TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
a bicistronic lentiviral vector based on the 1d/2a sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus expresses proteins stoichiometrically.classic ires sequences are notorious for exerting biased expression in favor of upstream coding regions when placed into polycistronic vectors. here, we report the development of a bicistronic lentiviral system based on the 1d/2a sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus that is able to maintain tightly balanced control of upstream and downstream protein expression for several days at a stoichiometry very closely approaching 1.0. our results suggest that the 1d/2a sequence can be optimized ...201020132845
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius).bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with fmdv, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. to understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel integrin cdnas encoding alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to bactrian camels. the complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alphav, beta1 and b ...201020015555
design and optimization of a novel reverse transcription linear-after-the-exponential pcr for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a novel molecular assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction (late-pcr).201020028437
molecular characterization of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. in this study, the presence of fmd virus rna was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after fmd quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir i ...201020003615
rna immunization can protect mice against foot-and-mouth disease previous work we have reported the immunization of swine using in vitro-transcribed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. with the aim of testing whether rna-induced immunization can mediate protection against viral infection, a group of swiss adult mice was inoculated with fmdv infectious transcripts. in most inoculated animals viral rna was detected in serum at 48-72h postinoculation. a group of the rna-inoculated mice (11 out of 19) developed significant titers of neutralizing antibodie ...201020005905
the region between the two polyprotein initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus is critical for virulence in explore the role in viral pathogenesis of the region located between the two functional aug (inter-aug) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), we derived viruses containing transposon (tn) inserts from a mutagenized cdna infectious clone of fmdv (pa24-wt). mutant viruses containing an in-frame 57-nt transposon insertion grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype than the parental virus (a24-wt). a mutant virus containing a 51-nt deletion in inter-aug had a similar phenotyp ...201019896688
effect of fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following needle challenge in sheep.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus antigen payload and single and double vaccinations in conferring protection against virus challenge in sheep was studied. sheep vaccinated with half the cattle dose (1 ml) containing 15 and 3.75 μg of fmdv antigen with or without booster resisted virulent challenge on 21 days post vaccination or 7 days post booster. fmdv rna could be detected in nasal secretions in 26% of vaccinated sheep (10(3.12) to 10(3.82) viral rna copies) on day 35 pos ...201019896714
cd40-expressing plasmid induces anti-cd40 antibody and enhances immune responses to dna vaccination.various approaches have been used to improve the efficacy of dna vaccination, including the incorporation of molecular adjuvants. because the cd40 ligand-cd40 interaction plays a major role in initiating immune responses, we sought to develop a molecular adjuvant targeting this interaction.201019950201
interferon-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection correlates with enhanced tissue-specific innate immune cell infiltration and interferon-stimulated gene expression.previously, we demonstrated that type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) or a combination of ifn-alpha/beta and type ii ifn (ifn-gamma) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (ad5) vector protected swine when challenged 1 day later with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of protection induced by ifns, we inoculated groups of six swine with ad5-vectors containing these genes, challenged 1 day later and euthanized 2 animals ...201019955313
improvement of a recombinant antibody-based serological assay for foot-and-mouth disease virus.differentiating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies generated during a natural infection from those due to vaccination (diva) is crucial for proving freedom from disease after an outbreak and allowing resumption of trade in livestock products. the world organisation for animal health (oie) recommends that fmdv vaccines are composed of inactivated virus that has been purified to remove non-structural viral proteins. such purified vaccines primarily induce antibodies to viral structural ...201019913020
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
functional expression of secreted proteins from a bicistronic retroviral cassette based on foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a can be position dependent.the expression of two or more genes from a single viral vector has been widely used to label or select for cells containing the transgenic element. identification of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a cleavage peptide as a polycistronic linker capable of producing equivalent levels of transgene expression has greatly improved this approach in the field of gene therapy. however, as a consequence of 2a posttranslational cleavage the upstream protein is left with a residual 19 amino acids f ...201020528679
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. the chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a) stability: their shapes were stable at ph 7.0 and ph 8.0 and -30 ...201020540780
