TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
role of arginine-56 within the structural protein vp3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 campos in virus virulence.fmdv o1 subtype undergoes antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. of particular interest is the amino acid variation observed at position 56 within the structural protein vp3. selective pressures influence whether histidine (h) or arginine (r) is present at this position, ultimately influencing in vitro plaque morphology and in vivo pathogenesis in cattle. using reverse genetics techniques, we have constructed fmdv type o1 campos variants differing only at vp3 position 56, possessin ...201222036313
field application of a recombinant protein-based elisa during the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease type a in south korea.a recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rp elisa) exists for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a. in this study, the efficacy of the rp elisa was compared to that of other current tests by examining sera collected in the field during an fmd type a outbreak in south korea in 2010. the rp elisa detected early antibodies to fmdv with the same sensitivity as the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpb elisa), identifying fmd farm outbreaks correc ...201222001272
[construction and identification of a recombinant prrsv expressing protective antigens of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus].using mutation pcr, we cloned the target gene containing 421-480nt (141-160aa) and 598-639nt (200-213aa) of vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) into the deleted region (508-532aa) of nsp2 gene of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus derived vaccine strain (hun4-f112) that was used as vector. the recombinant cdna was in vitro transcribed followed by transfection of bhk-21 cells for 36 h. then, the supernatant of the cell culture was continuously seed ...201223593867
probability of introducing foot and mouth disease into the united states via live animal importation.foot and mouth disease (fmd) continues to be a disease of major concern for the united states department of agriculture (usda) and livestock industries. foot and mouth disease virus is a high-consequence pathogen for the united states (usa). live animal trade is a major risk factor for introduction of fmd into a country. this research estimates the probability of fmd being introduced into the usa via the legal importation of livestock. this probability is calculated by considering the potential ...201223520732
a quantitative assessment of the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease virus into the united states via cloned bovine embryos.the trade of livestock or their products between nations requires information on the risk of introducing infectious agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). although transmission pathways for fmdv vary, a recent concern in the united states (usa) is that it might enter via cloned embryos. a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to determine the scenarios (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of fmdv via the importation of clon ...201223520731
infectious diseases of economic importance: molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania from 1967 to 2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in tanzania. since the first reports in 1954, fmd has caused significant economic losses in the country due to mortality and morbidity of livestock and costs associated with controlling the disease. the aim of this study was to review the serotype and genetic relationships of the fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania, and compare them with viruses detected from elsewhere in the sub-saharan region. at the world reference laboratory for foot- ...201223327397
foot-and-mouth disease control in zambia: a review of the current situation.zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (cbpp). foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in zambia in 1933 in the western province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for fmd including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on fmd control. w ...201223327395
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in tanzania from 2003 to 2010: conjectured status and future prospects.this study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in different geographic locations of tanzania. epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of fmd and submitted for routine fmd diagnosis. the analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture elisa to determine the presence of fmdv. the results of this study ...201223327382
new technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: challenges for sub-saharan africa.using foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. in recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. in addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. work in this area has developed simple-to ...201223327376
dna prime-protein boost strategy with replicase-based dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in bovine calves.the limited efficacy of dna vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and other natural hosts has prompted a search for a more effective vaccination regimen. in this study we tested a dna prime-protein boost vaccination strategy against fmd in bovine calves. we used purified recombinant fmdv specific multi-epitope protein (rmeg990) and an optimized sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine expressing this protein (psincmv-vac-meg990). we demonstrate that vaccination with a low dose ...201223305616
candidate rna structures for domain 3 of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus internal ribosome entry site.the foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) utilizes non-canonical translation initiation for viral protein synthesis, by forming a specific rna structure called internal ribosome entry site (ires). domain 3 in fmdv ires is phylogenetically conserved and highly structured; it contains four-way junctions where intramolecular rna-rna interactions serve as a scaffold for the rna to fold for efficient ires activity. although the 3d structure of domain 3 is crucial to exploring and deciphering the initia ...201223275533
translation directed by hepatitis a virus ires in the absence of active eif4f complex and eif2.translation directed by several picornavirus ires elements can usually take place after cleavage of eif4g by picornavirus proteases 2a(pro) or l(pro). the hepatitis a virus (hav) ires is thought to be an exception to this rule because it requires intact eif4f complex for translation. in line with previous results we report that poliovirus (pv) 2a(pro) strongly blocks protein synthesis directed by hav ires. however, in contrast to previous findings we now demonstrate that eif4g cleavage by foot-a ...201223272212
