Establishment of a Stable Cell Line Coexpressing Dengue Virus-2 and Green Fluorescent Protein for Screening of Antiviral Compounds.This study aimed to generate a stable cell line harboring subgenomic dengue virus replicon and a green fluorescent gene (DENV/GFP) for a cell-based model to screen anti-DENV compounds. The gene-encoding envelope protein of DENV-2 was deleted and then replaced with fragments of the GFP gene and a foot-and-mouth-disease virus 2A-derived cleavage site. The human cytomegalovirus immediate early and antisense hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences were added at the 5'- and 3'-ends. An internal ribo ...201122068705
increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2b is associated with a specific t cell response.we previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 capsid subunit vaccine, ad5-a24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (cmv) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an ad5-vectored fmdv o1 campos vaccine, ad5-o1c, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of th ...201122027486
Formation of higher-order FMDV 3Dpol complexes is dependent on elongation activity.The replication of many viruses involves the formation of higher-order structures or replication 'factories'. We show that the key replication enzyme of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, forms fibrils in vitro. Although there are similarities with previously characterised poliovirus polymerase fibrils, FMDV fibrils are narrower, composed of both protein and RNA and, importantly, are only seen when all components of an elongation assay are present. Furthermore ...201122156531
Investigation of serum protein profiles in sheep naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.This study was carried out to determine serum protein profiles in naturally infected sheep with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The study material consisted of twelve healthy and 36 sheep with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD had been diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and results of serological examination. Serotypes serologically detected in the FMDV-infected sheep were as follows: O (n = 11), A (n = 8) and mixed infection with serotypes O, A and Asia-1 (n = 17).The total protei ...201122059288
virus survival in slurry: analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza slurry can be highly contaminated with viral pathogens. the survival of these pathogens within slurry is important since this material is often distributed onto farm land either directly or after heat treatment. there is clearly some risk of spreading pathogens in the early stages of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three dif ...201122226541
development and laboratory evaluation of two lateral flow devices for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus in clinical samples.two lateral flow devices (lfd) for the detection of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus (vsv), types indiana (vsv-ind) and new jersey (vsv-nj) were developed using monoclonal antibodies c1 and f25vsvnj-45 to the respective vsv serotypes. the performance of the lfds was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of vsv. the collection of test samples included 105 positive for vsv-ind (92 vesicular epithelial suspensions and 13 cell ...201122230813
immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural polyprotein p1 expressed in transgenic rice.transgenic plants have become developed as bioreactors for producing heterologous proteins and may even form edible vaccines. in the present study, a transgenic rice expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), under the control of a dual cauliflower mosaic virus (camv 35s) promoter, was generated by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. southern blot, northern blot, western blot, and elisa analyses confirmed that the p1 gene was integrated into ...201222274594
[early steps of picornavirus infection].picornaviridae is a large family of viruses that cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans and animals. it includes important viruses such as poliovirus, hepatisis a virus and foot and mouth disease virus. early steps of infection play important roles in determining the host range and the target organs for each virus. here, i review the recent advances in the studies of cellular receptors for picornaviruses, mechanisms of cell entry and viral uncoating.201122916565
bacterial toxin fusion proteins elicit mucosal immunity against a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen when administered intranasally to guinea pigs.peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 g-h loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. however, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. in the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant a ...201122312350
immune response in goats to different payloads of fmdv monovalent vaccine: protection against virulent challenge and development of carrier status.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen payload and number of dose of vaccine conferring protection against virus challenge in goats was studied. goats vaccinated with oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccines containing different antigen payloads with or without booster resisted virulent challenge at 21 days post-vaccination or 7 days after booster respectively. however, localized sub-clinical infection was observed in two vaccinated goats on 35 days post-challenge. rna coul ...201122282634
comparison of ires and f2a-based locus-specific multicistronic expression in stable mouse lines.efficient and stoichiometric expression of genes concatenated by bi- or multi-cistronic vectors has become an invaluable tool not only in basic biology to track and visualize proteins in vivo, but also for vaccine development and in the clinics for gene therapy. to adequately compare, in vivo, the effectiveness of two of the currently popular co-expression strategies - the internal ribosome entry site (ires) derived from the picornavirus and the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus ( ...201122216134