high expression level of a foot and mouth disease virus epitope in tobacco transplastomic plants.chloroplast transformation has an extraordinary potential for antigen production in plants because of the capacity to accumulate high levels of recombinant proteins and increased biosafety due to maternal plastid inheritance in most crops. in this article, we evaluate tobacco chloroplasts transformation for the production of a highly immunogenic epitope containing amino acid residues 135-160 of the structural protein vp1 of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). to increase the accumulation le ...201020041332
foot-and-mouth disease viral loads in pigs in the early, acute stage of disease.the progress and pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was studied in infected pigs by observing the development of clinical signs in two separate experiments. viral loads were determined by real-time quantitative rt-pcr in the liver, spleen, cervical lymph node, mandibular lymph node, retropharyngeal lymph node, soft palate, pharynx, tonsil, tongue and skin (coronary band area). tissue samples were collected from both inoculated and contact-infected pigs at several time points dur ...201020045852
genetic characterization of indian type o fmd virus 3a region in context with host cell preference.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. for example, amino acid deletions in the porcinophilic strain (o/taw/97) at 93-102aa of the 153 codons long 3a protein have been recognized as the determinant of species specificity. in the present study, 18 type o fmdv isolates from india were adapted in different cell culture systems and the 3a sequence was analyzed. these isolates had complete 3a coding sequence (153aa) and did not exhibit growth re ...201020302973
an indirect elisa for serodiagnosis of cattle footrot caused by fusobacterium necrophorum.a serodiagnostic elisa (rl-elisa) using recombinant truncated leukotoxin protein pl2 (aa 311-644) of fusobacterium necrophorum as antigen was developed for detection of antibodies against f. necrophorum from cattle footrot. in rl-elisa, the recombinant diagnostic antigen showed no cross-reaction with antisera against bovine foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine rotavirus type a, bovine escherichia coli, and bovine salmonella. the rl-elisa ...201020304080
[transmission risk for foot-and-mouth-disease in an animal-densed region in germany--results from an expert survey].due to its strong impact on economics and trading the foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd) is one of the most important animal diseases within animal husbandry. because no recent specific field observation for fmd exists in germany, the risk assessment needs validated epidemiological models to prepare decision tools for fmd-outbreak management. the aim of this investigation was therefore to prepare a risk assessment for different transmission pathways to use for fmd-models in future. to prepare a fmd-tr ...201020329640
development of tobacco necrosis virus a as a vector for efficient and stable expression of fmdv vp1 peptides.plant virus-based expression systems provide attractive alternatives for production of animal virus-originated antigenic peptides. in the present study, an infectious cdna clone of tobacco necrosis virus a chinese isolate (tnv-a(c)) was used for expression of different peptides derived from foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o vp1 fused downstream of the coat protein (cp) open reading frame (orf). chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with in vitro transcripts of the chimaeras developed ...201020331532
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor protein and 3c protease expression on bovine herpesvirus 1 replication.several reports have previously shown that expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein encoding region p1-2a together with the 3c protease (p1-2a/3c) results in correct processing of the capsid precursor into vp0, vp1 and vp3 and formation of fmdv capsid structures that are able to induce a protective immune response against fmdv challenge after immunization using naked dna constructs or recombinant viruses. to elucidate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) mig ...201020333533
degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses.the objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr). three fmd-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. compost temperatures had reached 50 degrees c and 70 degrees c by days 10 and ...201020357957
genetic and antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in taiwan between 1998 and 2009.a devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by a porcinophilic serotype o virus, occurred in taiwan in march 1997. this outbreak was brought under control by means of a stamping-out policy and vaccination. although mandatory vaccination was conducted in taiwan between 1997 and 2007, sporadic outbreaks of fmd occurred between 1998 and 2009; however, the viruses that caused these outbreaks remain uncharacterized. this article reports the genetic and antigenic characterization of ...201020362404
cell entry of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis a virus is dependent on endosome acidification.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and both are now classified within the genus aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae. for disease security reasons, fmdv can be handled only in high-containment facilities, but these constraints do not apply to erav, making it an attractive alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology. here, we show, using immunofluorescence, pharmacological agents, and dominant negative inhibitors, that er ...201020375159
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant polymerases with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.passage of poliovirus (pv) or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the presence of ribavirin selected for viruses with decreased sensitivity to r, which included different mutations in their polymerase (3d): g64s located in the finger subdomain in the case of pv and m296i located within loop beta9-alpha11 at the active site in the case of fmdv. to investigate why disparate substitutions were selected in two closely related 3ds, we constructed fmdvs with a 3d that included either g62s (the equi ...201020392853