design of different strategies of multivalent dna-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs.during the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (cpv) or distemper virus (cdv) after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies ...201223270301
a proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control in brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the brazilian ministry of agriculture, livestock, and food supply (mapa). the fmd vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), at 28 days post-vaccination. biological product testing using large ...201223267841
recombinant adenovirus expressing type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins induces protective immunity against homologous virus challenge in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease worldwide affecting cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the fmdv capsid polyprotein and 3c proteinase are required for capsid precursor processing and assembly. the fmdv capsid protein, which contains the entire repertoire of immunogenic sites, can stimulate both humoral immunity and t-cell-mediated immune responses. in this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, radv-asi-05, that expres ...201223267820
immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural polyprotein p1 expressed in transgenic rice.transgenic plants have become developed as bioreactors for producing heterologous proteins and may even form edible vaccines. in the present study, a transgenic rice expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), under the control of a dual cauliflower mosaic virus (camv 35s) promoter, was generated by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. southern blot, northern blot, western blot, and elisa analyses confirmed that the p1 gene was integrated into ...201222274594
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class iii phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces the formation of autophagosomes. induction was dependent on atg5, involved processing of lc3 to lc3ii, and led to a redistribution of lc3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of a ...201222993157
reconstruction of the transmission history of rna virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in bulgaria in 2011.improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of rna viruses in real time. in practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. in the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), these analyses provide important insights into the epi ...201223226216
gemin5 proteolysis reveals a novel motif to identify l protease targets.translation of picornavirus rna is governed by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element, directing the synthesis of a single polyprotein. processing of the polyprotein is performed by viral proteases that also recognize as substrates host factors. among these substrates are translation initiation factors and rna-binding proteins whose cleavage is responsible for inactivation of cellular gene expression. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes two proteases, l(pro) and 3c(pro). widespr ...201222362733
ns2b/3 proteolysis at the c-prm junction of the tick-borne encephalitis virus polyprotein is highly membrane dependent.the replication of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), like that of all flaviviruses, is absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. production of the mature proteins c and prm from their common precursor requires the activity of the viral ns2b/3 protease (ns2b/3(pro)) at the c-terminus of protein c and the host signal peptidase i (spasei) at the n-terminus of protein prm. recently, we have shown in cell culture that the cleavage of protein c and the subsequent production of tbev particles ...201222727684
exploring ires region accessibility by interference of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity.translation initiation of picornavirus rna is driven by an internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located upstream of the initiator codon. rna structure organization as well as rna-protein interaction plays a fundamental role in internal initiation. ires activity has been mainly analyzed in the context of reporter genes, lacking regions of the viral genome potentially affecting translation efficiency. with the aim to understand the vulnerability of the ires and translation start region to s ...201222815996
protection against west nile virus infection in mice after inoculation with type i interferon-inducing rna transcripts.west nile virus (wnv) is a neurovirulent single stranded rna mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. recently, it has been shown that rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) induce a potent ifn response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and ...201223166685
xenoepitope substitution avoids deceptive imprinting and broadens the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.many rna viruses encode error-prone polymerases which introduce mutations into b and t cell epitopes, providing a mechanism for immunological escape. when regions of hypervariability are found within immunodominant epitopes with no known function, they are referred to as "decoy epitopes," which often deceptively imprint the host's immune response. in this work, a decoy epitope was identified in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o vp1 g-h loop after multiple sequence alignment of 1 ...201222323558
acquiring transgenic tobacco plants with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation.the advantages of gene 'stacking' or 'pyramiding' are obvious in genetically modified (gm) crops, and several different multi-transgene-stacking methods are available. using linker peptides for multiple gene transformation is considered to be a good method to meet a variety of needs. in our experiment, the bt cry1ah gene, which encodes the insect-resistance protein, and the mg ( 2 ) -epsps gene, which encodes the glyphosate-tolerance protein, were connected by a 2a or lp4/2a linker. linker 2a is ...201222777591
expression of vp1 protein of serotype a and o of foot-and-mouth disease virus in transgenic sunnhemp plants and its immunogenicity for guinea pigs.recently, transgenic plants expressing immunogenic proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used as oral or parenteral vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). they exhibit advantages like cost effectiveness, absence of processing, thermostability, and easy oral application. fmdv vp1 protein of single serotype has been mostly used as immunogen. here we report the development of a bivalent vaccine with tandem-linked vp1 proteins of two serotypes, a and o, present in transge ...201222720698
