TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
foot and mouth disease virus polyepitope protein produced in bacteria and plants induces protective immunity in guinea pigs.the goal of this project was to develop an alternative foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant protein consisting of efficient viral epitopes. a recombinant gene was designed that encodes b-cell epitopes of proteins vp1 and vp4 and t-cell epitopes of proteins 2c and 3d. the polyepitope protein (h-pe) was produced in e. coli bacteria or in n. benthamiana plants using a phytovirus expression system. the methods of extraction and purification of h-pe proteins from bact ...201121568869
analysis of the acute phase responses of serum amyloid a, haptoglobin and type 1 interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.abstract: a series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". the host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (apps) serum amyloid a (saa) and haptoglobin (hp), as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (ifn) in serum of infected anim ...201121592356
phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o circulating in the andean region of south america during present, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been successfully controlled in most territories of south america, where only ecuador and venezuela remain as endemic countries. in this context, the precise characterization of circulating viruses is of utmost importance. this work describes the first molecular epidemiology study performed with the complete vp(1)-coding region of 114 field isolates of fmd virus (fmdv) type o, collected in the andean countries mainly during 2002-2008. sequences were a ...201121601999
control of foot-and-mouth disease. 201121602410
high cleavage efficiency of a 2a peptide derived from porcine teschovirus-1 in human cell lines, zebrafish and mice.when expression of more than one gene is required in cells, bicistronic or multicistronic expression vectors have been used. among various strategies employed to construct bicistronic or multicistronic vectors, an internal ribosomal entry site (ires) has been widely used. due to the large size and difference in expression levels between genes before and after ires, however, a new strategy was required to replace ires. a self-cleaving 2a peptide could be a good candidate to replace ires because o ...201121602908
comparative complete genome analysis of indian type a foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype a indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in s and l fragment of 5'-utr. more variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in l and 3a region. functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. polyprotein cleavage sites acc ...201121604149
[diversity of receptor recognition site of type asial foot-and-mouth disease virus].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. however, fmdv is an rna virus, which harbors the evolutionary potential to render the rgd motif dispensable upon changes in constant environment. we studied mutation of rgd motif upon short-time passages fmdv asial/js/china/2005 field strain in different host.201121604558
the importance of fmdv localisation in lymphoid tissue.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a highly contagious pathogen that can cause lameness, low weight and decreased milk production, is a scourge of agricultural livestock around the world. although the acute phase of infection is rarely fatal, infection may persist in animals that have apparently recovered, creating a viral reservoir that some fear could contribute to the spread of disease. we have used an array of molecular techniques to search for traces of virus in tissues from the mouths and throa ...201121616546
rapid screening swine foot-and-mouth disease virus using micro-elisa order to tackle both regional and global foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) epdimics, we hereby develop a rapid microfluidic thermal lens microscopic method to screen swine type o fmdv with good efficiency. the scheme has great merits in terms of field portability, sample volume, assay time, analytical sensitivity, and test reproducibility.201121617821
multiplex rt-pcr detection and microarray typing of vesicular disease viruses.a vesicular disease multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with an accompanying microarray assay was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv). the multiplex rt-pcr successfully detected viral rna from a collection of 49 strains of vesicular viruses, including multiple strains from all seven serotypes of f ...201121620898
genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. a complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. however, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforw ...201121621277
foot-and-mouth disease in feral swine: susceptibility and transmission.experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. in this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with fmdv (a24-cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to a-24 cruzeiro fmd virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. typical clinical signs in fera ...201121418546
pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using a minor groove binder probe reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a novel assay for the pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was designed using a 5' conjugated minor groove binder (mgb) probe real-time rt-pcr system. this assay targets the 3d region of the fmdv genome and is capable of detecting 20 copies of a transcribed rna standard. the linear range of the test was eight logs from 2 × 10¹ to 2 × 108 copies and amplification time was approximately 2 h. using a panel of 83 rna samples from representative fmdv isolates, the diagnostic ...201121419170
genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pakistan and afghanistan, 1997-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan; serotypes o, a and asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with fmdv type o usually being the most common. in the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the fmdv capsid protein vp1 from virus samples were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the serotype o fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineage ...201121419880
florfenicol impairs the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.florfenicol is a new type of broad-spectrum antibacterial that has been used in veterinary clinics. it showed immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o in mice. in the present study, balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with fmdv serotype o antigen on days 1 and 14. beginning on day 21, mice were treated with a single daily oral dose of florfenicol (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. on day 28, b ...201121428714