detection and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings.a total of 1501 oral swab samples from pakistan, afghanistan and tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between july 2008 and august 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in afghanistan (n=61) and both the live animal markets in tajikistan (n=120) all tested negative. however, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from gondal and 11 of ...201122212855
tissue culture independent transformation of the forage crop sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.): an easy method towards generation of transgenics.a transformation system which is free of in vitro plant regeneration following agrobacterium infection is established for the forage legume, sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.) where in the entire embryo axis of the germinating seed was used as the target tissue for transformation. after standardization of transformation conditions, the cotyledonary node of the embryo axis was infected with agrobacterium host lba 4404 harboring the recombinant vector pcambia 2301. the bivalent 1d gene of the two maj ...201123573040
self replicating gene vaccine carrying p1-2a gene of fmdv serotype o and its effects on the immune responses of cattle.dna vaccines are considered as alternatives to live attenuated ones for those diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) where the production and application of live vaccines have been found unsuccessful. however, stability of dna and the quantity of antigen expressed are the major limitation with naked dna vaccines. to address these issues self replicating gene vaccine construct was made for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 'o' and studied. the vector for vaccine construct, designated a ...201123637502
[construction and identification of a recombinant prrsv expressing protective antigens of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus].using mutation pcr, we cloned the target gene containing 421-480nt (141-160aa) and 598-639nt (200-213aa) of vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) into the deleted region (508-532aa) of nsp2 gene of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus derived vaccine strain (hun4-f112) that was used as vector. the recombinant cdna was in vitro transcribed followed by transfection of bhk-21 cells for 36 h. then, the supernatant of the cell culture was continuously seed ...201223593867
probability of introducing foot and mouth disease into the united states via live animal importation.foot and mouth disease (fmd) continues to be a disease of major concern for the united states department of agriculture (usda) and livestock industries. foot and mouth disease virus is a high-consequence pathogen for the united states (usa). live animal trade is a major risk factor for introduction of fmd into a country. this research estimates the probability of fmd being introduced into the usa via the legal importation of livestock. this probability is calculated by considering the potential ...201223520732
a quantitative assessment of the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease virus into the united states via cloned bovine embryos.the trade of livestock or their products between nations requires information on the risk of introducing infectious agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). although transmission pathways for fmdv vary, a recent concern in the united states (usa) is that it might enter via cloned embryos. a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to determine the scenarios (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of fmdv via the importation of clon ...201223520731
infectious diseases of economic importance: molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania from 1967 to 2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in tanzania. since the first reports in 1954, fmd has caused significant economic losses in the country due to mortality and morbidity of livestock and costs associated with controlling the disease. the aim of this study was to review the serotype and genetic relationships of the fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania, and compare them with viruses detected from elsewhere in the sub-saharan region. at the world reference laboratory for foot- ...201223327397
foot-and-mouth disease control in zambia: a review of the current situation.zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (cbpp). foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in zambia in 1933 in the western province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for fmd including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on fmd control. w ...201223327395
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in tanzania from 2003 to 2010: conjectured status and future prospects.this study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in different geographic locations of tanzania. epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of fmd and submitted for routine fmd diagnosis. the analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture elisa to determine the presence of fmdv. the results of this study ...201223327382
new technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: challenges for sub-saharan africa.using foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. in recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. in addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. work in this area has developed simple-to ...201223327376
dna prime-protein boost strategy with replicase-based dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in bovine calves.the limited efficacy of dna vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and other natural hosts has prompted a search for a more effective vaccination regimen. in this study we tested a dna prime-protein boost vaccination strategy against fmd in bovine calves. we used purified recombinant fmdv specific multi-epitope protein (rmeg990) and an optimized sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine expressing this protein (psincmv-vac-meg990). we demonstrate that vaccination with a low dose ...201223305616
