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a portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. early diagnosis of fmd helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. in this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa) assay for the detection of fmd virus (fmdv). the fmdv rt-rpa design targeted the 3d gene of fmdv and ...201323977101
rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza a virus and classical swine fever virus by high-speed real-time rt-pcr.high sensitivity, minor risk of cross-contamination and in particular the rapid reaction time make quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) assays well suited for outbreak investigations as well as for monitoring epidemics of pathogens. in this study qpcr assays for three highly contagious animal diseases, namely foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd), influenza a (ia) and classical swine fever (csf) have been developed. furthermore, an amplification control targeting 18s ribosomal rna was ...201323702025
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal antibody.an elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, and a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. furthermore, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable ...201323600506
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal antibody.an elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. further, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable for dia ...201223244327
foot-and-mouth disease virus viroporin 2b antagonizes rig-i-mediated antiviral effects by inhibition of its protein expression.the role of retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells remains unknown. here, we showed that rig-i inhibits fmdv replication in host cells. fmdv infection increased the transcription of rig-i, while it decreased rig-i protein expression. a detailed analysis revealed that fmdv leader proteinase (l(pro)), as well as 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) and 2b protein, decreased rig-i protein expression. l(pro) and 3c(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave v ...201627707918
cellular micrornas and picornaviral infections.micrornas (mirnas) are a subtype of short, endogenous, and non-coding rnas, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. the mirna-mediated gene silencing mechanism is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. picornaviridae is a large family of rna viruses, which includes a number of causative agents of many human and animal diseases viz., poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and coxsackievir ...201424921242
nmr analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases lb and 2a with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4gii.messenger rna is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4e (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eif4g and the rna helicase eif4a. to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eif4g is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eif4e is unclear. we have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth dise ...201526384734
recovery of infectious type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an rna polymerase i/ii-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.we developed an rna polymerase (pol) i- and ii-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cloned cdna. in this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cdna was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (hamrz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (hdvrz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (cmv) and pol i promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. the utilit ...201526091821
construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of indian vaccine strain, o/ind/r2/75.generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2b, 3b and 3c(pro) and its characterization.201527047064
adjuvant effects of l. acidophilus lw1 on immune responses to the foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine in mice.the adjuvant effects of lactobacillus acidophilus on dna vaccination are not fully understood. it has been hypothesized that swine-derived lactobacillus acidophilus sw1 (lasw1) could function as an immune adjuvant to enhance antigen-specific immune responses after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccination in mice. to evaluate the effect of oral lasw1 on the immune response to a dna vaccine (prc/cmv-vp1) harboring fmd vp1 gene, anti-fmdv antibody and its isotypes, t-cell proliferation, and cyt ...201425119375
coordinate lentiviral expression of cre recombinase and rfp/egfp mediated by fmdv 2a and analysis of cre activity.the site-specific recombination mediated by cre recombinase has been utilized extensively in genetic engineering and gene function studies. efficient delivery of a cre enzyme with enzymatic activity and the ability to monitor the enzyme expression are required in applications, and lentiviral constructs with a fluorescent protein (fp) to report the cre expression are suitable for most studies. however, the current lentiviral vector systems have some deficiencies in precise reporting the cre expre ...201222532014
construction of self-replicating subgenomic dengue virus 4 (denv4) replicon.dengue virus serotypes 1-4 are members of mosquito-borne flavivirus genus of flaviviridae family that encode one long open reading frame (orf) that is translated to a polyprotein. both host and virally encoded proteases function in the processing of the polyprotein by co-translational and posttranslational mechanisms to yield 10 mature proteins prior to viral rna replication. to study cis- and trans-acting factors involved in viral rna replication, many groups [1-8] have constructed cdnas encodi ...201424696335
identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral ns4b protein and restricts genomic rna replication.dengue virus (denv) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. we therefore screened the nih clinical collection (ncc), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of denv replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating denv serotype 2 (denv2) subgenomic replicon. the most potent denv inhibitor in the ncc was δ opioid receptor antagonist sdm25n. this compoun ...201323735301
