TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
Validation of an r3AB1-FMDV-NSP ELISA to distinguish between cattle infected and vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock which has a drastic economic impact for affected countries. Although FMDV is distributed worldwide, many regional programs have been effective eradicating this agent. In Argentina, as in many other regions of South America, the combination of a systematic vaccination plan, together with an effective detection system capable of differentiating infection from vaccination, has been successful for eradicating this ...201121946290
Lentviral-mediated RNAi to inhibit target gene expression of the porcine integrin av subunit, the FMDV receptor, and against FMDV infection in PK-15 cells.shRNA targeting the integrin av subunit, which is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) receptor, plays a key role in virus attachment to susceptible cells. We constructed a RNAi lentiviral vector, iav pLenti6/BLOCK -iT™, which expressed siRNA targeting the FMDV receptor, the porcine integrin av subunit, on PK-15 cells. We also produced a lentiviral stock, established an iav-PK-15 cell line, evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of mRNA using real-time qRT-PCR, integrand av expression by ind ...201121899738
fmd virus epitope dominance in the antibody response of vaccinated animals.five neutralising antigenic sites have been identified on the surface of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus. a set of mab neutralisation escape mutant viruses were used for the first time to evaluate the relative use of known binding sites by polyclonal antibodies from three target species, cattle, sheep and pigs. antibodies to all the five neutralising antigenic sites were detected in all the three species, with most antibodies directed against antigenic site 2, followed by antigenic site ...201122158876
Inoculation of swine with foot-and-mouth disease SAP-mutant virus induces early protection against disease.Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (L(pro)) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that L(pro) is also associated with degradation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), a process that requires L(pro) nuclear localization. Additionally, we reported that disruption of a conserved protein domain within the L(pro) coding s ...201122114339
Identification of H-2d restricted T cell epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein VP1.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV). The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope.201121896206
disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and african swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers.transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and african swine fever virus (asfv) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contaminated agriculture facilities to return to food production. wood surfaces are prevalent at these locations, but there is no standardized method for porous surface disinfection; commercial disinfectant ...201122115968
develope monoclonal antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus a order to develop an anti-fmdv a type monoclonal antibody (mab), babl/c mice were immunized with fmdv a type. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 7b11 and 8h4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a were produced by fusing sp2/0 myeloma cells with splenocyte from the mouse immunized with a/av88. the microneutralization titer of the mabs 7b11 and 8h4 were 1024 and 512, respectively. both mabs contain kappa light chains, the mabs were igg1. in order to define the mabs binding epitopes, t ...201121847759
[Enhanced immune response of a novel T-cell immunogen in vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease].We investigated the enhanced immune response of a recombinant T cell immunogen as an effective cellular immune adjuvant. The T cell immunogen named TI contained several T cell epitopes from the VP1, VP4, 3A and 3D proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and two pan-T helper (T(H)) cell sites to broaden the immunogenicity of the protein. Meanwhile, another fusion protein named OA-VP1 was expressed in bacteria, which contained two VP1 proteins of O and Asia1 type FMDV. Mice were vaccinated ...201122117511
Use of inactivated Escherichia coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine.In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally coadministered with a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antigen to pigs. Detoxified Escherichia coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity, demonstrating their efficacy as adjuvants for nonreplicating antigens upon intranasal immunization in swine.201121918121
Cattle remain immunocompetent during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.ABSTRACT: Infection of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) results in the development of long-term protective antibody responses. In contrast, inactivated antigen vaccines fail to induce long-term protective immunity. Differences between susceptible species have also been observed during infection with FMDV, with cattle often developing persistent infections whilst pigs develop more severe symptoms and excrete higher levels of virus. This study examined the early immune response to F ...201122014145
Nanobodies®: new ammunition to battle viruses.In 1989, a new type of antibody was identified, first in the sera of dromedaries and later also in all other species of the Camelidae family. These antibodies do not contain a light chain and also lack the first constant heavy domain. Today it is still unclear what the evolutionary advantage of such heavy chain-only antibodies could be. In sharp contrast, the broad applicability of the isolated variable antigen-binding domains (VHH) was rapidly recognized, especially for the development of thera ...201121939690
Suicidal gene therapy in the effective control of primary human hepatocellular carcinoma as monitored by noninvasive bioimaging.Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually refractory to the available treatments. For cancer gene therapy purposes, real-time imaging of therapeutic gene expression is of great importance because there are multiple factors that modulate the therapeutic gene expression in a complex tumor microenvironment. As a consequence, multiple doses of therapeutic viral vectors may be required for improved efficacy. In the present study, the luciferase reporter gene and the yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) gen ...201121918545