development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. although mortality is usually low in adult animals, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate fmd. the causing virus, fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly variable rna virus occurring in seven serotypes (a, o, c, asia 1, sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3) and a large number of subtypes. fmdv is one of the most infectious agents kno ...201121434805
antiviral activity of bovine type iii interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel fmd control strategies is imperative. here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (ifn-++3), a member of the type iii ifn family. expression of boifn-++3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (ad5-boifn-++3) yielde ...201121435672
viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.the evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and rna genetics. theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter rna segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. however, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite rna virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, ...201121437265
phylogenomics and molecular evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this report describes the use of bayesian methods to analyze polyprotein coding region sequences (n = 217) obtained from genbank to define the genome-wide phylogeny of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). the results strongly supported the monophyly of five fmdv serotypes, o, a, asia 1, c, and sat 3, while sequences for the two remaining fmdv serotypes, sat 1 and sat 2 did not separate into entirely distinct clades. the phylogenomic tree revealed three sister-group relationships, serotype o + as ...201121448588
skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols.this review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) aerosols. infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. the evidence for a similar mechanism for fmdv is: (i) fmdv is trophic for animal skin and fmdv epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for fmdv skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent wi ...201121450741
a highly sensitive detection for foot-and-mouth disease virus by gold nanopariticle improved immuno-pcr.abstract: background: foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious of all artiodactyl animal diseases, and its infection has an obvious ability to spread over long distances and to contribute to epidemics in fmd-free areas. a highly sensitive and specfic method is required to detect fmdv. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a bio-barcode assay (bca) technique for detecting clinical samples of fmdv. methods: highly sensitive gold nanopariticle (gnp) improved immuno -pcr (g ...201121453461
viewpoint: factors involved in type i interferon responses during porcine virus infections.since type i interferon (ifn-i) is considered a potent antiviral defence mechanism, it is not surprising that during evolution viruses have development of various mechanisms to counteract ifn-i induction or release. despite this, certain virus infections are associated with very high levels of systemic ifn-i. one explanation for this observation is the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc), which are able to produce high levels of ifn-i despite the presence of viral ifn-i antagonists. e ...201121458079
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using antibody-detecting sandwich elisa.the presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can differentiate fmdv-infected animals from vaccinated animals. in this study, a sandwich elisa was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antibodies; it was based on an escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3abc nonstructural protein of the fmdv o/tw/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. the diagnostic sensitivi ...201121467761
closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry for continuous real-time detection and evaluation of cultured mammalian cell activity and responses.closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry (imc) is a simple, powerful, nondestructive, and convenient technique that allows continuous, real-time detection and evaluation of cultured cell activity and responses. at a selected set temperature, imc measures the heat flow between a sample and a heat sink and compares it to the heat-flow between a thermally inactive reference and the heat sink. since heat flow rates are proportional to the rates of chemical reactions and changes of state, imc provi ...201121468980
comparative sequence analysis of representative foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes from southeast asia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in mainland southeast asia where up to seven genetically distinct viral lineages co-circulate (o/sea/mya-98, o/sea/cam-94, o/me-sa/panasia, o/me-sa/panasia-2, o/cathay, a/asia/sea-97, and serotype asia 1). the aim of this study was to analyse the sequence variability between representative complete genomes for these seven lineages. the genome sequences varied from 8130 to 8192 nucleotides in length and shared nucleotide identities ranging from 91.8 to 78.9 ...201121479678
experimental infection of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with sat-1 and sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential role of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) sat types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. in two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a sat-1 or sat-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-i ...201126353052
molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from pakistan, 2005-2008.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in pakistan where three virus serotypes are present (o, a and asia 1). fifty-eight clinical samples collected between 2005 and 2008 from animals with suspected fmd in various locations in pakistan were subjected to virus isolation on primary cell culture, antigen elisa and real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). viruses were isolated from 32 of these samples and identified as fmdv type o (n = 31) or type a ( ...201126353051
epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china.this manuscript provides insight into the epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china. the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this serotype, which china reported for the first time after 47 years in 2005, suggests that it may have become endemic in the region.201126353050