structure, assembly, and dna packaging of the bacteriophage t4 head.the bacteriophage t4 head is an elongated icosahedron packed with 172 kb of linear double-stranded dna and numerous proteins. the capsid is built from three essential proteins: gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice; gp24*, which forms pentamers at 11 of the 12 vertices; and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which dna enters during packaging and exits during infection. intensive work over more than half a century has led to a deep understanding of the phage ...201222420853
gegenees: fragmented alignment of multiple genomes for determining phylogenomic distances and genetic signatures unique for specified target groups.the rapid development of next generation sequencing technologies leads to the accumulation of huge amounts of sequencing data. the scientific community faces an enormous challenge in how to deal with this explosion. here we present a software tool, 'gegenees', that uses a fragmented alignment approach to facilitate the comparative analysis of hundreds of microbial genomes. the genomes are fragmented and compared, all against all, by a multithreaded blast control engine. ready-made alignments can ...201222723939
a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid precursor polypeptide p1 and the enhancing effect of bovine herpesvirus 1 vp22 protein as molecular adjuvant.dna vaccines containing the capsid precursor polypeptide p1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) alone or combined with the vp22 gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bvp22) as molecular adjuvant were constructed and used for immunization of balb/c mice. the latter were challenged with fmdv and their humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses and virus clearance capacity were assayed. both dna vaccines elicited specific immune responses, however, the dna vaccine with the bvp22 adjuvant sho ...201222720700
acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial 2008, a northwest texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots a and b). severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but ...201222379057
quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. one approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. this linkage study used a charolais-holstein f2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) specific total-igg, igg1 and igg2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-brsv va ...201222438944
homology modeling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis b virus rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp).bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) is a picornavirus responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle. it is probably the least characterized among the aphthoviruses. brbv is the closest relative known to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) with a ~43% identical polyprotein sequence and as much as 67% identical sequence for the rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp), which is also known as 3d polymerase (3d(pol)). in the present study we carried out phylogenetic analysis, structure based sequence a ...201222942748
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. further, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable for dia ...201223244327
coordinate lentiviral expression of cre recombinase and rfp/egfp mediated by fmdv 2a and analysis of cre activity.the site-specific recombination mediated by cre recombinase has been utilized extensively in genetic engineering and gene function studies. efficient delivery of a cre enzyme with enzymatic activity and the ability to monitor the enzyme expression are required in applications, and lentiviral constructs with a fluorescent protein (fp) to report the cre expression are suitable for most studies. however, the current lentiviral vector systems have some deficiencies in precise reporting the cre expre ...201222532014
[construction and functional characterization of a monocistronic replicon based on the hcv genotype 2a promotor].to construct a hepatitis c virus (hcv) genotype 2a monocistronic replicon and investigate its replication capabilities in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, huh7.5 and huh7.1, in order to determine its potential as a molecular tool for future in vitro studies of hcv replication and selection studies for putative anti-hcv drugs. site-directed mutagenesis was used to delete the core-e1-e2-p7-ns2 fragment (about 3090 bp) from plasmid pj6jfh1blarl. the resultant trianglepj6jfh1blarl plasmid was d ...201222464780
interaction of paramecium caudatum and our paper we have researched the relationship between picornaviruses (poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus) and ciliata (paramecium caudatum). we show that the number of paramecium in medium sharply increased during coincubation with picornaviruses within 2-5 days. this cannot be explained only by the fact that viruses were nutrient source for paramecium because in case of inactivated viruses the number of infusorians in medium increased a little. at the sam ...201224293830
mutagenesis-mediated virus extinction: virus-dependent effect of viral load on sensitivity to lethal defection.lethal mutagenesis is a transition towards virus extinction mediated by enhanced mutation rates during viral genome replication, and it is currently under investigation as a potential new antiviral strategy. viral load and virus fitness are known to influence virus extinction. here we examine the effect or the multiplicity of infection (moi) on progeny production of several rna viruses under enhanced mutagenesis.201222442668
promotion of viral internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation under amino acid starvation.cap-dependent and internal ribosomal entry site (ires)-mediated translation are regulated differently within cells. viral ires-mediated translation often remains active when cellular cap-dependent translation is severely impaired under cellular stresses induced by virus infection. to investigate how cellular stresses influence the efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation, we used a bicistronic luciferase reporter construct harbouring ires elements from the following viruses: encephalomyocar ...201222302880
characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone and a gfp reporter derivative of the oncolytic picornavirus svv-001.seneca valley virus (svv-001) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for a subset of human cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation. to characterize further the specificity of svv-001 and its patterns and kinetics of intratumoral spread, bacterial plasmids encoding a cdna clone of the full-length wild-type virus and a derivative virus expressing gfp were generated. the full-length cdna of the svv-001 rna genome was cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the control of the t7 core ...201222971818