candidate rna structures for domain 3 of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus internal ribosome entry site.the foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) utilizes non-canonical translation initiation for viral protein synthesis, by forming a specific rna structure called internal ribosome entry site (ires). domain 3 in fmdv ires is phylogenetically conserved and highly structured; it contains four-way junctions where intramolecular rna-rna interactions serve as a scaffold for the rna to fold for efficient ires activity. although the 3d structure of domain 3 is crucial to exploring and deciphering the initia ...201223275533
translation directed by hepatitis a virus ires in the absence of active eif4f complex and eif2.translation directed by several picornavirus ires elements can usually take place after cleavage of eif4g by picornavirus proteases 2a(pro) or l(pro). the hepatitis a virus (hav) ires is thought to be an exception to this rule because it requires intact eif4f complex for translation. in line with previous results we report that poliovirus (pv) 2a(pro) strongly blocks protein synthesis directed by hav ires. however, in contrast to previous findings we now demonstrate that eif4g cleavage by foot-a ...201223272212
design of different strategies of multivalent dna-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs.during the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (cpv) or distemper virus (cdv) after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies ...201223270301
a proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control in brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the brazilian ministry of agriculture, livestock, and food supply (mapa). the fmd vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), at 28 days post-vaccination. biological product testing using large ...201223267841
recombinant adenovirus expressing type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins induces protective immunity against homologous virus challenge in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease worldwide affecting cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the fmdv capsid polyprotein and 3c proteinase are required for capsid precursor processing and assembly. the fmdv capsid protein, which contains the entire repertoire of immunogenic sites, can stimulate both humoral immunity and t-cell-mediated immune responses. in this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, radv-asi-05, that expres ...201223267820
robust real-time reverse transcription-pcr for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing carryover contamination.during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr) is the most commonly used diagnostic method to detect viral rna. however, while this assay is often conducted during the outbreak period, there is an inevitable risk of carryover contamination. this study shows that the carryover contamination can be prevented by the use of target-specific restriction endonuclease in that assay.201526560537
feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations.within the last decade virus-like particles (vlps) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. to test the feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) particles as a scaffold for epitope presentation and identify sites for epitope fusion or insertion that would not interfere with virus-like-particle formation, chimeric ccmv coat protein (cp) gene constructs were engi ...201526311254
picornavirus infection leading to immunosuppression.viruses, such as hiv, hepatitis a, poliovirus, coxsackievirus b3 and foot-and-mouth disease virus, use a variety of mechanisms to suppress the human immune system in order to evade clearance by the host. therefore, investigating how a few changes in the viral genome of a nonlethal virus can lead to an alteration in disease, from survivable to immunosuppression and death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. in addition, we propose that gaining a better insight into how the ...201425214881
a prime-boost vaccination strategy in cattle to prevent foot-and-mouth disease using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. they are made using chemically inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. here, we have expressed the fmdv capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) of strain o1 manisa alone or with the fmdv 3c protease (3cpro) u ...201627294397
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class iii phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces the formation of autophagosomes. induction was dependent on atg5, involved processing of lc3 to lc3ii, and led to a redistribution of lc3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of a ...201222993157
a universal next-generation sequencing protocol to generate noninfectious barcoded cdna libraries from high-containment rna viruses.several biosafety level 3 and/or 4 (bsl-3/4) pathogens are high-consequence, single-stranded rna viruses, and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. moreover, many of these viruses are select agents (sas), and their genomes are also considered sas. for this reason, cdnas and/or their derivatives must be tested to ensure the absence of infectious virus and/or viral rna before transfer out of the bsl-3/4 and/or sa laboratory. this tremendously limits the capacity to ...201627822536
laboratory animal models to study foot-and-mouth disease: a review with emphasis on natural and vaccine-induced immunity.laboratory animal models have provided valuable insight into foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pathogenesis in epidemiologically important target species. while not perfect, these models have delivered an accelerated time frame to characterize the immune responses in natural hosts and a platform to evaluate therapeutics and vaccine candidates at a reduced cost. further expansion of these models in mice has allowed access to genetic mutations not available for target species, providing a powerf ...201425000962