An overview on ELISA techniques for FMD.FMD is one of the major causes of economic loss of cloven-hoofed animals in the world today. The assessment of dominant genotype/lineage and prevalent trends and confirmation the presence of infection or vaccination not only provides scientific basis and first-hand information for appropriate control measure but also for disease eradication and regaining FMD free status following an outbreak. Although different biological and serological approaches are still applied to study this disease, ELISA ...201121888667
the infectivity and pathogenicity of a foot-and-mouth disease virus persistent infection strain from oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid of a chinese cattle in 2010.abstract: background: foot-and mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, febrile, and contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. some animals may become persistent infected carriers when they contact fmd virus (fmdv), and persistent infected animals are a dangerous factor to cause fmd outbreak. findings: 300 op (oesophageal-pharyngeal) fluid samples were collected from cattle without clinic symptom after one month fmd circulated in 2010 in china. a fmdv strain was isolated when a posi ...201122166050
Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN)-a and IFN-ß as well as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a were measured in these samples by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Expression of IFN-ß mRNA was significantly down-regu ...201121868026
an elisa based on the repeated foot-and-mouth disease virus 3b epitope peptide can distinguish infected and vaccinated develop a strategy of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a short (27aa) peptide containing three conserved linear b cell epitopes of the fmdv 3b nonstructural protein was designed. this novel bf peptide was synthesized using a gene splicing by overlap extension protocol with preferred codons for escherichia coli. the resultant eight tandem repeat multimer (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, and 32bf) were expressed as soluble fusion proteins ...201122207215
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.during the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o occurred in ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in south america. this study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. the phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete vp(1) protein showed that, despite th ...201121911020
serotype identification and vp1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from outbreaks in eastern and northern uganda in 2008/ april 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks were reported in kamuli district of the eastern region of uganda. soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further fmd outbreaks were reported in northern uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. the aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (vp)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for fmd outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in uganda. ...201122117844
inoculation of newborn mice with non-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna can induce a rapid, solid and wide-range protection against viral infection.we have recently described the ability of in vitro-transcribed rnas, mimicking structural domains in the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome, to trigger the innate immune response in porcine cultured cells and mice. in this work, the antiviral effect exerted in vivo by these small synthetic non-infectious rna molecules was analyzed extensively. the susceptibility of transfected newborn swiss mice to fmdv challenge was tested using a wide range of ...201122020303
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings.bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. derived from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv (initial dosage 10(4) tcid(50)/ml, strain a iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (nacl) or phosphate supplemented salt (p-salt). in addition, different in-vitro experiments using beef casings were done on a small scale with other fmdv strains (a turkey 06, c-oberbayern and o(1) mani ...201122137684
genetic characterization of vaccine and field strains of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus from india.extreme antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) population has resulted in change of vaccine strains in india twice in the last decade. in such a situation, complete characterization of the vaccine strains is imperative. with regard to the frequent outbreaks of this disease, fmdv field strains are also of interest. therefore three vaccine strains and two field strains of type a fmdv from india were completely sequenced and the obtained sequences were ...201122149500
cpg oligodeoxynucleotide and montanide isa 206 adjuvant combination augments the immune responses of a recombinant fmdv vaccine in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. to prevent the spread of fmdv, inactivated virus vaccines are used to immunize animals in developing countries. however, there are safety concerns. in addition, it is difficult to distinguish the vaccinated animals from those naturally infected ones. in our lab, we have developed a recombinant fmdv vaccine named a7. a7 contained multiple b cell and t cell epitopes, which reside in a capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv ...201121872635
foot-and-mouth disease virus particles inactivated with binary ethylenimine are efficiently internalized into cultured cells.conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are produced from virus grown in cell culture that is chemically inactivated by using binary ethylenimide (bei). here, we show that bei treatment preserves both the architecture of fmdv particles, as inactivated viral particles showed by electron microscopy characteristics similar to those of infectious virions, as well as the general features of infectious virus internalization. binding of inactivated particles to bhk-21 cells was blocked by pr ...201122027488