[construction and functional characterization of a monocistronic replicon based on the hcv genotype 2a promotor].to construct a hepatitis c virus (hcv) genotype 2a monocistronic replicon and investigate its replication capabilities in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, huh7.5 and huh7.1, in order to determine its potential as a molecular tool for future in vitro studies of hcv replication and selection studies for putative anti-hcv drugs. site-directed mutagenesis was used to delete the core-e1-e2-p7-ns2 fragment (about 3090 bp) from plasmid pj6jfh1blarl. the resultant trianglepj6jfh1blarl plasmid was d ...201222464780
an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies to senecavirus a in swine.senecavirus a (sva), a member of the family picornaviridae, genus senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded rna virus closely related to members of the cardiovirus genus. sva was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with idiopathic vesicular disease (ivd). vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal ...201728202026
promotion of viral ires-mediated translation initiation under mild hypothermia.internal ribosome entry site (ires)-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. as ires-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an ires element of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), hepatitis c v ...201525951166
mgmt enrichment and second gene co-expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells using separate or dual-gene lentiviral vectors.the dna repair gene o(6)-methylguanine-dna methyltransferase (mgmt) allows efficient in vivo enrichment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (hsc). thus, linking this selection strategy to therapeutic gene expression offers the potential to reconstitute diseased hematopoietic tissue with gene-corrected cells. however, different dual-gene expression vector strategies are limited by poor expression of one or both transgenes. to evaluate different co-expression strategies in the context of mgmt-m ...201525479595
induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses.the family picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand rna viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis a virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. picornavirus infections activate a cytosolic rna sensor, mda5, which in turn, induces a type i interferon response, a crucial component of antiviral immunity. moreover, picorn ...201425086453
interaction of paramecium caudatum and picornaviruses.in our paper we have researched the relationship between picornaviruses (poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus) and ciliata (paramecium caudatum). we show that the number of paramecium in medium sharply increased during coincubation with picornaviruses within 2-5 days. this cannot be explained only by the fact that viruses were nutrient source for paramecium because in case of inactivated viruses the number of infusorians in medium increased a little. at the sam ...201224293830
co-expression of the bcl-xl antiapoptotic protein enhances the induction of th1-like immune responses in mice immunized with dna vaccines encoding fmdv b and t cell epitopes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most devastating animal diseases, affecting all cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animal species. previous studies from our group using dna vaccines encoding fmd virus (fmdv) b and t cell epitopes targeted to antigen presenting cells, allowed demonstrating total protection from fmdv homologous challenge in those animals efficiently primed for both humoral and cellular specific responses (borrego et al. antivir res 92:359-363, 2011). in this study, a new d ...201323483312
theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus contrasts with encephalomyocarditis and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in its functional utilization of the stopgo non-standard translation mechanism.the picornaviruses' genome consists of a positive-sense ssrna. like many picornaviruses, cardioviruses synthesize two distinct polyprotein precursors from adjacent but non-overlapping genome segments. both the [l-1abcd-2a] and the [2bc-3abcd] polyproteins are proteolytically processed to yield mature capsid and non-structural proteins, respectively. an unusual translational event, known as 'stopgo' or 'stop-carry on', is responsible for the release of the [l-1abcd-2a] polyprotein from the riboso ...201323100365
mutagenesis-mediated virus extinction: virus-dependent effect of viral load on sensitivity to lethal defection.lethal mutagenesis is a transition towards virus extinction mediated by enhanced mutation rates during viral genome replication, and it is currently under investigation as a potential new antiviral strategy. viral load and virus fitness are known to influence virus extinction. here we examine the effect or the multiplicity of infection (moi) on progeny production of several rna viruses under enhanced mutagenesis.201222442668
promotion of viral internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation under amino acid starvation.cap-dependent and internal ribosomal entry site (ires)-mediated translation are regulated differently within cells. viral ires-mediated translation often remains active when cellular cap-dependent translation is severely impaired under cellular stresses induced by virus infection. to investigate how cellular stresses influence the efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation, we used a bicistronic luciferase reporter construct harbouring ires elements from the following viruses: encephalomyocar ...201222302880
rna structure disrupting g320-t transversion within the short fragment of the 5' untranslated region prevents rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.a full-length cdna clone of an indian foot-and-mouth disease virus strain, asia 1 ind 491/1997 was assembled downstream of the t7 promoter in the pbluescript ii sk (+) vector by sequential ligation of four pcr-generated subgenomic fragments. rna transcribed from that construct were transfected into bhk-21 and lfbk cells to rescue infectious virus. the in vitro growth kinetics, plaque morphology, infectivity titer, antigenic profile and virulence characteristics in unweaned mice infected with the ...201424269793