3cpro of foot-and-mouth disease virus antagonizes the interferon signaling pathway by blocking stat1/stat2 nuclear translocation.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious, debilitating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with devastating economic consequences. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to antagonize the host type i interferon (ifn) response. previous studies have reported that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) and 3c(pro) of fmdv are involved in the inhibition of type i ifn production. however, whether the proteins of fmdv can inhibit type i ifn signaling is less well understood. in this stud ...201424554650
venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles can induce rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type i interferon gene (poifn-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 1 day later. however, the need of relatively high doses of ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) empty replicon particles (vrps) can induce rapid protection of mice agai ...201323468490
foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an aphthovirus within the picornaviridae family. during infection with fmdv, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. fmdv protein 2c is part of the replication complex and thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. to better understand the role of 2c in the process of virus replication, we have been using a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify host pro ...201323576498
encephalomyocarditis virus 3c protease relieves traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) inhibitory effect on traf6-mediated nf-κb signaling through cleavage of tank.traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) is a negative regulator of canonical nf-κb signaling in the toll-like receptor- and b-cell receptor-mediated signaling pathways. however, functions of tank in viral infection-mediated nf-κb activation remain unclear. here, we reported that tank was cleaved by encephalomyocarditis virus 3c at the 197 and 291 glutamine residues, which depends on its cysteine protease activity. in addition, encephalomyocarditis virus 3c impaired the ability of ta ...201526363073
development and evaluation of a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (rt-lamp) for rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus in india.a simple, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is required for deployment in the field. in this study, development of reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay based on the 3d polymerase gene for specific and rapid detection fmd virus (fmdv) was carried out. the assay was optimised with viral rna extracted from serotype o, a and asia 1 fmdv vaccine strains, which resulted a reliable amplification at 65 °c for 60 min. the amplifi ...201425674604
synthetic rnas mimicking structural domains in the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome elicit a broad innate immune response in porcine cells triggered by rig-i and tlr activation.the innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. we have previously described, the ability of small in vitro rna transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome (ncrnas), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. these synthetic non-infec ...201526193305
identification and analysis of differential mirnas in pk-15 cells after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the alterations of micrornas(mirnas) in host cell after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is still obscure. to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of fmdv at the post-transcriptional regulation level, solexa high-throu micrornas (mirnas) play an important role both in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and host-virus interactions. despite investigations of mirna expression ghput sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify differentially exp ...201424675746
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. dendritic cells (dc) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. therefore, investigating their role during fmdv infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. in this study, fol ...201627008425
foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of fmd, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. the pathophysiology of fmdv has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. here, the fmdv non-structural protein 3a was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. overexpression of the fmdv 3a inhibited sendai virus-triggered activation of irf3 and the expressions of rig-i/mda5. transient transfection and co-im ...201626883855
ns2b/3 proteolysis at the c-prm junction of the tick-borne encephalitis virus polyprotein is highly membrane dependent.the replication of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), like that of all flaviviruses, is absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. production of the mature proteins c and prm from their common precursor requires the activity of the viral ns2b/3 protease (ns2b/3(pro)) at the c-terminus of protein c and the host signal peptidase i (spasei) at the n-terminus of protein prm. recently, we have shown in cell culture that the cleavage of protein c and the subsequent production of tbev particles ...201222727684
exploring ires region accessibility by interference of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity.translation initiation of picornavirus rna is driven by an internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located upstream of the initiator codon. rna structure organization as well as rna-protein interaction plays a fundamental role in internal initiation. ires activity has been mainly analyzed in the context of reporter genes, lacking regions of the viral genome potentially affecting translation efficiency. with the aim to understand the vulnerability of the ires and translation start region to s ...201222815996
protection against west nile virus infection in mice after inoculation with type i interferon-inducing rna transcripts.west nile virus (wnv) is a neurovirulent single stranded rna mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. recently, it has been shown that rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) induce a potent ifn response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and ...201223166685