[construction of a full-length infectious cdna clone of inter-genotypic chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus].a series of type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks occurred in china seriously affect development of chinese husbandry. its causative agent-type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been evolved three topotypes: cathay, middle east-south asia and southeast asia, specifically, the viruses of cathay topotype are highly adapted to pig, representing the biggest threat on chinese pig industry. the available fmd vaccine in china provides insufficient protection against some arising viruses ...201222489468
exploring the dynamics of four rna-dependent rna polymerases by a coarse-grained this article, we present a hybrid enm/martini coarse-grained model and examine the impact of reduced chemical detail on both static and dynamic properties by comparing against explicit atomistic simulations. this methodology complements the advanced molecular characterization and dynamics of proteins for medical and bioengineering applications by developing a fundamental understanding of how the motion and molecular characteristics of proteins, viruses, their precursors, and their interaction ...201223157550
mutations that hamper dimerization of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein are detrimental for infectivity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range. in other picornaviruses, homodimerization of 3a has been shown to be relevant for its biological activity. in this work, fmdv 3a homodimerization was evidenced by an in situ protein fluorescent ligation assay. a molecular model of the fmdv 3a protein, derived from the nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) structure of the poliovirus 3a protein, predicted a hydrophobic in ...201222787230
vp1 b-c and d-e loops of bovine enterovirus cluster b can effectively display foot-and-mouth disease virus type o-conserved neutralizing epitope.on the basis of generation of an infectious cdna clone for the bhm26 strain of bovine enterovirus cluster b (bev-b), 22 sites on different loops of the bhm26 capsid were selected according to an alignment of its sequence with the structural motifs of bev-a strain vg-5-27 for insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o-conserved neutralizing epitope 8e8. two recombinant viruses, rbev-a1 and rbev-de, in which the fmdv epitope was inserted into the vp1 b-c or d-e loops, were rescued ...201324077365
construction of a bovine enterovirus-based vector expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope.a recombinant infectious bovine enterovirus (bev) vector was constructed to express a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein (vp1) epitope. sequences encoding the vp1 epitope (amino acid residues 141-160) of fmdv (vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69) were inserted into pblubev at the vp1/2a junction. the growth characteristics of the parental virus and viruses derived from recombinant plasmids (pblubev, pblubev-manisa-epi) were determined by plaque assay and one-step growth curve anal ...201323391822
crystal structure of 2a proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.ev71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. the 2a proteinase (2a(pro)) of ev71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. we determined the crystal structure of ev71 2a(pro) at 1.85å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. the active site is composed of the catalytic triads c110a, h ...201323973886
display of the vp1 epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus on bacteriophage t7 and its application in diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century. in recent years, the development of diagnostic assays for fmd has benefited considerably from the advances of recombinant dna technology. in this study, the immunodominant region of the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was fused to the t7 bacteriophage and expressed on the surface of the bacteriophage capsid protein. the recombinant protei ...201323933075
rescue of infective virus from a genome-length cdna clone of the fmdv serotype o (ind-r2/75) vaccine strain and its characterization.we report here the construction and characterization of an infectious cdna clone of the indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, ind-r2/75. viral genome was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in five fragments and subsequently assembled sequentially in a plasmid vector to generate a complete cdna clone, flanked by the t7 rna polymerase promoter and poly (a) tail at 5' and 3' ends, respectively. transfection of bhk-21 cells with t ...201323465777
co-expression of the bcl-xl antiapoptotic protein enhances the induction of th1-like immune responses in mice immunized with dna vaccines encoding fmdv b and t cell epitopes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most devastating animal diseases, affecting all cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animal species. previous studies from our group using dna vaccines encoding fmd virus (fmdv) b and t cell epitopes targeted to antigen presenting cells, allowed demonstrating total protection from fmdv homologous challenge in those animals efficiently primed for both humoral and cellular specific responses (borrego et al. antivir res 92:359-363, 2011). in this study, a new d ...201323483312
theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus contrasts with encephalomyocarditis and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in its functional utilization of the stopgo non-standard translation mechanism.the picornaviruses' genome consists of a positive-sense ssrna. like many picornaviruses, cardioviruses synthesize two distinct polyprotein precursors from adjacent but non-overlapping genome segments. both the [l-1abcd-2a] and the [2bc-3abcd] polyproteins are proteolytically processed to yield mature capsid and non-structural proteins, respectively. an unusual translational event, known as 'stopgo' or 'stop-carry on', is responsible for the release of the [l-1abcd-2a] polyprotein from the riboso ...201323100365
identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral ns4b protein and restricts genomic rna replication.dengue virus (denv) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. we therefore screened the nih clinical collection (ncc), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of denv replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating denv serotype 2 (denv2) subgenomic replicon. the most potent denv inhibitor in the ncc was δ opioid receptor antagonist sdm25n. this compoun ...201323735301
characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis b virus leader proteinase.bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this study examined if the brbv leader proteinase (l(pro) ) could functionally replace that of fmdv. a mutant a24lbrv3dyr fmdv engineered with the brbv l(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3d polymerase exhibited growth properties and eif4g cleavage similar to parental a24wt virus. the a24lbrv3dyr type i interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of a24ll virus ...201324210112