the integration of molecular tools into veterinary and spatial the interface of molecular biology and epidemiology, the emerging discipline of molecular epidemiology offers unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases through the investigation of infectious agents at the molecular level. molecular tools can increase our understanding of the factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of pathogens and disease. both spatial and molecular aspects have always been important to the field of infectious disease epidemiology, but recently n ...201122748175
southeast asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in eastern asia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks recently affected 2 countries (japan and south korea) in eastern asia that were free of fmd without vaccination. analysis of viral protein 1 nucleotide sequences indicated that fmd serotype a and o viruses that caused these outbreaks originated in mainland southeast asia to which these viruses are endemic.201222377196
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein, 3d in insect cells and its application in detection of anti-fmdv antibodies.non-structural proteins (nsps) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in fmd endemic countries like india which aim at disease control through vaccination. these diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. in the present study, non-structural protein rna polymerase (3d gene) of fmd virus (fmdv) was expressed using baculovirus e ...201224293820
use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide co-expression system to study intracellular protein trafficking in arabidopsis.a tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2a peptide technology. in this system, the 16-20 amino acid 2a peptide from rna viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. however, so far the use of the 2a technology in plant systems has been limited.201223251667
sequential administration of cytokine genes to enhance cellular immune responses and cd4 (+) t memory cells during dna vaccination.antigen specific memory t cells (tm) have shown to be an important factor in protecting hosts against subsequent infection by previously encountered pathogens. during t-cell activation, several cytokines including il-6, il-7 and il-15, play crucial roles in the development of t cells into memory t cells. with the aim of generating specific tm, we examined a strategy of sequential administration of molecular adjuvants. in this strategy a dna vaccine encoding the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mou ...201223151452
sequence analysis of capsid coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial passages in bhk-21 adherent and suspension cells.sequence variability within the capsid coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial in vitro passage was investigated. specifically, two methods of virus propagation were utilized, a monolayer and suspension culture of bhk-21 cells. at three positions (vp2(131) e-k in both monolayer and suspension passages, vp3(85) h-r in late monolayer passages and vp3(139) k-e in only suspension passages), all mapped to surface exposed loops, amino acid substitutions we ...201223084588
spatial trend of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.the present study describes the frequency of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus serotypes (o, a and asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of pakistan using indirect sandwich elisa. also, spatial distribution of various fmd serotypes and their comparison is discussed. a total of 590 samples (epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009). out of 590 samples, 180 were found positive, giving an overall confirmation of fmdv about 33.2 %. of the prevalent serotypes ...201223055008
generation of monoclonal antibodies against non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), babl/c mice were immunized with the 3ab protein and splenocytes of balb/c mice were fused with myeloma sp2/0 cells. two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mabs) cell lines against the 3ab protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were obtained, named c6 and e7 respectively. the microneutralization titer was 1:1024 for mab c6, and 1:512 for e7. both mabs contain kappa light chains, and were of ...201223055007
humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. d9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. humanization of d9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. the humanized d9 (hd9) variable regions were further grafte ...201223049820
development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o virus-like-particles (vlps) vaccine and evaluation of its potency.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant viral disease that rampage dairy and other livestock industries in many countries. the disease is being controlled by the use of an inactivated vaccine. however, a recombinant marker vaccine, which avoids the use of live virus, may be an option for the unambiguous differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. a recombinant baculovirus clone containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) seroty ...201223043941
plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate is required for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, pi(4,5)p(2), is a phospholipid which plays important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. to investigate the possible role of this lipid on viral entry, two viruses important for animal health were selected: the enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) - which uses a well characterized clathrin mediated endocytic route - and two different variants of the non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with distinct receptor specificities. the express ...201223028825
interferon-γ induced by in vitro re-stimulation of cd4+ t-cells correlates with in vivo fmd vaccine induced protection of cattle against disease and persistent infection.the immune defense against fmdv has been correlated to the antibody mediated component. however, there are occasions when some animals with high virus neutralising (vn) antibody are not protected following challenge and some with low neutralising antibody which do not succumb to disease. the importance of cell mediated immunity in clinical protection is less clear and so we investigated the source and production of interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) in re-stimulated whole blood of fmdv immunized cattle an ...201223028529
emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus sat 2 in egypt during 2012.the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic fmd viruses (fmdv), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the middle east and sub-saharan africa. this report describes the molecular characterization of sat 2 fmd viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of fmd in egypt during february and march 2012. phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within ...201223025522
comparison of immune responses against fmd by a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly contagious and responsible for huge outbreaks among cloven hoofed animals. the aim of the present study is to evaluate a plasmid dna immunization system that expresses the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and compare it with the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model. the vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the unique kpn i and bamh i cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ and pegfp-n1 vectors to construct the vp(1) gene cassettes. the transfected bhkt7 cells ...201223001482
enhanced inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combinations of porcine interferon-α and antiviral agents.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. the current fmd vaccine provides no protection until 7days after the vaccination, which reduces its effectiveness in the case of an outbreak. therefore, to find an alternative method of applying antiviral agents for rapid and enhanced inhibition of the fmd virus (fmdv), we compared the antiviral effects of promising antiviral agents and attempted to apply them in combination. firs ...201223000495
avidity and subtyping of specific antibodies applied to the indirect assessment of heterologous protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.serological assessment of the heterologous response among foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains is mainly performed by virus neutralization test (vnt), liquid phase blocking elisa and complement fixation assay. in this study two high-throughput elisa techniques, avidity and igg subtype elisa, were developed and used to further characterize heterologous antibody responses in cattle during vaccination and challenge. both assays were applied to a set of previously characterized sera from anim ...201223000129
a bayesian inference framework to reconstruct transmission trees using epidemiological and genetic data.the accurate identification of the route of transmission taken by an infectious agent through a host population is critical to understanding its epidemiology and informing measures for its control. however, reconstruction of transmission routes during an epidemic is often an underdetermined problem: data about the location and timings of infections can be incomplete, inaccurate, and compatible with a large number of different transmission scenarios. for fast-evolving pathogens like rna viruses, ...201223166481
recombinant viral protein vp1 suppresses her-2 expression and migration/metastasis of breast cancer.breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer death. development of new therapeutic agents for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis is therefore an urgent need. we previously demonstrated that recombinant dna-derived viral capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced apoptosis of mcf-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. here, we investigated whether rvp1 exhibits any inhibitory effects on migration/metastasis ...201222983836
development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (bombyx mori) pupae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. in 2009, fmdv serotype a caused outbreaks of fmd in cattle in china. although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control fmd, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. here, we expressed the p1-2a and the 3c coding regions of a serotype a fmdv ...201222952788
robust expression and secretion of xylanase1 in chlamydomonas reinhardtii by fusion to a selection gene and processing with the fmdv 2a peptide.microalgae have recently received attention as a potential low-cost host for the production of recombinant proteins and novel metabolites. however, a major obstacle to the development of algae as an industrial platform has been the poor expression of heterologous genes from the nuclear genome. here we describe a nuclear expression strategy using the foot-and-mouth-disease-virus 2a self-cleavage peptide to transcriptionally fuse heterologous gene expression to antibiotic resistance in chlamydomon ...201222937037
interplay of foot-and-mouth disease virus, antibodies and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: virus opsonization under non-neutralizing conditions results in enhanced interferon-alpha responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly infectious member of the picornaviridae inducing an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. vaccine-induced immune protection correlates with the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies but also opsonising antibodies have been proposed as an important mechanism of the immune response contributing to virus clearance by macrophages and leading to the production of type-i interferon (ifn) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc). the present s ...201222934974
foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 2c interacts with beclin1, modulating virus replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an apthovirus within the picornaviridae family. replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. the largest viral protein in the replication complex, 2c, is thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. however, studies examining the function of fmdv 2c have been rather limited. to better understand the role of 2c in the ...201222933281
novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. vaccines require ∼7 days to induce protection; thus, before this time, vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1×10(11) focus forming units (ffu) of a replication-defective human adenovirus containing the gene for porcine interferon alpha (adt-pifn-α) are sterilely protected from fmdv serotypes a24, o1 manisa, or asia 1 when t ...201222924938
a safe foot-and-mouth disease vaccine platform with two negative markers for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is widely practiced to control fmd. currently, fmd vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent fmdv in biocontainment-level facilities. here, two marker fmdv vaccine candidates (a(24)ll3d(yr) and a(24)ll3b(pvkv)3d(yr)) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (l(pro)) and one of the 3b proteins were constructed and evaluated. these vaccine candidates also contain e ...201222915802