xenoepitope substitution avoids deceptive imprinting and broadens the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.many rna viruses encode error-prone polymerases which introduce mutations into b and t cell epitopes, providing a mechanism for immunological escape. when regions of hypervariability are found within immunodominant epitopes with no known function, they are referred to as "decoy epitopes," which often deceptively imprint the host's immune response. in this work, a decoy epitope was identified in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o vp1 g-h loop after multiple sequence alignment of 1 ...201222323558
monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific for foot and mouth disease virus type a and type o vp1.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an rna virus composed of single stranded positive sense rna. fmdv has been known to infect cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. fmdv is rapidly spreading outward to neighboring regions, often leading to a high mortality rate. thus, early diagnosis of fmdv is critical to suppress propagation of fmdv and minimize economic losses. in this study, we report the generation and characterization of polyclonal and six monoclonal antibodies a ...023098303
immunogenicity of two fmdv nonameric peptides encapsulated in liposomes in mice and the protective efficacy in guinea has been predicted that nonameric peptides i (vp1(26-34), rrqhtdvsf), ii (vp1(157-165), rtlptsfny) and iii (vp1(45-53), keqvnvldl) from the vp1 capsid protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are t cell epitopes. to investigate whether these peptides have immunological activity, balb/c mice were immunized with peptide i, ii or iii conjugated with immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). a cytotoxic t lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity induced by peptides along ...201323874709
live attenuated vaccine based on duck enteritis virus against duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis a virus type 1 (dhav-1) and type 3 (dhav-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. however, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rc-kce-2vp1) containing both vp1 from dhav-1 (vp1/dhav-1) and vp1 from dhav-3 (vp1/dhav-3) between ul27 and ul26. a self-cleaving 2a-element of fmdv was inserted between the tw ...201627777571
first finding of southeast asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in kinmen, taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus aphthovirus within the family picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. the southeast asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype o of the virus, is prevalent in some asian countries, but had not previously been found in taiwan. the topotype was first found in pigs in kinmen island, taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic anal ...201425056674
reconstruction of the transmission history of rna virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in bulgaria in 2011.improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of rna viruses in real time. in practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. in the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), these analyses provide important insights into the epi ...201223226216
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
gemin5 proteolysis reveals a novel motif to identify l protease targets.translation of picornavirus rna is governed by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element, directing the synthesis of a single polyprotein. processing of the polyprotein is performed by viral proteases that also recognize as substrates host factors. among these substrates are translation initiation factors and rna-binding proteins whose cleavage is responsible for inactivation of cellular gene expression. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes two proteases, l(pro) and 3c(pro). widespr ...201222362733
evaluation of a fiber-modified adenovirus vector vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of fmd virus (fmdv). ad5 containing serotype a24 capsid sequences (ad5.a24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against fmd in livestock species. however, ad5-vectored fmdv serotype o1 campos vaccine (ad5.o1c.2b) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. it has been reported tha ...201526607309
complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the bovine cd8αα-bola-2*02201 order to clarify the structural characteristics of the bovine mhc class i molecule (bola-i) complexed with cd8αα (cd8αα-bola-i), bovine cd8αα, bola-i (bola-2*02201) and β2m were expressed and purified, and were then assembled with a peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv-vp1yy9) and crystallized. the crystal diffracted to 1.7 å resolution and belonged to space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a=53.9, b=103.8, c=61.8 å, α=γ=90, β=96°. the asymmetric unit contained one comp ...201424915083
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
detection of african swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.african swine fever (asf), classical swine fever (csf), and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. pigs infected with asf and csf viruses (asfv and csfv) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability ...201525776540
antigen targeting to apc: from mice to veterinary species.antigen delivery to receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells (apc) has shown to improve immunogenicity of vaccines in mice. an enhancement of cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl), helper t cell or humoral responses was obtained depending on the type of apc and the surface molecule targeted. although this strategy is being also evaluated in livestock animals with promising results, some discrepancies have been found between species and pathogens. the genetic diversity of livestock animals, the dif ...201323648645