molecular characterization of amino acid deletion in vp1 (1d) protein and novel amino acid substitutions in 3d polymerase protein of foot and mouth disease virus subtype a/iran87.the nucleotide sequence of the vp1 (1d) and partial 3d polymerase (3d(pol)) coding regions of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strain a/iran87, a highly passaged isolate (~150 passages), was determined and aligned with previously published fmdv serotype a sequences. overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the partial 3d(pol) coding region contained four amino acid alterations. amino acid sequence comparison of the vp1 coding region of the field isolates reve ...201122122902
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was developed for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the amplification was able to finish in 45 min under isothermal condition at 64°c by employing a set of four primers targeting fmdv 2b. the assay showed higher sensitivity than rt-pcr. no cross reactivity was observed from other rna viruses including classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, japa ...201122070774
Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using a field-portable nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR amplification platform.Rapid and accurate field diagnostic tools can be used to support clinical diagnosis during outbreaks of exotic livestock diseases. This study evaluated a mobile PCR amplification platform that performs RNA extraction, real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and interpretation of results without operator intervention. Initial studies showed that there was equivalence between the detection limit generated by RNA extracted using the mobile platform and an automated laboratory-based system. In ...201122115952
Foot and mouth disease leader protease (Lb(pro)): Investigation of prime side specificity allows the synthesis of a potent inhibitor.Foot and mouth disease virus expresses its genetic information as a single polyprotein that is translated from the single-stranded RNA genome. Proteinases contained within the polyprotein then generate the mature viral proteins. The leader protease (Lb(pro)) performs the initial cleavage by freeing itself from the growing polypeptide chain; subsequently, Lb(pro) cleaves the two homologues of the host cell protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). We showed that Lb(pro) possesses specific ...201122085639
Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection.ABSTRACT:201122104039
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader proteinase negatively regulates the porcine interferon-λ1 pathway.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals, and causes an economically important disease in the swine industry. in this study, we found that the replication of fmdv in ibrs-2 cells could be significantly inhibited after treatment with the purified recombinant porcine interferon lambda 1 (ifn-λ1), a newly identified type iii interferon. however, fmdv could not activate the ifn-λ1 promoter and ...201121975014
impact of gene vector design on the control of recombinant monoclonal antibody production by chinese hamster ovary this study, we systematically compare two vector design strategies for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mab) synthesis by chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells; a dual open reading frame (orf) expression vector utilizing separate cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoters to drive heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) expression independently, and a single orf vector design employing a single cmv promoter to drive hc and lc polypeptide expression joined by a foot and mouth disease virus f2a polypeptide self ...201121882365
lethal mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus involves shifts in sequence space.lethal mutagenesis or virus transition into error catastrophe is an antiviral strategy that aims at extinguishing a virus by increasing the viral mutation rates during replication. the molecular basis of lethal mutagenesis is largely unknown. previous studies showed that a critical substitution in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polymerase was sufficient to allow the virus to escape extinction through modulation of the transition types induced by the purine nucleoside analogue ribavirin. ...201121917974
recombinant non-structural polyprotein 3ab-based serodiagnostic strategy for fmd surveillance in bovines irrespective of india, the proportion of bovines vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is increasing since the implementation of the government supported 'fmd control programme', and non-structural protein (nsp)-based serological assays for discriminating between antibodies induced by infection or vaccination (diva) could be useful. the fmd virus nsp 3ab was expressed in a prokaryotic system and an indirect elisa (r3ab(3) i-elisa) was developed and validated as a screening assay for detecting virus ...201121864578
developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock.vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the ...201121893540
Generation and genetic stability of tick-borne encephalitis virus mutants dependent on processing by FMDV 3C protease.Mature capsid protein C of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is cleaved from the polyprotein precursor by the viral NS2B/3 protease (NS2B/3pro). We showed previously that replacement of the NS2B/3pro cleavage site at the C-terminus of protein C by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A Stop/Go sequence leads to the production of infectious virions (Schrauf, S., Mandl, C.W., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Skern, T. 2009. J. Virol. 83: 11201-11210). Here, we show that infectious virions can also be pro ...201122131310
intranasal delivery of cationic plga nano/microparticles-loaded fmdv dna vaccine encoding il-6 elicited protective immunity against fmdv challenge.mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. in this study, cationic plga (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering fmdv dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid protein and the bovine il-6 gene as a means of enhancing muco ...201122110686