identification of short hairpin rna targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.although it is known that rna interference (rnai) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), it has not been previously investigated whether shrnas targeting fmdv in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against fmdv challenge.201222905125
human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro generation, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of fmd capsid genes (adfmd) are being developed by the united states dept. of homeland security and industry partners. the strategic goal of this program is to develop adfmd licensed vaccines for the usa national veterinary stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an fmd outbreak. this vaccine platform provides a unique opport ...201222888605
genome sequences of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from egypt and palestinian autonomous territories (gaza strip).two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in north africa (egypt) and the middle east (palestinian autonomous territories). these data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the fmdv sat 2 topotype vii, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the sahara desert. further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links be ...201222843860
characteristics of serology-based vaccine potency models for foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine potency testing involves hundreds of animals each year. despite considerable efforts during the past decades, a challenge-free alternative vaccine potency test to replace the european protective dose 50% test (pd(50)) has not been implemented yet. the aim of the present study was to further characterize the properties of serological vaccine potency models.201222824343
characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. conventional fmd vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of fmd from europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processe ...201222815275
synergistic effects of 2a-mediated polyproteins on the production of lignocellulose degradation enzymes in tobacco plants.cost-effective bioethanol production requires a supply of various low-cost enzymes that can hydrolyse lignocellulosic materials consisting of multiple polymers. because plant-based enzyme expression systems offer low-cost and large-scale production, this study simultaneously expressed β-glucosidase (bglb), xylanase (xylii), exoglucanase (e3), and endoglucanase (cel5a) in tobacco plants, which were individually fused with chloroplast-targeting transit peptides and linked via the 2a self-cleaving ...201222798663
double candida antarctica lipase b co-display on pichia pastoris cell surface based on a self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a develop a high efficiency candida antarctica lipase b (calb) yeast display system, we linked two calb genes fused with sacchromyces cerevisiae cell wall protein genes, the sed1 and the 3'-terminal half of sag1, separately by a 2a peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a single open reading frame. the calb copy number of recombinant strain kcse2acsa that harbored the orf was identified, and the quantity of calb displayed on the cell surface and the enzyme activity of the strain were ...201222797600
improved neutralising antibody response against foot-and-mouth-disease virus in mice inoculated with a multi-epitope peptide vaccine using polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid as an adjuvant.a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was designed. the peptide immunogen had a g-h loop domain optimised for immunogenicity and broad-spectrum antigenicity to different lineages of serotype-o fmd viruses (fmdvs). polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid [poly (i:c)] was used as the adjuvant to overcome the low humoral antibody levels often observed in association with peptide-based vaccines. the multi-epitope peptide alone induced the secretion of a certain level of neutralising ...201222766183
mutagenesis-mediated decrease of pathogenicity as a feature of the mutant spectrum of a viral population.rna virus populations are heterogeneous ensembles of closely related genomes termed quasispecies. this highly complex distribution of variants confers important properties to rna viruses and influences their pathogenic behavior. it has been hypothesized that increased mutagenesis of viral populations, by treatment with mutagenic agents, can induce alterations in the pathogenic potential of a virus population. in this work we investigate whether mutagenized foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pop ...201222761933
connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. to test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.201222761900
increased plasma cardiac troponin i concentration in lambs with myocarditis.cardiac troponin i (ctni) is a blood biomarker of myocardial injury. a human ctni assay may be useful for measuring ctni concentrations in lambs with naturally occurring myocarditis.201222747688
bola-drb3 gene polymorphism and fmd resistance or susceptibility in wanbei cattle.for the further characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-induced foot-and-mouth disease, we investigated the association between polymorphism of bola-drb3 gene and fmd resistance/susceptibility of wanbei cattle challenged with fmdv. one hundred cattle were challenged with fmdv and exon 2 of bola-drb3 genes was amplified by hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction from asymptomatic animals and from animals with fmd. pcr products were characterized by the rflp technique using restricti ...201222744423
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease cleaves nemo to impair innate immune signaling.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral illness of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals. the causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), replicates rapidly, efficiently disseminating within the infected host and being passed on to susceptible animals via direct contact or the aerosol route. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to block the host interferon (ifn) response. previously, we and others demonstrated that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of fmdv is an ifn anta ...201222718831