acquiring transgenic tobacco plants with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation.the advantages of gene 'stacking' or 'pyramiding' are obvious in genetically modified (gm) crops, and several different multi-transgene-stacking methods are available. using linker peptides for multiple gene transformation is considered to be a good method to meet a variety of needs. in our experiment, the bt cry1ah gene, which encodes the insect-resistance protein, and the mg ( 2 ) -epsps gene, which encodes the glyphosate-tolerance protein, were connected by a 2a or lp4/2a linker. linker 2a is ...201222777591
expression of vp1 protein of serotype a and o of foot-and-mouth disease virus in transgenic sunnhemp plants and its immunogenicity for guinea pigs.recently, transgenic plants expressing immunogenic proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used as oral or parenteral vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). they exhibit advantages like cost effectiveness, absence of processing, thermostability, and easy oral application. fmdv vp1 protein of single serotype has been mostly used as immunogen. here we report the development of a bivalent vaccine with tandem-linked vp1 proteins of two serotypes, a and o, present in transge ...201222720698
structure, assembly, and dna packaging of the bacteriophage t4 head.the bacteriophage t4 head is an elongated icosahedron packed with 172 kb of linear double-stranded dna and numerous proteins. the capsid is built from three essential proteins: gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice; gp24*, which forms pentamers at 11 of the 12 vertices; and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which dna enters during packaging and exits during infection. intensive work over more than half a century has led to a deep understanding of the phage ...201222420853
gegenees: fragmented alignment of multiple genomes for determining phylogenomic distances and genetic signatures unique for specified target groups.the rapid development of next generation sequencing technologies leads to the accumulation of huge amounts of sequencing data. the scientific community faces an enormous challenge in how to deal with this explosion. here we present a software tool, 'gegenees', that uses a fragmented alignment approach to facilitate the comparative analysis of hundreds of microbial genomes. the genomes are fragmented and compared, all against all, by a multithreaded blast control engine. ready-made alignments can ...201222723939
expression of cry1ab and cry2ab by a polycistronic transgene with a self-cleavage peptide in rice.insect resistance to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) crystal protein is a major threat to the long-term use of transgenic bt crops. gene stacking is a readily deployable strategy to delay the development of insect resistance while it may also broaden insecticidal spectrum. here, we report the creation of transgenic rice expressing discrete cry1ab and cry2ab simultaneously from a single expression cassette using 2a self-cleaving peptides, which are autonomous elements from virus guiding the polycistr ...201425333312
inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. insect adaptation to pi ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of pis. in this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. the two pis were linked using either the proce ...201424237606
a transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric bamboo mosaic virus particles.we describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. we generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (vp1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antigens accumulated to high levels in bdt38 and bdt19 transgenic cell lines co-ex ...201625879277
developing country applications of molecular farming: case studies in south africa and argentina.molecular farming is a technology that is very well suited to being applied in developing countries, given the reasonably high level of expertise in recombinant plant development in many centers. in addition, there is an urgent need for products such as inexpensive vaccines and therapeutics for livestock and for some human diseases - and especially those that do not occur or are rare in developed regions. south africa and argentina have been at the fore in this area among developing nations, as ...201323394557
bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis a viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinitis viruses (brvs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. in this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named rs3x (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the uk in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. compared to other closely related aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (l(pro)), p1, 2b, and 3a proteins. phylogenetic analysis revealed that rs3x was a member of the species bovine rhinit ...201527081310
development of a gexp-multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of six cattle viruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), bovine viral diarrheal (bvdv), bovine rotavirus (brv), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (ibrv) are common cattle infectious viruses that cause a great economic loss every year in many parts of the world. a rapid and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six cattle viruses. six pairs ...201728166243
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six dna and rna viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and orf virus (orfv) were used for testing procedure. a s ...201728111057
molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants in iran.a molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in iran. samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 mouflon (ovis orientalis), 22 wild goat (capra aegagrus), nine indian gazelle (gazella bennettii) and eight goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa) during the national survey for wildlife diseases in iran. serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody test ...201627997620
a new immunoassay of serum antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus using quantum dots and a lateral-flow test strip.a fast and ultrasensitive test-strip system combining quantum dots (qds) with a lateral-flow immunoassay strip (lfias) was established for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibody. the highly luminescent water-soluble carboxyl-functionalized qds were used as the signal output and were conjugated to streptococcal protein g (spg), which was capable of binding to immunoglobulin g (igg) from many species through an amide bond to capture the target pprv iggs. the pprv n protein, ...201727783124
detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in brazil.vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of fmd. we report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle wit ...201627154321
reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid identification of eastern and western strains of bluetongue virus in india.bluetongue virus (btv) infects all ruminants, including cattle, goats and camelids, causing bluetongue disease (bt) that is often severe in naïve deer and sheep. reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (rt-lamp) assays were developed to detect eastern or western topotype of btv strains circulating in india. each assay uses four primers recognizing six distinct sequences of btv genome-segment 1 (seg-1). the eastern (e)rt-lamp and western (w)rt-lamp assay detected btv rna in a ...201627054888
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in jilin province china.the aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in jilin province, china, using the assay. a lamp assay targeting a highly conserved region of the f1l gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (cev). three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of jilin province, china, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the lamp assay. the results showed that the s ...201626346652
structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (ra27l) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus.buffalopox virus (bpxv), an indian variant of vaccinia virus (vacv), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. a27l is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (opvs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the a27l gene of bpxv-vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature a27l (21s to e110) and c-terminal truncated a27l-lzd (21s to n84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia ...201526319070
plant-produced viral bovine vaccines: what happened during the last 10 years?vaccination has proved to be an efficient strategy to deal with viral infections in both human and animal species. however, protection of cattle against viral infections is still a major concern in veterinary science. during the last two decades, the development of efficient plant-based expression strategies for recombinant proteins prompted the application of this methodology for veterinary vaccine purposes. the main goals of viral bovine vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of cattle ...201526250843
simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time rt-pcr.multiplexed real-time pcr (qpcr) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. here, reverse transcription qpcr (rt-qpcr) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and bluetongue virus (btv) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. additionally, a background sc ...201525746154
prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in european surveillance programmes: expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.this study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. it is part of a european union (eu) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the eu over the last 15 years). these 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts ...201525496774
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
epizootic hemorrhagic disease in yaks (bos grunniens).an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease associated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (ehdv-2) infections in yaks from 5 herds occurred in colorado between august 21 and october 3, 2012. affected yaks presented with fever, lethargy, anorexia, dyspnea, and swollen conjunctivae. ulcerated dental pads, mucoid sanguineous nasal discharge, petechial hemorrhages in multiple organs, pulmonary edema, and serosanguinous fluid in the thorax, abdomen, and pericardial sac were observed at necro ...201323572453
a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid precursor polypeptide p1 and the enhancing effect of bovine herpesvirus 1 vp22 protein as molecular adjuvant.dna vaccines containing the capsid precursor polypeptide p1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) alone or combined with the vp22 gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bvp22) as molecular adjuvant were constructed and used for immunization of balb/c mice. the latter were challenged with fmdv and their humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses and virus clearance capacity were assayed. both dna vaccines elicited specific immune responses, however, the dna vaccine with the bvp22 adjuvant sho ...201222720700
acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial 2008, a northwest texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots a and b). severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but ...201222379057
quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. one approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. this linkage study used a charolais-holstein f2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) specific total-igg, igg1 and igg2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-brsv va ...201222438944
modification of the internal ribosome entry site element impairs the growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in porcine-derived cells.the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires) that facilitates translation initiation of the viral orf in a 5' (m7gpppn) cap-independent manner. ires elements are responsible for the virulence phenotypes of several enteroviruses. here, we constructed a chimeric virus in which the ires of fmdv was completely replaced with that of bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) in an infectious clone of serotype o fmdv. the resulting ires- ...201626795299