characteristics of codon usage bias in two regions downstream of the initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mechanism of utilization of alternative two augs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is still unknown to date. in this study, the characteristics of codon usage bias (cub) of the region between the two augs (the region-la) and of the same-sized region behind the second aug (the region-lb) in 94 different fmdv rna sequences were analyzed using relative synonymous codon usage (rscu) values. the results indicated that many codons with negative cub were preferentially used in the region-la. t ...201020398725
assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (gnps) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein was conjugated to gnps ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). an extra cysteine was added to the c-terminus of the fmdv peptide (pfmdv) to ensure maximal conjugation to the gnps, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. the resultant pfmdv-gnp conjugates were then injected into balb/c mice. immuni ...201020400818
no between-pen transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated pigs.many studies have shown transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) within groups of pigs, even when vaccinated, but only limited information is available on transmission between pens. three new experiments were carried out in two replicates, which consisted of infectious pigs housed in a central pen surrounded by four separate pens. first, all pigs were non-vaccinated and pens were separated by a walkway of 40-70 cm. second, all pigs were non-vaccinated again but pens were adjacent. thi ...201020416264
analysis of synonymous codon usage in foot-and-mouth disease this study, we calculate the relative synonymous codon usage (rscu) values and codon usage bias (cub) values to carry out a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern for open reading frames (orfs) among 85 samples which belong to all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although the degree of cub for orfs is a relatively slight, there is a significant variation for cub among different serotypes, which is mainly determined by codon usage pattern depending on rscu. by compa ...201020425142
crystal structure of equine rhinitis a virus in complex with its sialic acid receptor.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) shares many features with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and both are classified within the genus aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae. erav is used as a surrogate for fmdv research as it does not require high-level biosecurity. in contrast to fmdv, which uses integrins as cellular receptors, the receptor for erav has been reported to involve the sugar moiety sialic acid. this study confirmed the importance of sialic acid for cell entry by erav and reports ...201020427563
pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by rt linear-after-the-exponential pcr.a reverse transcription linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction (rt late-pcr) assay was evaluated for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this pan-serotypic assay targets highly conserved sequences within the 3d (rna polymerase) region of the fmdv genome, and uses end-point hybridisation analysis of a single mismatch-tolerant low temperature probe to confirm the identity of the amplicons. an armored rna served as an internal control to validate virus negative results ...201020433917
recent spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the far east. 201020435988
molecular characterization and expression analysis of porcine integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 that are potentially involved in fmdv the present study, we report the sequences and characterization of the porcine integrin cdnas encoding alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits and compare them to those of other species. the coding sequences for the porcine alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits were found to be 3141, 2289, 2367 and 2304 nucleotides in length, encoding 1046, 762, 788 and 767-amino-acid-residue protein, respectively. the porcine integrin alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunit shares common structural and func ...201020438833
nmr solution structure of poliovirus uridylyated peptide linked to the genome (vpgpu).picornaviruses have a 22-24 amino acid peptide, vpg, bound covalently at the 5' end of their rna, that is essential for replication. vpgs are uridylylated at a conserved tyrosine to form vpgpu, the primer of rna synthesis by the viral polymerase. this first complete structure for any uridylylated vpg, of poliovirus type 1 (pv1)-vpgpu, shows that conserved amino acids in vpg stabilize the bound ump, with the uridine atoms involved in base pairing and chain elongation projected outward. comparing ...201020441784
cell density-dependent expression of viral antigens during persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.immunofluorescence analyses of fmdv persistently infected bhk-21 cells showed that in cultures from early stages of the persistence (passage 15) only about 10% of cells displayed viral antigens, while at late stages (passage 100) no fmdv antigen-positive cells were found. positive cells at passage 15 displayed a number of structural alterations that did not differ from those observed in lytically infected cells. in these monolayers, and remarkably, clusters of cells that exceeded confluence were ...201020444479
increasing a robust antigen-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte response by fmdv dna vaccination with il-9 expressing construct.various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of dna vaccination. in this study, we sought to investigate if a dna construct expressing il-9 (designed as prov-il9) as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcd-vp1 dna vaccination. mice immunized with pcd-vp1 combined with prov-il9 developed a strong humoral response. in addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cy ...201020445754