display of the vp1 epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus on bacteriophage t7 and its application in diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century. in recent years, the development of diagnostic assays for fmd has benefited considerably from the advances of recombinant dna technology. in this study, the immunodominant region of the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was fused to the t7 bacteriophage and expressed on the surface of the bacteriophage capsid protein. the recombinant protei ...201323933075
rescue of infective virus from a genome-length cdna clone of the fmdv serotype o (ind-r2/75) vaccine strain and its characterization.we report here the construction and characterization of an infectious cdna clone of the indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, ind-r2/75. viral genome was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in five fragments and subsequently assembled sequentially in a plasmid vector to generate a complete cdna clone, flanked by the t7 rna polymerase promoter and poly (a) tail at 5' and 3' ends, respectively. transfection of bhk-21 cells with t ...201323465777
characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone and a gfp reporter derivative of the oncolytic picornavirus svv-001.seneca valley virus (svv-001) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for a subset of human cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation. to characterize further the specificity of svv-001 and its patterns and kinetics of intratumoral spread, bacterial plasmids encoding a cdna clone of the full-length wild-type virus and a derivative virus expressing gfp were generated. the full-length cdna of the svv-001 rna genome was cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the control of the t7 core ...201222971818
[construction of a full-length infectious cdna clone of inter-genotypic chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus].a series of type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks occurred in china seriously affect development of chinese husbandry. its causative agent-type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been evolved three topotypes: cathay, middle east-south asia and southeast asia, specifically, the viruses of cathay topotype are highly adapted to pig, representing the biggest threat on chinese pig industry. the available fmd vaccine in china provides insufficient protection against some arising viruses ...201222489468
lithium chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. fmd vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. however, the use of fmd vaccines to protect early infection is limited. therefore, the alternative strategy of applying antiviral agents is required to control the spread of fmdv in outbreak situations. as previously reported, licl ha ...201728390158
modification of picornavirus genomic rna using 'click' chemistry shows that unlinking of the vpg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral rna.picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. a unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (vpg) as primer for viral rna synthesis. as a consequence, all newly formed viral rna molecules possess a covalently linked vpg peptide. it is known that vpg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral rna by a host p ...201424243841
crystal structure of 2a proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.ev71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. the 2a proteinase (2a(pro)) of ev71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. we determined the crystal structure of ev71 2a(pro) at 1.85å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. the active site is composed of the catalytic triads c110a, h ...201323973886
investigation of the role of protein kinase d in human rhinovirus replication.picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodelling of golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (osbp) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase iii beta (pi4kb). since both osbp and pi4kb are substrates for protein kinase d (pkd) and pkd is known to be involved in the control of golgi vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesised that pkd played a role in ...201728228588
picornavirus rna is protected from cleavage by ribonuclease during virion uncoating and transfer across cellular and model membranes.picornaviruses are non-enveloped rna viruses that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. because they lack an envelope, picornaviruses face the challenge of delivering their rna genomes across the membrane of the endocytic vesicle into the cytoplasm to initiate infection. currently, the mechanism of genome release and translocation across membranes remains poorly understood. within the enterovirus genus, poliovirus, rhinovirus 2, and rhinovirus 16 have been proposed to release their geno ...201728166307
synonymous deoptimization of foot-and-mouth disease virus causes attenuation in vivo while inducing a strong neutralizing antibody response.codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. we have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the p1 region rendered a viable fmdv progeny. the resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those ...201526581977
all-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution.small viruses that belong, for example, to the picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded rna (ssrna) genome. the capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10(6) all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. first, we found e ...201425362342
l protease from foot and mouth disease virus confers eif2-independent translation for mrnas bearing picornavirus ires.the leader protease (l(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has the ability to cleave eif4g, leading to a blockade of cellular protein synthesis. in contrast to previous reports, our present findings demonstrate that fmdv l(pro) is able to increase translation driven by fmdv ires. additionally, inactivation of eif2 subsequent to phosphorylation induced by arsenite or thapsigargin in bhk cells blocks protein synthesis directed by fmdv ires, whereas in the presence of l(pro), significant ...201425268112
capsid protein vp4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. the mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. during picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein vp4 is released from the virus, interacts wi ...201425102288