reanalysis of the start of the uk 1967 to 1968 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic to calculate airborne transmission probabilities.the aims of this study were to statistically reassess the likelihood that windborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) occurred at the start of the uk 1967 to 1968 fmd epidemic at oswestry, shropshire, and to derive dose-response probability of infection curves for farms exposed to airborne fmdv. to enable this, data on all farms present in 1967 in the parishes near oswestry were assembled. cases were infected premises whose date of appearance of first clinical signs was within ...201121846685
Factors associated with within-herd transmission of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle, during the 2001 outbreak in Argentina: a protective effect of vaccination.Argentina suffered an extensive foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic between July 2000 and January 2002, 3 months after obtaining the official FMD-free without vaccination status conferred by the World Organization for Animal Health. This is one of the largest FMD epidemics controlled by implementation of a systematic mass vaccination campaign in an FMD-free country. In 2000, 124 herds were reported as FMD positive, 2394 herds in 2001 and one in January 2002; the total number of cattle herds in ...201121896154
molecular characterization of serotype asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in pakistan and afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan. the fmd virus serotypes o, a and asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. diverse strains of fmdv, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks. the present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia-1 viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan during the period 1998-2009. p ...201121983559
Genetic characterization of a new pandemic Southeast Asia topotype strain of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in China during 2010.The full-length nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus O/BY/CHA/2010 strain, Mya-98 lineage of Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype, was determined and compared with O/HKN/20/2010 and other known FMDV strains. Homology analysis indicated >98.0% nucleotide identity between O/BY/CHA/2010 and the epidemic strains, O/HKN/20/2010, and O/VN/2009. However, with the exception of the VP4, 2A, and 3BCD regions, O/BY/CHA/2010 showed a lower similarity with SEA topotype strains, O/VN/2006, and HLJ ...201121932049
a rapid molecular strategy for early detection and characterization of vietnamese foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a, and asia 1.a one-step rt-pcr method using newly designed primers vn-vp1f/vn-vp1r targeting the full vp1 capsid protein-coding gene, combined with direct sequencing of its pcr product, has been developed successfully for universal detection and characterization of vietnamese fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1 directly from clinical samples. the one-step rt-pcr amplified 821-bp dsdna products covering the entire vp1 gene of fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1. the obtained dsdna products were suitable for direct se ...201122172973
vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein g carrying a tandem dimer of foot and mouth disease virus antigenic site a can be used as dna and peptide vaccine for cattle.effective foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccines for cattle have two major constraints: resemblance of one or more of the multiple conformations of the major vp1 antigenic sites to induce neutralizing antibodies, and stimulation of t cells despite the variable bovine-mhc polymorphism. to overcome these limitations, a chimeric antigen was developed, using vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (vsv-g) as carrier protein of an in tandem-dimer of fmdv antigenic site a (asa), the majo ...201121889542
Role of macrophages in early protective immune responses induced by two vaccines against foot and mouth disease.Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. We studied the protection and early immune response induced in the murine model by vaccines formulated with inactivated virus and two different adjuvants. The presence of IMS12802PR or ISA206VG adjuvants yielded protection against viral challenge at early times post vaccination and induced FMDV-specific, but non neutralizing, antibody titers. In vivo macrophage depletion in vaccinated mice severely decreased the protectio ...201121878353
Development of a serotype colloidal gold strip using monoclonal antibody for rapid detection type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease.In this study, we developed a rapid, one step colloid gold strip (CGS) capable of specifically detecting type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have produced two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to type Asia1 FMD (named 1B8 and 5E2). On the test strip, the purified 1B8 labelled with the colloidal gold was used as the detector, and the purified 5E2 and goat anti-mouse antibodies were wrapped onto nitrocellulose (NC) membranes as the test and the control line, respectively. The rapid colloi ...201121880157
low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype c virus in kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field.most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. in this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype c virus isolates from kenya, one of the few places in the world where serotype c has been endemic and is suspected to remain. the nucleotide sequences encoding the capsid protein vp1 from eight isolates collected between 1967 and 2004 were analysed for patterns of sequ ...201120334728
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-aug region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the l protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates translation from two in-frame aug codons producing two forms of the leader (l) proteinase, lab (starting at the first aug) and lb (starting at second aug). in a previous study, we have demonstrated that a cdna-derived mutant fmdv (a24-l1123) containing a 57-nucleotide transposon (tn) insertion between the two aug initiation codons (inter-aug region) was completely attenuated in cattle, suggesting that this region is involved in viral pathogenesis. to ...201120849893
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