field outbreak strains of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus from india with a deletion in the immunodominant βg-βh loop of the vp1 protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o accounts for around 80 % of the outbreaks in india. although indian serotype o isolates belongs to the me-sa topotype, circulation of different lineages has been noted. after its emergence in the year 2001, the 'ind2001' lineage outcompeted the panasia lineage in causing serotype o outbreaks in the year 2009. three isolates had an amino acid deletion at position 139 in the vp1 coding region and grouped with the 'ind2001' lineage. the currently used indian ...201222707045
sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine construct encoding fmdv-specific multivalent epitope gene: studies on its immune responses in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is still a perennial global menace affecting livestock health and production. it is imperative to figure out new ways to curb this disease. in this study, a sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine, psincmv-vac-meg990, encoding a multivalent epitope gene (representing tandemly linked vp1 c-terminal halves of three foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes) was constructed. in vitro transfection studies in bhk-21 cells revealed that the construct was able to expr ...201222702835
mapping of antigenic determinants on a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus using chicken single-chain antibody fragments.recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scfvs) of antibodies make it possible to localize antigenic and immunogenic determinants, identify protective epitopes and can be exploited for the design of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines. a neutralizing epitope, as well as other potential antigenic sites of a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were identified using phage-displayed scfvs. three unique zim/7/83-specific scfvs, designated scfv1, scfv2 and scfv3, were isolated. further cha ...201222698877
a critical role of n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c-induced apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c, is one of the most highly-conserved viral proteins among the serotypes of fmdv. however, its effect on host cells is not very clear. using yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation approaches, we found that fmdv 2c interacted with the n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) protein. when expressed in cells, fmdv 2c is mainly associated with endoplasmic reticulum in the forms of speckles. in the absence of fmdv 2c, nmi was distributed diffusely in the cytopla ...201222974759
effects of amino acid substitutions in the vp2 b-c loop on antigenicity and pathogenicity of serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability. studies of the antigenic diversity and determination of amino acid changes involved in this diversity are important to the design of broadly protective new vaccines. although extensive studies have been carried out to explore the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of serotype o and serotype a fmdv, there are few reports on asia1 serotype fmdv.201222963009
modulation of foot-and-mouth disease virus ph threshold for uncoating correlates with differential sensitivity to inhibition of cellular rab gtpases and decreases infectivity in vivo.the role of cellular rab gtpases that govern traffic between different endosome populations was analysed on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. changes of viral receptor specificity did not alter rab5 requirement for infection. however, a correlation between uncoating ph and requirement of rab5 for infection was observed. a mutant fmdv with less acidic uncoating ph threshold was less sensitive to inhibition of rab5, whereas another mutant with more acidic requirements was more sensiti ...201222875255
expression and stability of foreign epitopes introduced into 3a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an aphthovirus that belongs to the picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. the capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about fmdv. to explore the potential of fmdv as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa) hsv epitope and an 8 aa flag epitope were introduced into the c-terminal different regions of 3a protein of fmdv full-length infectio ...201222848509
modelling the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in this paper we investigate the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle using previously published data for 8 experimentally infected cows. an 8-compartment, 14-parameter differential equation model was fitted to data collected from each cow every 24 h over the course of an infection on: (i) the concentration of fmdv genomes in the blood, (ii) the concentration of infectious virus in the blood, (iii) antibody levels, and (iv) interferon levels. model parameters ...201222664068
capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs.the surface exposed capsid proteins, vp1, vp2 and vp3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the the present study we compared the pathogenicity of different fmdvs in young pigs. in total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell cultu ...201222624592
mechanism of nucleic acid unwinding by sars-cov helicase.the non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) is a helicase that separates double-stranded rna (dsrna) or dna (dsdna) with a 5' → 3' polarity, using the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis. we determined the minimal mechanism of helicase function by nsp13. we showed a clear unwinding lag with increasing length of the double-stranded region of the nucleic acid, suggesting the presence of intermediates in the unwinding process. to elucidate the natur ...201222615777
evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. in recent years, a series of outbreaks of type o fmd occurred in china (including chinese taipei, chinese hong kong) posed a tremendous threat to chinese animal husbandry. its causative agent, type o fmdv, has evolved into three topotypes (east-south asia (m ...201222591597
evaluation of the solid phase competition elisa for detecting antibodies against the six foot-and-mouth disease virus non-o serotypes.the solid-phase competition elisa (spce) has been evaluated in both screening and titration assay formats for detecting antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for the six non-o serotypes a, c, sat 1, sat 2, sat 3 and asia 1. cut-off values were determined as a percentage inhibition of 40 for the sat serotypes and 50 for serotypes a, c and asia 1, which gave rise to specificity values ranging from 99.41% to 99.9% for the different serotypes. the relative sensitivity between the sp ...201222561986
[erratum: the following article was subsequently withdrawn by the authors. yarim gf, ciftci g (2011): investigation of serum protein profiles in sheep naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus berl munch tierarztl wochenschr (5/6):194-197]. 201222550766