antigen targeting to apc: from mice to veterinary species.antigen delivery to receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells (apc) has shown to improve immunogenicity of vaccines in mice. an enhancement of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl), helper t cell or humoral responses was obtained depending on the type of apc and the surface molecule targeted. although this strategy is being also evaluated in livestock animals with promising results, some discrepancies have been found between species and pathogens. the genetic diversity of livestock animals, the dif ...201323648645
epizootic hemorrhagic disease in yaks (bos grunniens).an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease associated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (ehdv-2) infections in yaks from 5 herds occurred in colorado between august 21 and october 3, 2012. affected yaks presented with fever, lethargy, anorexia, dyspnea, and swollen conjunctivae. ulcerated dental pads, mucoid sanguineous nasal discharge, petechial hemorrhages in multiple organs, pulmonary edema, and serosanguinous fluid in the thorax, abdomen, and pericardial sac were observed at necro ...201323572453
future directions for the development of chlamydomonas-based vaccines.besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. antigens from various pathogens including plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (csfv) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in c. reinhardtii. although some of them have been functionally characterized with prom ...201324053395
a portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. early diagnosis of fmd helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. in this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa) assay for the detection of fmd virus (fmdv). the fmdv rt-rpa design targeted the 3d gene of fmdv and ...201323977101
rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza a virus and classical swine fever virus by high-speed real-time rt-pcr.high sensitivity, minor risk of cross-contamination and in particular the rapid reaction time make quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) assays well suited for outbreak investigations as well as for monitoring epidemics of pathogens. in this study qpcr assays for three highly contagious animal diseases, namely foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd), influenza a (ia) and classical swine fever (csf) have been developed. furthermore, an amplification control targeting 18s ribosomal rna was ...201323702025
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, and a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. furthermore, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable ...201323600506
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a sumo fusion protein system in escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. the format of fmd virus-like particles (vlp) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines. in this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the fmd vlp and validated the potential of vlp as an fmdv vaccine candidate. vlp composed entirely of fmdv (asia1/jiangsu/china/2005) capsid proteins (vp0, vp1 and ...201323826638
sequence analysis of the foot and mouth disease virus type o/irn/2007 vp1 gene from iranian isolate.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a vesicular and contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, the virus was isolated from vesicles of the infected cattle using cell culture and serotyped by elisa test. the extracted rna from the infected cells was reverse transcribed and amplified using vp1 gene-specific primer pairs by means of one-step rt-pcr. the purified vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the uniqe kpni and bamhi cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ vector. the dh5α strain o ...201323746175
characterization of asia 1 sdab from camels bactrianus (c. bactrianus) and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging fmdv in bhk-21 cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdab or vhh) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. we screened and characterized five sdabs against fmdv by immunized library from c. bactrianus with asia 1 virus-like particles (vlps). three of five recombinant sdabs were stably expressed in e.c ...201323737944
high-yield production of the vp1 structural protein epitope from serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli.for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the development of rapid diagnostic systems and vaccines are required against its etiological agent, fmd virus (fmdv). to accomplish this, efficient large-scale expression of the fmdv vp1 protein, with high solubility, needs to be optimized. we attempted to produce high levels of a serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope in escherichia coli. we identified the subtype-independent serotype o fmdv vp1 epitope sequence and used it to construct a glutathione ...201323619971
an adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. the oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of fmdv, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help prevent initial infection and viral spread. e. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) has been described as one of the few molecules that have adjuvant activity at mucosal surfaces. the objective of this study ...201323499593
developing country applications of molecular farming: case studies in south africa and argentina.molecular farming is a technology that is very well suited to being applied in developing countries, given the reasonably high level of expertise in recombinant plant development in many centers. in addition, there is an urgent need for products such as inexpensive vaccines and therapeutics for livestock and for some human diseases - and especially those that do not occur or are rare in developed regions. south africa and argentina have been at the fore in this area among developing nations, as ...201323394557
venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles can induce rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type i interferon gene (poifn-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 1 day later. however, the need of relatively high doses of ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) empty replicon particles (vrps) can induce rapid protection of mice agai ...201323468490
foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an aphthovirus within the picornaviridae family. during infection with fmdv, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. fmdv protein 2c is part of the replication complex and thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. to better understand the role of 2c in the process of virus replication, we have been using a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify host pro ...201323576498