multiple invasions of o1 fmdv serotype into israel revealed by genetic analysis of vp1 genes of israeli's isolates from 1989 to 2007.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), one of the most dangerous viruses affecting cloven-hoofed animals, comprises seven serotypes that do not mutually cross-protect, with a total of about 80 subtypes. the middle east is an fmd-endemic region, with repeated fmd outbreaks and in spite of its compulsory vaccination policy in israel, outbreaks occur repeatedly. in order to compare the israeli isolates, the complete viral vp1 genes of representative viruses isolated during the major outbreaks from 19 ...201120702050
direct typing and molecular evolutionary analysis of field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus collected in viet nam between 2006 and this study, we used universal or duplex serotype-specific (o and asia 1) rt-pcr to analyze clinical field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or virus isolates collected in viet nam between 2006 and 2007. we found viral serotypes o and asia 1 circulating concurrently during this period. direct sequencing of type-specific rt-pcr products revealed the existence of three different topotypes of serotype o: southeast asia (sea), middle east-south asia (me-sa), and cathay. of these, sea ...201120667669
gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.cytokines as molecular adjuvant play a critical role in differentiation of effector t cell subsets and in determination of the magnitude of the response after vaccination. in this study, we investigated the effects of gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant on the immune responses of vp1 recombinant protein as a model antigen for foot and mouth disease.201121214955
epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of a simulated outbreak in california.the epidemic and economic impacts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spread and control were examined by using epidemic simulation and economic (epinomic) optimization models. the simulated index herd was a ≥2,000 cow dairy located in california. simulated disease spread was limited to california; however, economic impact was assessed throughout the united states and included international trade effects. five index case detection delays were examined, which ranged from 7 to 22 days. the simu ...201121217024
biochemical characterization of enterovirus 71 3d rna unusual enterovirus 71 (ev71) epidemic has begun in china since 2008. ev71 rna polymerases (3d(pol)) showed polymerase activity with an mn(2+). little activity was detected with co(2+), and no activity was detected with mg(2+), ca(2+), cu(2+), ni(2+), cd(2+), or zn(2+). it is a primer-dependent polymerase, and the enzyme functioned with both di- and 10-nucleotide rna primers. dna primer, dt15, increased primer activity, similar to other enterovirus 3d(pol). however, ev71 3d(pol) initiated de ...201121220056
phylogenetic structure of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus: global diversity and the indian epidemiological analysis is vital for implementing progressive regional foot-and-mouth disease control programmes. here, we have generated vp1 region sequences for 55 indian type a outbreak strains and have included complete vp1 sequences from 46 other countries to obtain a comprehensive global phylogeographical impression. a total of 26 regional genotypes within three continental topotypes, based on a 15% nucleotide divergence cut-off criterion, could be identified. these genotypes corre ...201121228130
evaluation of cross-protection between o1 manisa and o1 campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated o1 manisa antigen.serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the o(1) manisa strain of fmdv against challenge with either a homologous (o(1) manisa) or a heterologous strain (o(1) campos). serology by virus neutralization test (vnt) using o(1) manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protect ...201121236232
picornavirus non-structural proteins as targets for new anti-virals with broad activity.picornaviridae is one of the largest viral families and is composed of 14 genera, six of which include human pathogens. the best known picornaviruses are enteroviruses (including polio, pv, and rhinoviruses), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and hepatitis a virus (hav). although infections often are mild, certain strains may cause pandemic outbreaks accompanied with meningitis and/or paralysis. vaccines are available for pv, hav and fmdv. when the oral vaccines are given to immunocompromised ...201121236302
transmission of swine pathogens: different means, different needs.there seems to be two main types of pathogens that cause diseases in swine: those that are mainly introduced through direct pig contacts, and those that are often, and in some situations mainly introduced by indirect transmission means. in this review, the mange mite (sarcoptes scabiei), toxigenic pasteurella multocida and brachyspira hyodysenteriae will be used as examples of the first type, and foot and mouth disease virus, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory synd ...201121241537
study on seroprevalence, risk factors, and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in borena pastoral and agro-pastoral system, southern ethiopia.cross-sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral area to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection and to assess community perceptions as to importance of the disease. a multistage random sampling was carried out to select cattle for seroprevalence and households for interviews. totally, 768 sera were collected from 111 herds. the overall individual level seroprevalence of 23.0% ( ...201121249448
influence of mutagenesis and viral load on the sustained low-level replication of an rna virus.lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy that aims to extinguish viruses as a consequence of enhanced mutation rates during virus replication. the molecular mechanisms that underlie virus extinction by mutagenic nucleoside analogues are not well understood. when mutagenic agents and antiviral inhibitors are administered sequentially or in combination, interconnected and often conflicting selective constraints can influence the fate of the virus either towards survival through selection of mut ...201121256131
the current state of vaccines used in the field for foot and mouth disease virus in china. 201121162615
capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length fmdv cdnas and characterized. the parental virus cdna was derived from the cell-culture-adapted o1kaufbeuren b64 (o1k b64) strain. chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived from the o/ukg/34/2001 or a/turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the o1k b64 cdna, and viable viruses (o1k/o-ukg and o1k/a-tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in ...201121270284
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o with emphasis on korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics.we determined complete 1d gene sequences for one serotype a and seven additional serotype o korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type a and 300 type o isolates from throughout the world using a bayesian coalescent approach. here, korean serotype a virus was linked with those from laos. korean serotype o viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from japan, thailand, the uk, france, ireland, ...201121279395
effects of macromolecular crowding on the inhibition of virus assembly and virus-cell receptor recognition.biological fluids contain a very high total concentration of macromolecules that leads to volume exclusion by one molecule to another. theory and experiment have shown that this condition, termed macromolecular crowding, can have significant effects on molecular recognition. however, the influence of molecular crowding on recognition events involving virus particles, and their inhibition by antiviral compounds, is virtually unexplored. among these processes, capsid self-assembly during viral mor ...201121281589
diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. the aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (mic) evaluation of the fmd virus-induced cytopathic effect (cpe). therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (celltiter 96(®) aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay ( ...201121295609
rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral rna samples.foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. it is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a positive sense rna genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.201121298025
common conformational changes induced in type 2 picornavirus iress by cognate trans-acting factors.type 2 internal ribosomal entry sites (iress) of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and other picornaviruses comprise five major domains h-l. initiation of translation on these iress begins with specific binding of the central domain of initiation factor, eif4g to the j-k domains, which is stimulated by eif4a. eif4g/eif4a then restructure the region of ribosomal attachment on the ires and promote recruitment of ribosomal 43s pre-initiation complexes. in additi ...201121306989
bovine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the major source of type i interferon in response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.type i interferons (alpha/beta interferons [ifn-a/ß]) are the main innate cytokines that are able to induce a cellular antiviral state, thereby limiting viral replication and disease pathology. plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially in response to viruses that have evolved mechanisms to block the type i ifn signal transduction pathway. using density gradient separation and cell sorting, we have highly enriched a population of bovine ...201121307187
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus negatively regulates the type i interferon pathway by acting as a viral deubiquitinase.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a papain-like proteinase that plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. previously, it has been shown that l(pro) is involved in the inhibition of the type i interferon (ifn) response by fmdv. however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. here we demonstrate that fmdv lb(pro), a shorter form of l(pro), has deubiquitinating activity. sequence alignment and structural bioinformatics analyses revealed that the catalyt ...201121307201
a replication analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine lymphoid tissue might indicate a putative carrier stage in pigs.abstract: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmvd), one of the most contagious viruses of cloven-hoofed animals, may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants, named the "carrier state". however, it remains an open question whether this carrier state occurs in pigs. here we present quantitative analyses of the duration of fmdv rna and infectivity in lymphoid and epithelial tissues in experimentally infected pigs with fmdv c-s8c1. the data indicated that although fmdv rna r ...201121314905
dna immunization of pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus minigenes: from partial protection to disease exacerbation.despite several attempts to design new vaccines, there are as of yet no available alternatives to the conventional fmdv vaccines. here, we present the divergent results obtained in pigs after immunization with two experimental dna vaccines encoding one b and two t cell fmdv epitopes, either expressed alone (pcmv-btt) or fused to a strong signal peptide (pcmv-spbtt). while all pigs vaccinated with pcmv-spbtt showed both a delay in the disease onset and reduced severity of signs and lesions after ...201121315115
effect of thiomersal on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles as assessed by novel elisas specific for either 146s or 12s particles.intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions (fmdvs) can dissociate into specific (12s) viral capsid degradation products. using two single-domain antibody fragments that bind specifically to either 146s or 12s particles we developed two elisas for the quantification of these particles in fmdv antigen preparations used for vaccine manufacturing. only o serotype strains are detected in the 146s specific elisa whereas strains of most serotypes are detected in the 12s specific elisa. however, the 1 ...201121316500
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh, and to implement an effective fmd control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. here, we report on the characterization of fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from fmd outbreaks in bangladesh in late 2009. all isolated viruses belonged to the fmdv serotype o. the phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineag ...201121320294