construction of a multiple targeting rnai plasmid that inhibits target gene expression and fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and suckling mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that afflicts cloven-hoofed animals. the etiological agent of fmd is foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the vp1 gene of fmdv is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in the attachment of the virus to susceptible cells. we constructed a plasmid, pcwn11, that expresses sirnas multiple-targeting the vp1 genes of fmdv. we evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of the plasmid using an enhanced green fluorescent ...201020446035
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
new vaccine design based on defective genomes that combines features of attenuated and inactivated vaccine designs are needed to control diseases associated with antigenically variable rna viruses. foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that inflicts severe economic losses. although the current whole-virus chemically inactivated vaccine has proven effective, it has led to new outbreaks of fmd because of incomplete inactivation of the virus or the escape of infectious virus from vaccine production premises. we have previously shown that serial passages of ...201020454676
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
formation of virus-like particles from o-type foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells using codon-optimized synthetic genes.a recombinant baculovirus was constructed to simultaneously express codon-optimized virus-like particles (vlp), a vp1-2a-vp3 and vp0 of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), from individual promoters. the target proteins were expressed in insect cells at high level, as shown by indirect sandwich elisa; and the expressed vp1-2a-vp3 could autocatalytically be cleaved into the individual proteins, vp1-2a and vp3, as shown by western-blot analyses. in addition, in the insect cells, the str ...201020464450
localisation of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus protein 2c to the golgi apparatus using antibodies generated against a peptide region.the picornavirus 2c protein is highly conserved and indispensible for virus replication. polyclonal antibodies against theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (tmev) 2c protein were generated by immunisation of rabbits with a peptide comprising amino acids 31-210 of the protein. antibodies were used to investigate the localisation of 2c in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. analysis of infected cells revealed that the distribution of 2c changed during infecti ...201020471424
heterogeneity and genetic variations of serotypes o and asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in vietnam.six field foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs), including four serotype o and two serotype asia 1 strains, were collected from endemic outbreaks in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from four different provinces in vietnam. the viruses were isolated and genetically characterized for their complete genomic sequences. the genetic analysis based on the complete genomic coding sequences revealed that the four serotype o fmdvs were related to each other, sharing 95.2% nucleotide (nt) identity and 97.5-97.6% ami ...201020478669
differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. molecular studies have demonstrated that l(pro) inhibits translation of host capped mrnas and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response. we have used microarray technology to study the gene expression profile of bovine cells infected with wild type (wt) or leaderless fmdv. thirty nine out of approximately 22,000 bovine genes were selectively up-regulated by ...201020494391
remaining vigilant for foot-and-mouth disease. 201020495175
deletion mutants of vpg reveal new cytopathology determinants in a picornavirus.success of a viral infection requires that each infected cell delivers a sufficient number of infectious particles to allow new rounds of infection. in picornaviruses, viral replication is initiated by the viral polymerase and a viral-coded protein, termed vpg, that primes rna synthesis. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is exceptional among picornaviruses in that its genome encodes 3 copies of vpg. why fmdv encodes three vpgs is unknown.201020505767
foot-and-mouth disease virus 2c is a hexameric aaa+ protein with a coordinated atp hydrolysis mechanism.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a positive sense, single-stranded rna virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. like other picornaviruses, fmdv has a conserved 2c protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of aaa+ atpases that has a predicted n-terminal membrane-binding amphipathic helix attached to the main atpase domain. in infected cells, 2c is involved in the formation of membrane vesicles, where it co-localizes with viral rna replication complex ...201020507978
effect of fmd vaccination on semen quality parameters in karan fries and murrah buffalo bulls.effect of foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination was studied on semen quality parameters of 19 karan fries (kf) and eight murrah (mu) breeding bulls during the period 2002 to 2004 at artificial breeding complex, ndri, karnal. a total of non-vaccinated 155 kf and 72 mu bulls' ejaculates were taken as control, while 169 kf and 51 mu bulls' ejaculates, collected after vaccination, were used to study the effect of vaccination stress. the results showed that fmd vaccination had no significant (p > ...201020509049
airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease--model intercomparison.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of fmdv in a number of countries, including the uk, denmark, australia, new zealand, usa and canada. these models were compared at ...201019138867
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposure.the goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. a novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early replication sites. virus distribution after aerosol inoculation was compared at 24h post inoculation with simple nasal instillation. aerosol inoculation of fmdv consistently resulted in virus detection b ...201018930417