experimental foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in white tailed deer.white tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001 and monitored for the development of clinical signs, histopathological changes and levels of virus replication. all fmdv-infected deer developed clinical signs starting at 2 days post inoculation and characterized by an increase in body temperature, increased salivation and lesions in the mouth and on the feet. virus spread to various tissues was determined by quantifying the amount ...201222520809
insertion of type o-conserved neutralizing epitope into the foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia1 vp1 g-h loop: effect on viral replication and neutralization phenotype.previously, we finely mapped the neutralizing epitopes recognized by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia1-specific mab 3e11 and fmdv type o-specific mab 8e8. in this study, we engineered recombinant fmdvs of the serotype asia1 (rfmdvs) displaying the type o-neutralizing epitope recognized by the mab 8e8. these epitope-inserted viruses were genetically stable and exhibited growth properties that were similar to those of their parental virus. importantly, the recombinant virus rfmdv-c sh ...201222513388
experimental infection of wild boar and domestic pigs with a foot and mouth disease virus strain detected in the southeast of bulgaria in december of 2010.foot and mouth disease (fmd) was detected in a wild boar in southeastern bulgaria in december 2010. the occurrence and spread of the disease in wild cloven-hoofed animals may pose an unexpected and significant threat to fmd virus (fmdv)-free areas within and outside the european union. so far, only one well documented experimental infection with fmd in wild boar has been published. in order to obtain more epidemiologically relevant data regarding the disease in wild boar we conducted an experime ...201222503391
upconversion nanoparticles modified with aminosilanes as carriers of dna vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.the potential of the upconversion nanoparticles nayf(4):yb/er@silica(ucps)/plasmid dna (pcdna3.1/vp1-gfp) complex in inducing immune responses was evaluated using the ucps as carriers of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv asiai/jiangsu2005) dna vaccine. the ucps protection against dnasei degradation was measured using an in vitro inhibition assay. the expression of the plasmid in vivo was determined via confocal microscopy. its biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity assay. based ...201222476264
evolutionary trend of foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong.foot-and-mouth disease is an endemic animal disease in hong kong. in this study, a total of 70 clinical specimens were collected from locally infected pigs from 2001 to 2010. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 sequences reveal that all hong kong fmdv serotype o isolates are classified into three lineages: hk-a and hk-b in cathay topotype, and hk-c in sea topotype. regression analysis projects that the time of divergence from the most recent common ancestor of hk-a and hk-b are 1964 ± 12 and 1987 ± 9 y ...201222472703
emergence of antigenic variants with in serotype a foot and mouth disease virus in india and evaluation of a new vaccine candidate panel.emergence of genetically and antigenically divergent lineages/genotypes and poor intergenotypic antigenic coverage is a major concern in serotype a foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) in india. in 2009, to cover antigenic diversity emerged in serotype a virus field isolates, ind40/2000 was selected as the new vaccine strain for incorporation in the trivalent fmd vaccine formulation used in india. although current vaccine strain (ind40/2000) covers most isolates antigenically, a few vp3(59)-delet ...201222445197
inclusion of a specific t cell epitope increases the protection conferred against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs by a linear peptide containing an immunodominant b cell site.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. fmd control in endemic regions is implemented using chemically inactivated whole-virus vaccines. currently, efforts are directed to the development of safe and marked vaccines. we have previously reported solid protection against fmdv conferred by branched structures (dendrimeric peptides) harbouring virus-specific b and t-cell epitopes. in order to gain insights into the ...201222416886
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in south america.a databank of 78 vp(1) complete sequences of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from south american isolates was constructed. forty-nine samples corresponded to fmdv that circulated between the years 1999-2008, mainly in venezuela, where most type a outbreaks have occurred lately and twenty-nine to strains historically relevant for the continent. the phylogenetic analysis showed that all south american fmdv belonged to the euro-sa topotype. sixteen subgenotypes could be identified, based ...201222397938
recombinant viral capsid protein vp1 suppresses migration and invasion of human cervical cancer by modulating phosphorylated prohibitin in lipid rafts.recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits invasion/metastasis of cancer cells. here we studied its mechanism of action on human cervical cancer cells. the inhibition of cell invasion by rvp1 was accompanied with reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (pip3), phospho-akt s473, phosphorylated prohibitin (phospho-phb) t258 in lipid rafts, dissociation of phospho-phb t258 with raf-1 and the inactivation of raf-1/erk. addition of pip3 or overexpres ...201222388104
foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a decrease in spleen dendritic cells and the early release of ifn-α in the plasma of mice. differences between infectious and inactivated virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. from an economical point of view, it is the most important disease of livestock worldwide. it is known that the virus interacts with dendritic cells, both in the natural host and in mice, but the impact of this interaction on the adaptive immune response is controversial. currently available vaccines are based on inactivated forms of the fmd virus. little is known about the differences between i ...201222387627
an alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. one of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly acting vaccines. needle inoculation of killed virus vaccine is an efficient method of swiftly vaccinating large numbers of animals, either in eradication efforts or in outbreak situations in disease fre ...201222387223