active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide elk16 in escherichia recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (ibs) could be biologically active. in particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, ß-galactosidase, ß-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, d-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active ibs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein vp1, or the human ß-amylo ...201121320350
integrin sub-unit expression in cell cultures used for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability to propagate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in laboratory diagnosis and the production of vaccines to control the spread of the disease. many established cell lines suffer from poor sensitivity for isolating virus from field samples. one possible factor that limits sensitivity to fmdv is the lack of expression of surface integrins, the primary class of cell receptor used by fmdv to initiate infection. in this study we have sequenced cdnas encoding these m ...201121329991
genomic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus r strain and its chick-passaged attenuated strain.the present study examined the genomic differences between foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) r strain and its attenuated, chick-passaged (r(304)) strain. eleven pairs of primers were used to amplify the complete genome of fmdv r and r(304) by rt-pcr. each fragment was cloned into pmd18-t vector and sequenced. nucleotide analyses showed that the genome encoding regions of r and r(304) strains open reading frame (orf) were both 6966 nucleotides (nt) in length, encoding 2322 amino acids. one hund ...201121330068
a simple and rapid colloidal gold-based immunochromatogarpic strip test for detection of fmdv serotype a.a sandwich format immunochromatographic assay for detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes was developed. in this rapid test, affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from guinea pigs which were immunized with sucking-mouse adapted fmd virus (a/av88(l) strain) were conjugated to colloidal gold beads and used as the capture antibody, and affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from rabbits which were immunized with cell-culture adapted fmd virus (a/cha/09 strain) were used as detect ...201121331888
experimental evidence for competitive growth advantage of genotype vii over vi: implications for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a genotype turnover in india, systematic genotype replacement has been observed for serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus. after a decade of co-circulation of genotypes vi and vii, genotype vii emerged as the single dominant genotype since 2001. to derive possible explanations for such epochal evolution dynamics, in vitro intergenotype growth competition experiments involving both co- and superinfection regimes were conducted. coinfection of bhk-21 cells demonstrated abrupt loss in the genotype vi viral load with ...201121338995
a pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a t-cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control fmd. currently, inactivated vaccine of fmdv has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. development of a novel effective vaccine is must.201121342530
development and initial results of a low cost, disposable, point-of-care testing device for pathogen detection.development of small footprint, disposable, fast, and inexpensive devices for pathogen detection in the field and clinic would benefit human and veterinary medicine by allowing evidence-based responses to future out breaks. we designed and tested an integrated nucleic acid extraction and amplification device employing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) or reverse transcriptase-lamp assay. our system provides a screening tool with polymerase-chain-reaction-level sensitivity and speci ...201121342806
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
the expressions of hsp70 and ab-crystallin in myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus in lambs.this study describes the expression of heat shock protein70 (hsp70) and alpha-basic-crystallin (a-bc) and their association with apoptosis and some related adaptor proteins in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-induced myocarditis in lambs. hsp70 was generally overexpressed in the myocardial tissues and inflammatory cells of fmdv-induced myocarditis with differential accumulation and localization in same hearts when compared to non-foot-and-mouth disease control hearts. a-bc ...201121368565
fine mapping of a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope recognized by serotype-independent monoclonal antibody 4b2.vp2 is a structural protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, a fmdv serotype-in-dependent monoclonal antibody (mab), 4b2, was generated. by screening a phage-displayed random 12-peptide library, we found positive phages displaying the consensus motif ettxle (x is any amino acid (aa)), which is highly homologous to (6)ettlle(11) at the n-terminus of the vp2 protein. subsequently, a series of gst-fusion proteins expressing a truncated n-terminus of vp2 were examined by we ...201121369985
rapid and transient activation of +¦+¦ t cells to ifn-+¦ production, nk cell-like killing, and antigen processing during acute virus infection.+¦+¦ t cells are the majority peripheral blood t cells in young cattle. the role of +¦+¦ t cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus was analyzed on consecutive 5 d following infection. before infection, bovine wc1(+) +¦+¦ t cells expressed a nonactivated phenotype relative to cd62l, cd45ro, and cd25 expression and did not produce ifn-+¦ ex vivo. additionally, cd335 expression was lacking and no spontaneous target cell lysis could be detected in vitro, althoug ...201121383249
absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected indian cattle (bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. we studied the heat intolerance (hi) (panting) syndrome and the effect of fmd virus (fmdv) infection on thyroid gland function in indian cattle (bos indicus). experimental infection with fmdv asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered ani ...201121388520