transmission risks and control of foot-and-mouth disease in the netherlands: spatial 2001 the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in great britain, the netherlands and france have shown how fast fmdv may spread between farms. the massive socio-economic impact of these epidemics and the intervention measures taken demonstrate the need for quantitative assessments of the efficacy of candidate intervention strategies. here we use a mathematical model to describe the spatial transmission of fmdv in the netherlands and use the dutch 2001 outbreak data to estimate mode ...201021352775
estimating risk factors for farm-level transmission of disease: foot and mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in great britain.controlling an epidemic would be aided by establishing whether particular individuals in infected populations are more likely to transmit infection. however, few analyses have characterised such individuals. such analyses require both data on who infected whom and on the likely determinants of transmission; data that are available at the farm level for the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in great britain. using these data a putative number of daughter infected premises (ips) resulting from ...201021352781
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
Tempo and mode of inhibitor-mutagen antiviral therapies: a multidisciplinary approach.The continuous emergence of drug-resistant viruses is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of viral infections, thus representing a persistent spur to the search for new therapeutic strategies. Among them, multidrug treatments are currently at the forefront of pharmaceutical, clinical, and computational investigation. Still, there are many unknowns in the way that different drugs interact among themselves and with the pathogen that they aim to control. Inspired by experimental studies w ...201121911373
Establishment of a Stable Cell Line Coexpressing Dengue Virus-2 and Green Fluorescent Protein for Screening of Antiviral Compounds.This study aimed to generate a stable cell line harboring subgenomic dengue virus replicon and a green fluorescent gene (DENV/GFP) for a cell-based model to screen anti-DENV compounds. The gene-encoding envelope protein of DENV-2 was deleted and then replaced with fragments of the GFP gene and a foot-and-mouth-disease virus 2A-derived cleavage site. The human cytomegalovirus immediate early and antisense hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences were added at the 5'- and 3'-ends. An internal ribo ...201122068705
increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2b is associated with a specific t cell response.we previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 capsid subunit vaccine, ad5-a24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (cmv) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an ad5-vectored fmdv o1 campos vaccine, ad5-o1c, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of th ...201122027486
Formation of higher-order FMDV 3Dpol complexes is dependent on elongation activity.The replication of many viruses involves the formation of higher-order structures or replication 'factories'. We show that the key replication enzyme of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, forms fibrils in vitro. Although there are similarities with previously characterised poliovirus polymerase fibrils, FMDV fibrils are narrower, composed of both protein and RNA and, importantly, are only seen when all components of an elongation assay are present. Furthermore ...201122156531
Investigation of serum protein profiles in sheep naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.This study was carried out to determine serum protein profiles in naturally infected sheep with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The study material consisted of twelve healthy and 36 sheep with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD had been diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and results of serological examination. Serotypes serologically detected in the FMDV-infected sheep were as follows: O (n = 11), A (n = 8) and mixed infection with serotypes O, A and Asia-1 (n = 17).The total protei ...201122059288
virus survival in slurry: analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza slurry can be highly contaminated with viral pathogens. the survival of these pathogens within slurry is important since this material is often distributed onto farm land either directly or after heat treatment. there is clearly some risk of spreading pathogens in the early stages of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three dif ...201122226541
development and laboratory evaluation of two lateral flow devices for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus in clinical samples.two lateral flow devices (lfd) for the detection of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus (vsv), types indiana (vsv-ind) and new jersey (vsv-nj) were developed using monoclonal antibodies c1 and f25vsvnj-45 to the respective vsv serotypes. the performance of the lfds was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of vsv. the collection of test samples included 105 positive for vsv-ind (92 vesicular epithelial suspensions and 13 cell ...201122230813
[early steps of picornavirus infection].picornaviridae is a large family of viruses that cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans and animals. it includes important viruses such as poliovirus, hepatisis a virus and foot and mouth disease virus. early steps of infection play important roles in determining the host range and the target organs for each virus. here, i review the recent advances in the studies of cellular receptors for picornaviruses, mechanisms of cell entry and viral uncoating.201122916565
bacterial toxin fusion proteins elicit mucosal immunity against a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen when administered intranasally to guinea pigs.peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 g-h loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. however, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. in the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant a ...201122312350
immune response in goats to different payloads of fmdv monovalent vaccine: protection against virulent challenge and development of carrier status.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen payload and number of dose of vaccine conferring protection against virus challenge in goats was studied. goats vaccinated with oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccines containing different antigen payloads with or without booster resisted virulent challenge at 21 days post-vaccination or 7 days after booster respectively. however, localized sub-clinical infection was observed in two vaccinated goats on 35 days post-challenge. rna coul ...201122282634