immunogenicity of two fmdv nonameric peptides encapsulated in liposomes in mice and the protective efficacy in guinea has been predicted that nonameric peptides i (vp1(26-34), rrqhtdvsf), ii (vp1(157-165), rtlptsfny) and iii (vp1(45-53), keqvnvldl) from the vp1 capsid protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are t cell epitopes. to investigate whether these peptides have immunological activity, balb/c mice were immunized with peptide i, ii or iii conjugated with immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). a cytotoxic t lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity induced by peptides along ...201323874709
equine picornaviruses: well known but poorly understood.of the many members that comprise the family picornaviridae, only two species are known to infect horses: equine rhinitis a virus (erav) and equine rhinitis b virus (erbv). each species now occupies a distinct phylogenetic branch within the family, with the single serotype of erav grouping with the aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and the three serotypes of erbv as the sole members of the genus erbovirus. the high seroprevalence of equine picornaviruses in horse popula ...201323820049
persistence and chronic urinary shedding of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis a virus.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a member of the aphthovirus genus, and has many physical and structural similarities to the prototype aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the pathogenesis of fmdv has been extensively studied, however, the similarities in the pathogenesis of erav and fmdv disease has not been well documented. this study describes and compares the pathogenesis of erav both in the natural host and a small animal model alternative (cba mice). distinct parallels in the ...201323183058
investigation of foot and mouth disease hotspots in northern lao pdr.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an endemic transboundary disease in the mekong region, and fmd records of reports to animal health authorities in lao pdr between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed. fmd outbreaks occurred in 2 of 3 years in eight districts in three of the eight northern lao pdr provinces, locations suggested as fmd 'hotspots'. the relatively higher risk of recurrence of fmd in these districts was likely due to the presence of a dense large ruminant population, extensive animal trading i ...201322690839
the effect of uniform capture molecule orientation on biosensor sensitivity: dependence on analyte properties.uniform orientation of capture molecules on biosensors has been reported to increase sensitivity. here it is investigated which analyte properties contribute to sensitivity by orientation. orientation of capture molecules on biosensors was investigated using variable domains of llama heavy-chain antibodies (vhhs) as capture molecule, and a surface plasmon resonance (spr) chip as biosensor. two vhhs were tested in this study: one recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and another recogni ...201322878083
development and evaluation of a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a one-step, real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection and serotyping of indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is described. the rt-lamp assay was found to be 10(3)-10(5) fold more sensitive in comparison with rt-pcr, with a detection limit ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-5) tcid(50) of virus samples of all three serotypes. the rt-lamp assay and qrt-pcr could detect 100 percent of clinical samples of three serotypes, whereas the rt- ...201322960423
effectiveness of vaccines and vaccination programs for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, 2001-2010.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in uganda, fmd outbreaks are mainly controlled by ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements. vaccination stimulates immunity and prevents animals from developing clinical signs which include lameness, inappetence, and decreased production. ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements have, however, not successfully controlled fmd in uganda and outbreaks reoccur annually. the objective of this ...201322956440
adenovirus-vectored type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid proteins as a vehicle to display a conserved, neutralising epitope of type o fmdv.the objective of this study was to explore the immunogenicity of an adenovirus construction expressing a type o foot and mouth disease virus neutralising epitope (8e8) in the context of heterologous capsid proteins. adenoviruses expressing four chimeric type asia1 fmdv capsid proteins were constructed by inserting the type o fmdv 8e8 epitope into the g-h loop from the type asia1 vp1 at amino acid residues 139/140, 150/151, 134/140 or at both 139/140 and 150/151. these recombinant proteins were r ...201322981982
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. in ecuador, fmdv is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. to unravel the tempo and mode of fmdv spread within the country we conducted a bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time markov chain (ctmc) to model the diffusion of fmdv between ecuadorian provinces. we implement this framework through markov chain monte carlo available i ...201322985683
identification of peptides from foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class i swine leukocyte antigen (sla) alleles, sla-1*0401 and sla-2*0401.characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (sla) class i and ii molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. here, we describe the complete binding motif of the sla-2*0401 molecule based on a positional scanning combinatorial peptide library approach. by combining this binding motif with data achieved by applying the netmhcpan peptide prediction algorithm to both sla-1*0401 and sla-2*0401, we ide ...201322984928
the comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-pcr (qrt-pcr) assays in oral swab and probang samples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype o fmdv. during acute infection, fmdv rna was measurable in oral swabs as well as in probang samples from both species. fmdv rna could be detected in oral swabs and probang samples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas ...201323022683
global transcriptional analysis of model of persistent fmdv infection reveals critical role of host cells in persistence.with the aid of ammonium chloride, we established a model for persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of bhk-21 cells (huang et al., 2011). distinctive to a previously established model, the persistently infected cell line acquired new features including more rounded morphology, resistance to wild type fmdv infection, consistent replication efficiency in late passages, etc. to elucidate the mechanism of establishment of persistence, we performed systematically microarray analysi ...201323022682