ribavirin-resistant variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence.mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate rna virus high-fidelity rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. however, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) high-fidelity rdrp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between rdrp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of fmdv, and 4 amino acid substitutions (d5n, a38v, m194i, and m296v) ...201424453363
strategies for purifying variants of human rhinovirus 14 2c protein.the positive strand rna genome of picornaviruses, including human rhinovirus (hrv), poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus, is translated immediately into a polyprotein that is cleaved by virally encoded proteinases into 10-13 mature proteins. these include the four proteins required to assemble the viral particle as well as 3d(pol) (the viral rna polymerase) and 2c, an atpase and putative helicase. 2c is a protein which is responsible, together with 2b and 3a, for anchoring the replic ...201424316192
exploring the dynamics of four rna-dependent rna polymerases by a coarse-grained model.in this article, we present a hybrid enm/martini coarse-grained model and examine the impact of reduced chemical detail on both static and dynamic properties by comparing against explicit atomistic simulations. this methodology complements the advanced molecular characterization and dynamics of proteins for medical and bioengineering applications by developing a fundamental understanding of how the motion and molecular characteristics of proteins, viruses, their precursors, and their interaction ...201223157550
mutations that hamper dimerization of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein are detrimental for infectivity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range. in other picornaviruses, homodimerization of 3a has been shown to be relevant for its biological activity. in this work, fmdv 3a homodimerization was evidenced by an in situ protein fluorescent ligation assay. a molecular model of the fmdv 3a protein, derived from the nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) structure of the poliovirus 3a protein, predicted a hydrophobic in ...201222787230
vp1 b-c and d-e loops of bovine enterovirus cluster b can effectively display foot-and-mouth disease virus type o-conserved neutralizing epitope.on the basis of generation of an infectious cdna clone for the bhm26 strain of bovine enterovirus cluster b (bev-b), 22 sites on different loops of the bhm26 capsid were selected according to an alignment of its sequence with the structural motifs of bev-a strain vg-5-27 for insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o-conserved neutralizing epitope 8e8. two recombinant viruses, rbev-a1 and rbev-de, in which the fmdv epitope was inserted into the vp1 b-c or d-e loops, were rescued ...201324077365
construction of a bovine enterovirus-based vector expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope.a recombinant infectious bovine enterovirus (bev) vector was constructed to express a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein (vp1) epitope. sequences encoding the vp1 epitope (amino acid residues 141-160) of fmdv (vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69) were inserted into pblubev at the vp1/2a junction. the growth characteristics of the parental virus and viruses derived from recombinant plasmids (pblubev, pblubev-manisa-epi) were determined by plaque assay and one-step growth curve anal ...201323391822
equine rhinitis a virus mutants with altered acid resistance unveil a key role of vp3 and intrasubunit interactions in the control of the ph stability of the aphthovirus capsid.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype aphthovirus. erav has recently gained interest as an fmdv alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. as described for fmdv, current data support that acidic ph inside cellular endosomes triggers erav uncoating. in order to provide further insights into ...201627535044
cleavage efficient 2a peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in cho cells.linking the heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mab) production on a single cassette using 2a peptides allows control of lc and hc ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. four 2a peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (f2a), equine rhinitis a virus (e2a), porcine teschovirus-1 (p2a) and thosea asigna virus (t2a), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar igg1 mabs in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell lines. hc and lc wer ...201525621616
a universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated rna viruses using the illumina miseq.next-generation sequencing (ngs) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (wgs) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during pcr amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. we describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genom ...201425269623
equine picornaviruses: well known but poorly understood.of the many members that comprise the family picornaviridae, only two species are known to infect horses: equine rhinitis a virus (erav) and equine rhinitis b virus (erbv). each species now occupies a distinct phylogenetic branch within the family, with the single serotype of erav grouping with the aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and the three serotypes of erbv as the sole members of the genus erbovirus. the high seroprevalence of equine picornaviruses in horse popula ...201323820049
persistence and chronic urinary shedding of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis a virus.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a member of the aphthovirus genus, and has many physical and structural similarities to the prototype aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the pathogenesis of fmdv has been extensively studied, however, the similarities in the pathogenesis of erav and fmdv disease has not been well documented. this study describes and compares the pathogenesis of erav both in the natural host and a small animal model alternative (cba mice). distinct parallels in the ...201323183058
