in presence of maternal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. in this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity.201424906852
evolution of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid under neutralizing antibody pressure in this study, the indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strain (a ind 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (bcs) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. a considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the bcs for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. t143k substitution preceding the integrin binding 'rgd' ...201424452141
a serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in kenya.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in fmd-free areas. this study investigated the presence of antibodies against fmd virus (fmdv) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for fmd in cattle coinciding with sat 1 fmdv outbreaks in cattle. a total of 191 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs in 17 districts. forty-two of the 191 sera were from pigs vaccinated against ...201424442573
characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle.previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a a serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the vp1 g-h loop (termed a(-)). since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspartate (rgd) motif required for virus attachment to the host cell in vivo, it was hypothesised that this virus would be attentuated in naturally susceptible animals. the a(-) virus was passaged three times ...201424438986
development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important global animal disease. to control fmd virus (fmdv) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. in this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) as a replicon vector to express fmdv structural protein.201424427767
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