development of expression vectors based on pepino mosaic virus. 201121396092
the importance of being short: the role of rabies virus phosphoprotein isoforms assessed by differential ires translation initiation.the rabies virus (rv) phosphoprotein p is a multifunctional protein involved in viral rna synthesis and in counteracting host innate immune responses. we have previously shown that rv p gene expression levels can be regulated by using picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we exploited a particular feature of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires, namely, preferential initiation at a downstream initiation codon, to address the role of n-terminally truncated rv pho ...201121397980
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsrna-induced rantes transcription in pk-15 cells.the chemokine rantes (regulated upon activation, normal t-cells expressed and secreted) plays an essential role in inflammation and immune response. infection with wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pk-15 cells strongly inhibits the expression of rantes compared to infection with a genetically engineered mutant lacking the leader protein (l(pro)) coding region. this suggests that l(pro) is involved in rantes regulation. however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. i ...201121399922
establishment of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 cells.abstract:201121492421
biosecurity and fmd transmission. 201121493485
isolation, identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from pigs in southwest of china.abstract: backgroud: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. in 2005-2007, fmd outbreaks caused by asia1 type occurred in many regions of china, as well as some parts of east asia countries. during the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. results: in this study, a strain of fmdv that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype asia1, and designated as "a ...201121496298
evidence of activation and suppression during the early immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a serious disease of livestock species, threatening free global trade and food security. the disease spreads rapidly between animals, and to ensure a window of opportunity for such spread, the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to subvert the early immune response. the cycle of infection in the individual animal is very short, infection is initiated, disseminated throughout the body and infectious virus produced in <7 days. foot-and-mouth disease virus has ...201121501424
development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2c'3ab-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals.abstract:201121513550
rna structural domains in non-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus genome trigger innate immunity in porcine cells and mice.induction of type i interferons (ifn-α/β) in response to viral infection is a crucial step leading to the antiviral state in the host. viruses produce dsrna during their replication cycle that is sensed as non-self by host cells through different receptors. a signalling cascade is then activated to block viral replication and spread. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus, highly sensitive to ifn, causing one of the world's most important animal diseases. in this study, we showed ...201121525336
an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in this study, we carried out an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan to analyze clinical manifestation, antibody response and virus sedding patterns in pigs. we found that the virus was virulent in pigs, producing a synchronous disease in the inoculated pigs and efficient spread to direct contact pigs. these results are useful for epidemiologically investigating the 2010 epidemic in japan and improving the measures for cont ...201121532260
identification of the role of rig-i, mda-5 and tlr3 in sensing rna viruses in porcine epithelial cells using lentivirus-driven rna interference.pathogen recognition receptors are essential for antiviral host immune responses. these specialized receptors detect conserved viral compounds and induce type i interferons (ifn) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. here we evaluated the contribution of rig-i, mda-5 and tlr3 to the recognition of classical swine fever (csfv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and influenza a virus (iav) to ifn-β responses in the porcine epithelial cell line pk-15. to this end, we i ...201121539869
development of one-step multiplex rt-pcr method for simultaneous detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a, and asia 1 circulating in vietnam.a one-step multiplex rt-pcr method using new primers was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of vietnamese fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1 directly from clinical samples. the rt-pcr method used a cocktail of one universal minus-sense primer designed in the 2b gene and three serotype-specific plus-sense primers designed in the hypervariable regions of the capsid vp1 coding gene of fmdv. these serotype-specific primer pairs amplified 658, 535, and 427bp pcr products corres ...201121550367
relationship between clinical signs and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control.control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal, or treatment of cases and their contacts. the success of such "reactive" strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before signs appear. we performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction at less than half the value expected from detecting virus in body fluids, the standard proxy measure of infectiousness. th ...201121551063
[construction and expression of a coxsackievirus a16 vp1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated salmonella.]aim: to develop a coxsackievirus a16 (cox a16) vp1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated salmonella. methods: the plasmid which expressed vp1 protein of coxa16 was constructed by gene recombination. cellular expression was assessed by western bloten analysis. then the recombinant attenuated salmonella which harboring the plasmid were constructed by electro transformation. results: coxa16 vp1 gene sequence was inserted into a eukaryotic expression plasmid. vp1 protein was detected in th ...201121557905
Displaying items 3401 - 3500 of 4462