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles as integrin-based drug delivery system achieve targeting anti-tumor efficacy.the surface of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-like particles (vlps) contains a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif. natural fmdv specifically attaches to overexpressed integrin receptors in several cancer cells. the fmdv vlps produced in escherichia coli were used for the first time as a delivery system of anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (dox). the dox-loaded vlps exhibited a distinct release profile in different physiological conditions. the effects of fmdv-vlps-dox on cellula ...201627993721
large-scale production of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype asia1) vlp vaccine in escherichia coli and protection potency evaluation in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling fmd. compared to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines, the format of fmdv virus-like particles (vlps) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative.201627371162
alkaline hydrolysis to remove potentially infectious viral rna contaminants from dna.diagnostics and research of high-consequence animal disease agents is often limited to laboratories with a high level of biosecurity that restrict the transport of biological material. often, sharing of dna with external partners is needed to support diagnostics, forensics, or research. even in the absence of virus, rna from positive-sense single stranded rna (+ssrna) viruses that may contaminate otherwise purified dna preparations continues to pose a threat due to its potential to be infectious ...201627260412
diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3a to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus (fmdv) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of fmd-infected animals in the vaccinated population. nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to nsps, the likelihood of screening or confirming the fmd infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple nsps is considered for diagnosis. in order to develop and evaluate an additional nsp-based ...201626995490
development of high-affinity single chain fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by the fmd virus (fmdv) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. for rapid fmd diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against fmdv is needed. here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against fmdv by facs-based high throughput screening of a random library. with the fitc-conjugated vp1 epitope of fmdv and high-speed facs sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scfv) library in which antibody variants are display ...201626827774
single immunization with a recombinant multiple-epitope protein induced protection against fmdv type asia 1 in cattle.to develop recombinant epitope vaccines against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1, genes encoding six recombinant proteins (a1-a6) consisting of different combinations of b-cell and t-cell epitopes from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv were constructed. these proteins were expressed in escherichia coli and used to immunize animals. our results showed that a6 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after single inoculation in guinea pigs than did the other five rec ...201526365702
characterization of single-domain antibodies against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o from a camelid and imaging of fmdv in baby hamster kidney-21 cells with single-domain antibody-quantum dots probes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and causes significant economic losses to husbandry worldwide. the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs or single domain antibodies, sdabs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies.201526001568
viroporin activity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural 2b protein.viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. among the picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2b protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2b protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201525946195
application of a recombinant capsid polyprotein (p1) expressed in a prokaryotic system to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. in india, the disease is endemic in nature and is controlled primarily by prophylactic bi-annual mass vaccination. in this control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is being used widely for post vaccination seromonitoring. in order to develop an alternative assay to lpbe, the recombinant capsid polyprotein (rp1) of fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o was expressed in escherichia coli and used as ...201525701759
size-exclusion hplc provides a simple, rapid, and versatile alternative method for quality control of vaccines by characterizing the assembly of antigens.the assembly of antigen structure is often crucial to the potency of vaccines. currently adopted methods like animal testing and ultracentrifugation take long time and are difficult to automate for multiple samples. here we develop a size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) method to characterize the assembly of antigen structure during both manufacturing process and storage. three important vaccine antigens including inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which ...201525604799
indirect elisa using recombinant nonstructural protein 3d to detect foot and mouth disease virus infection associated antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious disease of transboundary importance. routine biannual vaccination along with surveillance activities is seen as the principal to control fmd in india. non-structural protein (nsp) based immunoassays are the test of choice for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated population. in this study, 3d protein of fmd virus was expressed in escherichia coli and an indirect elisa (i-elisa) was developed to detect 3d-antibodies in the infected ...201525458472