in vitro surrogate models to aid in the development of antivirals for the containment of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus aphthovirus (family picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) and equine rhinitis a virus (erav), phylogenetically most closely related to fmdv, were explored as surrogates for fmdv in antiviral studies. although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so ...201424583031
characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis b virus leader proteinase.bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this study examined if the brbv leader proteinase (l(pro) ) could functionally replace that of fmdv. a mutant a24lbrv3dyr fmdv engineered with the brbv l(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3d polymerase exhibited growth properties and eif4g cleavage similar to parental a24wt virus. the a24lbrv3dyr type i interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of a24ll virus ...201324210112
homology modeling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis b virus rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp).bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) is a picornavirus responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle. it is probably the least characterized among the aphthoviruses. brbv is the closest relative known to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) with a ~43% identical polyprotein sequence and as much as 67% identical sequence for the rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp), which is also known as 3d polymerase (3d(pol)). in the present study we carried out phylogenetic analysis, structure based sequence a ...201222942748
both foot-and-mouth disease virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus replication are inhibited by mx1 protein originated from porcine.mx1 protein is i type interferons (ifns)-induced 76-kda guanosine triphosphatases (gtpases) that belong to the dynamin superfamily of large gtpases. mx1 proteins have attracted attention because some display antiviral activity against pathogenic rna and dna viruses. meanwhile, mx1 gene generally exists in organisms or cells of mammalian, fish and chicken. blocking a wide range of rna virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mrna synthesis is a unique property of mx1 protein. in order to inv ...201525153459
potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. despite this, ...201424810855
pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in south korea, 2010-12.water deer (hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. we collected 305 water deer from gangwon (n=168), south chungcheong (n=89), and gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used pcr and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. in 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), rotavirus, and brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. in 2010, the water dee ...201424779466
artificially designed recombinant protein composed of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.concerns regarding the safety of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine have been raised since it is produced from cultured live fmd virus (fmdv). to overcome this issue, recombinant protein has been studied as an alternative vaccine.201728228147
complexities in isolation and purification of multiple viruses from mixed viral infections: viral interference, persistence and exclusion.successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. in this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mixed infection in goats. rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (cpe) of the virus was observed in cocultured vero/bhk-21 cells at 6th blind passage (bp). pprv, but not fmdv could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. viral rna (mixture) transfection in bhk-21 cells produc ...201627227480
development of a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans.a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus (sycmv) was constructed for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans. the in vitro transcript with a 5' cap analog m7gpppg from an sycmv full-length infectious vector driven by a t7 promoter infected soybeans (psycmvt7-full). the symptoms observed in the soybeans infected with either the sap from sycmv-infected leaves or psycmvt7-full were indistinguishable, suggesting that the vector exhibits equivalent biological a ...201626569351
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.a novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time rt-rpa) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv). the sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of rpa was 70 copies of hp-prrsv rna/reaction. the real-time rt-rpa highly specific amplified hp-prrsv with no cross-reaction with classic prrsv, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus ...201627534870
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (ppv real-time rpa assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (ppv rpa lfd assay) were developed targeting ppv ns1 gene. the detection limit of ppv real-time rpa assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °c, while the rpa lfd assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than ...201627593155
a promising trigene recombinant human adenovirus vaccine against classical swine fever virus.classical swine fever (csf) vaccine based on hadv-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. both classical swine fever virus (csfv) e0 glycoprotein and e2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against csf. interleukin-2 (il2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in csf vaccine research. in this study, coexpression of the csfv e0, e2, and il2 genes by hadv-5 (radv-e0-e2-il2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. three ex ...201626918463
future directions for the development of chlamydomonas-based vaccines.besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. antigens from various pathogens including plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (csfv) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in c. reinhardtii. although some of them have been functionally characterized with prom ...201324053395
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