application of the ceditest® fmdv type o and fmdv-ns enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock and wildlife species in uganda.diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests. two antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, ceditest® fmdv-ns for the detection of antibodies against the nonstructural proteins of all fmdv serotypes and ceditest® fmdv type o for the detection of antibodies against serotype o, were evaluated under african endemic conditions where the presence of multiple serotypes and the use of nonpurified vaccines complicate serologica ...201222379044
modelling the influence of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine antigen stability and dose on the bovine immune response.foot and mouth disease virus causes a livestock disease of significant global socio-economic importance. advances in its control and eradication depend critically on improvements in vaccine efficacy, which can be best achieved by better understanding the complex within-host immunodynamic response to inoculation. we present a detailed and empirically parametrised dynamical mathematical model of the hypothesised immune response in cattle, and explore its behaviour with reference to a variety of ex ...201222363437
direct contact transmission of three different foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in swine demonstrates important strain-specific differences.a novel direct contact transmission model for the study of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of swine was utilized to investigate transmission characteristics of three fmdv strains belonging to serotypes a, o and asia1. each strain demonstrated distinct transmission characteristics and required different exposure times to achieve successful contact transmission. while a 4h exposure was sufficient for strain a24 cruzeiro (a24cru), both o1 manisa and asia1 shamir transmission required ...201222342891
a dna vaccination regime including protein boost and electroporation protects cattle against foot-and-mouth against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using dna technology has been documented for sheep and pigs but not for the highly susceptible species of cattle. twenty-five holstein friesian cross-bred cattle were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with a dna vaccine containing the capsid coding region (p1) along with the non-structural proteins 2a, 3c and 3d (pcdna3.1/p1-2a3c3d) of o(1) kaufbeuren alone or coated onto plg (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. in some pcdna3.1/p1-2a3c3d was ...201222330893
adenovirus-vectored shrnas targeted to the highly conserved regions of vp1 and 2b in tandem inhibits replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus both in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) can be used as a rapid and specific antiviral approach. it was shown that treatment with recombinant adenovirus (ad(vp1-2b)) carrying shrnas targeted to the vp1 and 2b genes of fmdv expressed in tandem had marked antiviral effects against fmdv both in ibrs-2 cells and guinea pigs. treatment with ad(vp1-2b) both before and after fmdv infection was most effective in ib ...201222327142
chimeric calicivirus-like particles elicit specific immune responses in pigs.virus-like particles (vlps) have received considerable attention due to their potential application in veterinary vaccines and, in particular, vlps from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) have successfully shown to be good platforms for inducing immune responses against an inserted foreign epitope in mice. the aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of chimeric rhdv-vlps as vaccine vectors in pigs. for this purpose, we have generated chimeric vlps containing a well-known t epito ...201222306796
bovine type iii interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.interferons (ifns) are the first line of defense against viral infections. although type i and ii ifns have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in swine, a similar approach had only limited efficacy in cattle. recently, a new family of ifns, type iii ifn or ifn-λ, has been identified in human, mouse, chicken, and swine. we have identified bovine ifn-λ3 (boifn-λ3), also known as interleukin 28b (il-28b), and demonstrated that expression of this molecule usi ...201222301155
correlation between efficacy and structure of recombinant epitope vaccines against bovine type o foot and mouth disease develop recombinant epitope vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), genes coding for six recombinant proteins (rp1–rp6) consisting of different combinations of b cell and t cell epitope from vp1 capsid protein (vp1) of type o fmdv were constructed and the 3d structure of these proteins analyzed. this revealed a surface-exposed rgd sequence of b cell epitopes in all six recombinant proteins as that in vp1 of fmdv and rp1, rp2 and rp4 globally mimicked the backbone conformation of ...201222286179
serosurveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock on the eastern steppe of mongolia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species, and periodic outbreaks on mongolia's eastern steppe affect mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock. during 2005-08, we collected sera from 36 and 57 calf and adult gazelles, respectively, and from adult domestic animals sympatric with the gazelles, including 138 sheep (ovis aries), 140 goats (capra aegagrus hircus), 139 bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus), and 138 cat ...201222247371
early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues.recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against fmdv in cattle. however, basic mechanisms of ad5-fmdv vaccine function including virus tropism, transgene expression, and antigen presentation, remain incompletely understood. the current study characterized the dynamics of ad5 viral vector ( ...201222227230
a survey on the frequency of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in cattle in north-east of iran by rt-pcr: implications for revising disease control strategy.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in iran. it is essential to timely evaluate the current disease control programme in iran. here, we report the frequency of fmd virus (fmdv) carrier state in cattle slaughtered in mashhad abattoir, mashhad, khorasan razavi, north-east of iran, which contains long common borders with afghanistan and turkmenistan. soft palate samples were collected immediately after slaughter for the detection of fmdv by rt-pcr. the results show that 37.7% of cattle (96 of 2 ...201222222047
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