production and characterization of single-chain antibody (scfv) against 3abc non-structural protein in escherichia coli for sero-diagnosis of foot and mouth disease virus.differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected from vaccinated animals is essential for effective implementation of vaccination based control programme. detection of antibodies against 3abc non-structural protein of fmd virus by immunodiagnostic assays provides reliable indication of fmd infection. sero-monitoring of fmd in the large country like india is a big task where thousands of serum samples are annually screened. currently, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies are widely used in these ...201425439091
in vitro evolution and affinity-maturation with coliphage qβ display.the escherichia coli bacteriophage, qβ (coliphage qβ), offers a favorable alternative to m13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in qβ rna replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. we describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using qβ display of the vp1 g-h loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). dna encoding the g-h loop was fused to the a1 minor coat protein of qβ resulting in ...201425393763
[enhancement of mouse immune response by recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1-2a of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine ifn-α].to construct the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) viral structural protein1-2a (vp1-2a) and porcine interferon-α (poifn-α), and study its impact on mouse adaptive immune responses.201425374073
development of a blocking elisa based on a monoclonal antibody against a predominant epitope in non-structural protein 3b2 of foot-and-mouth disease virus for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.a monoclonal antibody (mcab) against non-structural protein (nsp) 3b of foot-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) (3b4b1) was generated and shown to recognize a conserved epitope spanning amino acids 24-32 of 3b (gpyagpmer) by peptide screening elisa. this epitope was further shown to be a unique and predominant b cell epitope in 3b2, as sera from animals infected with different serotypes of fmdv blocked the ability of mcab 3b4b1 to bind to nsp 2c3ab. also, a polyclonal antibody against nsp 2c was produce ...201425369323
rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (facs).antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (facs). first, we constructed a library of sy ...201425303314
development of anti-bovine iga single chain variable fragment and its application in diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.recombinant antibody fragments like single chain variable fragments (scfvs) represent an attractive yet powerful alternative to immunoglobulins and hold great potential in the development of clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. structurally, scfvs are the smallest antibody fragments capable of retaining the antigen-binding capacity of whole antibodies and are composed of an immunoglobulin (ig) variable light (vl) and variable heavy (vh) chain joined by a flexible polypeptide linker. in the ...201424678404
influence of hydrophilic amino acids and gc-content on expression of recombinant proteins used in vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.epitope-based protein expression in escherichia coli can be improved by adjusting its amino acid composition and encoding genes. to that end, we analyzed 24 recombinant epitope proteins (reps) that carry multiple epitopes derived from vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus. high level expression of the reps was attributed to a high content of arg, asn, asp and thr, a low content of gln, pro and lys, a high content of hydrophilic amino acids and a higher isoelectric point value resulting fro ...201424375229
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a sumo fusion protein system in escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. the format of fmd virus-like particles (vlp) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines. in this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the fmd vlp and validated the potential of vlp as an fmdv vaccine candidate. vlp composed entirely of fmdv (asia1/jiangsu/china/2005) capsid proteins (vp0, vp1 and ...201323826638
sequence analysis of the foot and mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 vp1 gene from iranian isolate.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a vesicular and contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, the virus was isolated from vesicles of the infected cattle using cell culture and serotyped by elisa test. the extracted rna from the infected cells was reverse transcribed and amplified using vp1 gene-specific primer pairs by means of one-step rt-pcr. the purified vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the uniqe kpni and bamhi cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ vector. the dh5α strain o ...201323746175
characterization of asia 1 sdab from camels bactrianus (c. bactrianus) and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging fmdv in bhk-21 cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdab or vhh) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. we screened and characterized five sdabs against fmdv by immunized library from c. bactrianus with asia 1 virus-like particles (vlps). three of five recombinant sdabs were stably expressed in e.c ...201323737944
high-yield production of the vp1 structural protein epitope from serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the development of rapid diagnostic systems and vaccines are required against its etiological agent, fmd virus (fmdv). to accomplish this, efficient large-scale expression of the fmdv vp1 protein, with high solubility, needs to be optimized. we attempted to produce high levels of a serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope in escherichia coli. we identified the subtype-independent serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope sequence and used it to construct a glutathione ...201323619971
an adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. the oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of fmdv, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help prevent initial infection and viral spread. e. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) has been described as one of the few molecules that have adjuvant activity at mucosal surfaces. the objective of this study ...201323499593
proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating micrornas in bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent fmdv infection.changes in the levels of circulating micrornas (mirnas) in the serum of humans and animals have been detected as a result of infection with a variety of viruses. however, to date, such a mirna profiling study has not been conducted for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection.201728388926
safe and cost-effective protocol for shipment of samples from foot-and-mouth disease suspected cases for laboratory diagnostic.an essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. however, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. in this study, we report the ...201728387065
chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control fmd is both urgent and necessary. in this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (vlp) vaccine candidate for serotype o fmdv and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. chimeric vlps w ...201728365796
insights into jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6): a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cells.the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. it was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular ...201728364140
adjuvanticity of a ctla-4 3' utr complementary oligonucleotide for emulsion formulated recombinant subunit and inactivated vaccines.cytotoxic t-lymphocyte antigen 4 (ctla-4) is recognized as a critical inhibitory regulator of t-cell proliferation and activation, opposing the action of cd28-mediated co-stimulation. interfering or blocking ctla-4 can result in continuous t-cell activation required for the full immune response to pathogenic microbes and vaccines. to test if nucleic acid-based ctla-4 inhibitors could be developed into a novel adjuvant, we designed two oligonucleotides, cmd-1 and cmd-2, with the sequences complem ...201728359618
processing and targeting of proteins derived from polyprotein with 2a and lp4/2a as peptide linkers in a maize expression system.in the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the co-translational "cleavage" of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. lp4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and secon ...201728358924
outbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in south-west niger.in niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. this study aimed (i) to identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of niger. testing of cli ...201728345819
outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in riyadh.to detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. the signs vary from mild to severe. the mortality rate of the disease is high. the morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. sheep flock resident in el-kharje governorate.201728344409
antigenic and immunogenic spectrum of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain o1 campos against representative viruses of topotypes that circulated in asia over the past decade.identifying vaccine strains to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus that could spread to new regions is essential for contingency plans. this is the first report on the antigenic/immunogenic relationships of the south american o1/campos vaccine strain with representative isolates of the three currently active asian type o topotypes. virus neutralization tests using o1/campos post-vaccination sera derived from cattle and pigs predicted for both species acceptable cross-protection, ev ...201728343779
stabilization study of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine by size-exclusion hplc and differential scanning calorimetry.the inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a sedimentation coefficient of 146s, is crucial to the efficacy of vaccine preparations, but extremely unstable in vitro. it is prone to dissociate into smaller particles referred to as 12s with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity; therefore, it is of great importance to find the best condition for stabilizing the fmdv. in the present work, the effects of solution ph and temperature on the dissociation of 146s was investigated a ...201728342666
quantitative assessment of the risk of release of foot-and-mouth disease virus via export of bull semen from israel.various foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strains circulate in the middle east, causing frequent episodes of fmd outbreaks among israeli livestock. since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. as a non-fmd-free country with vaccination, israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. the purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of fmd viru ...201728334452
favipiravir can evoke lethal mutagenesis and extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. an understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (t-705) and its derivatives t-1105 and t-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture and in vivo. however, no mechanism for their activity ...201728322918
combined administration of synthetic rna and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. we have previously reported the use of rna transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the fmdv rna as potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an fmd vaccine in mice. here, we describe the enhancing effect of rna delivery on the immunoge ...201728315707
sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structurally modified for increased thermostability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is notoriously unstable, particularly the o and sat serotypes. consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile sat viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. in-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. we assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant virus ...201728298597
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o isolated from gimje, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gimje, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280025
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o, isolated from gochang, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gochang, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280023
purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.the goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cell culture. heparin resins hiptrap heparin hp and af-heparin hc-650 were utilized to purify fmdv o/hn/cha/93. results showed that the purity of af-heparin hc-650 was ideal. then, the o/hn/cha/93, o/tibet/cha/99, asia i/hn/06, and a/cha/hb/2009 strains were purified by af-heparin hc-650. their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 5 ...201728260627
identification of a conserved conformational epitope in the vp2 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. vp2 is a structural protein of fmdv. in this study, a potent fmdv serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (mab) 3d9 was generated. screening of a phage-displayed random 12-peptide library revealed that mab 3d9 bound to phages displaying a consensus motif gvyxxayxw that is highly homologous to the (89)gvyxxxxxxxayxx ...201728258408
quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in india.the goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern india. despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of fmd occurred in october 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (farm a) and adult dairy cattle (farm b). subsequent to the ...201728251837
a novel bicistronic expression system composed of the intraflagellar transport protein gene ift25 and fmdv 2a sequence directs robust nuclear gene expression in chlamydomonas reinhardtii.chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers a great promise for large-scale production of multiple recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. however, the nuclear-encoding transgenes usually are expressed at a low level, which severely hampers the use of this alga in molecular farming. in this study, the promoter of the endogenous intraflagellar transport 25 (ift25) gene of c. reinhardtii was tested for its ability to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (gfp), which funct ...201728238082
the b cell response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following sequential vaccination with multiple serotypes.foot-and mouth disease virus is a highly contagious viral disease. antibodies are pivotal in providing protection against fmdv infection. serological protection against one fmdv serotype doesn't confer inter-serotypic protection. however, some historical data have shown inter-serotypic protection can be induced following sequential fmdv challenge with multiple fmdv serotypes. in this study we have investigated the kinetics of the fmdv-specific antibody secreting cell response following homologou ...201728228594
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat1 in cattle, nigeria.the knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dynamics and epidemiology in nigeria and the west africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype south african territories (sat)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an fmd outbreak in cattle in nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of fmdv sat1 in west africa. the vp1 coding sequence of the nigerian 2015 sat1 isolates dive ...201728224715
interaction between fmdv l(pro) and transcription factor adnp is required for optimal viral replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protease (l(pro)) inhibits host translation and transcription affecting the expression of several factors involved in innate immunity. in this study, we have identified the host transcription factor adnp (activity dependent neuroprotective protein) as an l(pro) interacting protein by mass spectrometry. we show that l(pro) can bind to adnp in vitro and in cell culture. rnai of adnp negatively affected virus replication and higher levels of interferon ...201728219017
potential of electrolyzed water for disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.acidic electrolyzed water (ew) (ph 2.6-5.8) and alkaline ew (ph 11.2-12.1) were examined as potential disinfectants against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using acidic ew with ph 2.6 and alkaline ew with ph >11.7, the viral titer decreased in vitro by > 4.0 log values, 2 min after the virus was mixed with ew at a 1:10 dilution. the strong virucidal effect of acidic ew (ph 2.6), but not that of alkaline ew (>11.7), seemed to depend on the chlorine level in the solution. genetic analysis rev ...201728216545
sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in ethiopia.foot and mouth disease (fmd), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. this vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae. currently fmd is major global animal health problem and endemic in africa including ethiopia. this paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports ...201728209551
a versatile 2a peptide-based bicistronic protein expressing platform for the industrial cellulase producing fungus, trichoderma reesei.the industrial workhorse fungus, trichoderma reesei, is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, whereas use of this fungus for over-expression of other proteins (homologous and heterologous) is still very limited. identifying transformants expressing target protein is a tedious task due to low transformation efficiency, combined with highly variable expression levels between transformants. routine methods for identification include pcr-based analysis, western blotting, ...201728184247
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna. 201728180318
exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in libya.sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have occurred in libya for almost fifty years. during the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of fmd virus circulation and identify fmd virus serotypes in the country. a total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (lr; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (sr; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). fmd sero-prevalence of nsp antibodies determined by elisa were 19.0% (2 ...201728180094
development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an economically important, office international des epizooties (oie) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. ppr virus (pprv), a negative-sense single-stranded rna virus, is the causal agent of ppr. therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of pprv are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of ppr.201728173845
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