accumulation of nucleotide substitutions occurring during experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus.analysis of full-genome sequences was previously used to trace the origin and transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks in the uk in 2001 and 2007. interpretation of these data was sometimes at variance with conventional epidemiological tracing, and was also used to predict the presence of undisclosed infected premises that were later discovered during serological surveillance. here we report the genome changes associated with sequential passage of a highly bhk-21-ce ...201323034594
cd4+ t-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.we have performed a series of studies to investigate the role of cd4(+) t-cells in the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) post-vaccination. virus neutralizing antibody titres (vnt) in cattle vaccinated with killed fmd commercial vaccine were significantly reduced and class switching delayed as a consequence of rigorous in vivo cd4(+) t-cell depletion. further studies were performed to examine whether the magnitude of t-cell proliferative responses correlated with the antibody ...201323034593
recombinant protein rvp1 upregulates becn1-independent autophagy, mapk1/3 phosphorylation and mmp9 activity via wipi1/wipi2 to promote macrophage migration.the monocyte/macrophage is critical for regulating immune and antitumor responses. recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus induces apoptosis and inhibits migration/metastasis of cancer cells. here, we explored the effects of rvp1 on macrophages. our results showed that rvp1 increased lc3-related autophagosome formation via wipi1 and wipi2 in a becn1-independent manner. rvp1 treatment increased macrophage migration that was attenuated by knockdown of atg5, atg7, wipi ...201323051912
characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat2 in outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during february-march 2012. to investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (utr) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. only fmdv-sat2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. complete vp1- and leader-p ...201323132412
foot-and-mouth disease virus strains and examination of exposure factors associated with seropositivity of cattle herds in nigeria during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in cattle herds in nigeria during 2007-2009. the objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify current fmd virus strains circulating in cattle herds and (ii) to identify exposure factors associated with a seropositive diagnosis of fmd in cattle herds. this study provides evidence that fmd virus serotypes o, a and sat-2 were co-circulating in cattle herds in nigeria during 2007-2009. cattle herds in a neighborhood affected with ...201323127691
genetic and antigenic characterization of indian foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolates collected during the period 2001 to 2012.the phylogenetic analysis of vp1 sequences of the 39 type o foot and mouth virus (fmdv) isolates collected from different regions of india during the year of 2001-12 revealed that all isolates belonged to the middle east - south asia (me-sa) topotype. based on the amount of divergence among the isolates, the viruses were further classified into three distinct lineages namely ind 2001, panasia and panasia-2 as well as a minor, unnamed group. ind 2001 lineage viruses accounted for most of the curr ...201323123825
comparative evaluation of three commercial elisa kits for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease this study, we validated three commercial elisa (nsp-elisa) kits that detect antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in terms of their specificities and sensitivities. although the specificities of the nsp-elisa kits were as high as that of liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) in non-infected, non-vaccinated animals, the sensitivities of the nsp-elisa kits were significantly lower than those of the present lpbe and did not agree with the findings of a previo ...201323328606
development of an inactivated 3c(pro)-3abc (mu3abc) elisa to differentiate cattle infected with foot and mouth disease virus from vaccinated cattle.foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is still endemic in asia, africa, and a few countries in south america. subclinical and persistent infections usually occur in vaccinated cattle exposed to fmdv. successful control and eradication measures need a diagnostic assay that can distinguish between immune responses to infection and vaccination. the non-structural 3abc elisa is the most reliable differential diagnostic assay. however, expression of the native ...201323305815
neuroattenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus through picornaviral internal ribosome entry sites.vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) is potent and a highly promising agent for the treatment of cancer. however, translation of vsv oncolytic virotherapy into the clinic is being hindered by its inherent neurotoxicity. it has been demonstrated that selected picornaviral internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements possess restricted activity in neuronal tissues. we therefore sought to determine whether the picornavirus ires could be engineered into vsv to attenuate its neuropathogenicity. we have u ...201323283963
examination of soluble integrin resistant mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection via recognition of one of at least four cell-surface integrin molecules αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, or αvβ8 by a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) amino acid sequence motif located in the g-h loop of vp1. within the animal host, the αvβ6 interaction is believed to be the most relevant. sub-neutralizing levels of soluble secreted αvβ6 (ssαvβ6) was used as a selective pressure during passages in vitro to explore the plasticity of that interaction.201323282061
early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wild biungulate species. this acute disease, caused by the fmd virus (fmdv), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract for up to 72 h postinfection, followed by hematogenous dissemination and vesicular lesions at oral and foot epithelia. the role of the early local adaptive immunity of the host in the outcome of the infection is not well understood. here we report the kin ...201323255811
engineering foot-and-mouth disease viruses with improved growth properties for vaccine licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in china, despite the isolation of a/wh/cha/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells.201323372840
first confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype sat-1 in cattle and small ruminants in ethiopia in 2007/08.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and the southern nations nationalities and people regional state from august 2007 to april 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating in the region. two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of ethiopia. serotype o fmdv was identified in girar jarso, yabello, and ankes ...201323250672
development of a liquid-phase blocking elisa based on foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid antigen for seromonitoring vaccinated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control programme, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is widely used to assay vaccine-induced seroconversion. currently, the assay utilizes inactivated fmd virus antigen for the detection of antibodies in serum samples. to develop a non-infectious substitute for the antigen in lpbe, we expressed the structural polypeptide of fmdv (serotype a) using a baculovirus expression system, and show that inclusion of viral 3c with reduced protease activity resulted in a hig ...201323242775
molecular dissection of a viral quasispecies under mutagenic treatment: positive correlation between fitness loss and mutational load.low fidelity replication and the absence of error-repair activities in rna viruses result in complex and adaptable ensembles of related genomes in the viral population, termed quasispecies, with important implications for natural infections. theoretical predictions suggested that elevated replication error rates in rna viruses might be near to a maximum compatible with viral viability. this fact encouraged the use of mutagenic nucleosides as a new antiviral strategy to induce viral extinction th ...201323239576
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with a stable flag epitope in the vp1 g-h loop as a new tool for studying fmdv pathogenesis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 g-h loop contains the major antigenic site. by replacing the sequence upstream of the rgd motif with a flag epitope, a marker virus for pathogenesis studies was generated. in cell culture, the recombinant virus containing flag (a24-flag) exhibited similar plaque phenotypes and growth kinetics to parental virus. a24-flag was distinguished, neutralized, and immunoprecipitated by flag anti-sera. a24-flag infected cattle exhibited fmd and an antibody response ...201323228860
the analysis of codon bias of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the adaptation of this virus to the hosts.the synonymous codon usage patterns of open reading frame (orf) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the similarity degree of the synonymous codon usage between this virus and the hosts and the genetic diversities of fmdv orfs and the viral functional genes in viral orf have been investigated by some simply statistical analyses. as for the synonymous codon usage of fmdv, some over-represented and under-represented codons have a similar usage in all seven serotypes. 33 out of 59 synonymous cod ...201323220329
poly(i:c) combined with multi-epitope protein vaccine completely protects against virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge in pigs.we designed a series of epitope proteins containing the g-h loops of three topotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o and promiscuous artificial th sites and selected one epitope protein (designated as b4) with optimal immunogenicity and cross-reactivity. three out of five pigs immunized intramuscularly with this b4 were protected against virulent fmdv challenge after a single inoculation, while all pigs co-immunized with b4 and polyinosinic-cytidylic acid [poly(i:c)] conferred ...201323219974
an efficient colorimetric assay for rna synthesis by viral rna-dependent rna polymerases, using thermostable pyrophosphatase.rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is essential for the replication of rna genome-containing positive-strand rna viruses. we developed a simple colorimetric assay to quantify the rna synthesis activity of rdrp by measuring the pyrophosphates released during nascent rna synthesis. rna polymerase reaction was quenched by heating at 70 °c for 5 min, during which thermostable inorganic pyrophosphatase converted the accumulated pyrophosphates into inorganic phosphates. subsequently, the amount of in ...201323219564
time-dependent biodistribution and transgene expression of a recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5-luciferase vector as a surrogate for rad5-fmdv vaccines in cattle.replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5 (rad5) vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) transgenes elicit a robust immune response to fmdv challenge in cattle; however mechanistic functions of vaccine function are incompletely understood. recent efforts addressing critical interactions of rad5 vectors with components of the bovine immune system have elucidated important aspects of induction of protective immunity against fmdv. in the current study, a rad5-luciferase (rad5-luc) ...201323219159
mapping of antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 and relationships with sites described in other serotypes.knowledge of the antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has relevance in the development of diagnostic assays, in the evaluation of the antigenic variability and in the selection of appropriate vaccine strains. antigenic sites have been investigated only in fmdvs of serotypes o, a and c, while it would be valuable to extend studies also to other serotypes. this paper reports the identification of antigenic sites involved in virus neutralization in the fmdv serotype asia 1 by ...201323197575
characterization of a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the southern cone of south america and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type o virus isolated during the outbreak in september 2011 in san pedro, paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. the phylogenetic tree derived from complete vp(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the so ...201323182909
efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3c protease activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of artiodactyla. current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. capsids self-assemble from the p ...201323174161
quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important disease agent that can be difficult to effectively eradicate from herds. because it is an obligate intracellular parasite, the virus has multiple effects on the host cell during infection. here, a high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to develop an unbiased holistic overview of the protein changes in ibrs-2 cells infected with fmdv. stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (silac) combined with lc-ms/ms was pe ...201323170859
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