comparison of ires and f2a-based locus-specific multicistronic expression in stable mouse lines.efficient and stoichiometric expression of genes concatenated by bi- or multi-cistronic vectors has become an invaluable tool not only in basic biology to track and visualize proteins in vivo, but also for vaccine development and in the clinics for gene therapy. to adequately compare, in vivo, the effectiveness of two of the currently popular co-expression strategies - the internal ribosome entry site (ires) derived from the picornavirus and the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus ( ...201122216134
detection and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings.a total of 1501 oral swab samples from pakistan, afghanistan and tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between july 2008 and august 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in afghanistan (n=61) and both the live animal markets in tajikistan (n=120) all tested negative. however, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from gondal and 11 of ...201122212855
tissue culture independent transformation of the forage crop sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.): an easy method towards generation of transgenics.a transformation system which is free of in vitro plant regeneration following agrobacterium infection is established for the forage legume, sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.) where in the entire embryo axis of the germinating seed was used as the target tissue for transformation. after standardization of transformation conditions, the cotyledonary node of the embryo axis was infected with agrobacterium host lba 4404 harboring the recombinant vector pcambia 2301. the bivalent 1d gene of the two maj ...201123573040
self replicating gene vaccine carrying p1-2a gene of fmdv serotype o and its effects on the immune responses of cattle.dna vaccines are considered as alternatives to live attenuated ones for those diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) where the production and application of live vaccines have been found unsuccessful. however, stability of dna and the quantity of antigen expressed are the major limitation with naked dna vaccines. to address these issues self replicating gene vaccine construct was made for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 'o' and studied. the vector for vaccine construct, designated a ...201123637502
outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackie a16 virus in a childcare centre in croatia, february to march 2011. 201121632018
virus inactivation by salt (nacl) and phosphate supplemented salt in a 3d collagen matrix model for natural sausage casings.due to possible presence and spread of contagious animal viruses via natural sausage casings the international trade in these food products is subject to veterinary and public health requirements. in order to manage these restrictions we determined the effect of casing preservation on four highly contagious viruses for livestock: foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and african swine fever virus (asfv). we used an in vitro ...201121632134
validation of a recombinant integrin αvβ6/monoclonal antibody based antigen elisa for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.a sandwich elisa using recombinant integrin αvβ6 as a capture ligand and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) as detecting reagents has been compared with a polyclonal antibody based elisa (using type-specific rabbit antibodies as capture and guinea pig antibodies as detectors), which is employed routinely at the fao world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), for the identification and serotyping of fmd virus (fmdv). the study used cell culture grown antigens (1351 fm ...201121635921
enhancement of astragalus polysaccharide on the immune responses in pigs inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.the effects of astragalus polysaccharides (aps) on the immune response in pigs immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine were investigated. fifteen pigs were randomly divided into five groups. four groups were vaccinated with a fmdv inactivated vaccine. pigs in three experimental groups were administered varying doses of aps (aps1, 5mg/kg; aps2, 10mg/kg; aps3, 20mg/kg). the influence of aps on the number of cd3(+)cd4(-)cd8(+) cytotoxic t cells, cd3(+)cd4(+)cd8(+) t helper memory ...201121640133
reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.the world organisation for animal health (oie) terrestrial manual and the european pharmacopoeia (ep) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. however, the ep allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in south america. much research has therefore focused on validating both ...201121640777
[expression and utilization of 3ab nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus in escherichia coli].to develop a sensitive and specific elisa for detection of antibodies to the nonstructural protein of fmdv. we cloned and expressed fmdv nonstructural protein 3ab in escherichia coli expression system. the recombinant protein 3ab was purified with ni-nta hisbind resins and characterized by western blotting. an indirect elisa based on purified protein 3ab as a coating antigen was established. the specificity and sensitivity of this assay were evaluated by comparison with a commercial 3abc-elisa k ...201121648221
foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. the efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. the recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140s quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. this method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highl ...201121651939
effective inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in vitro by vector-delivered micrornas targeting the 3d gene.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rnai triggered by small rna molecules, including sirnas and mirnas, offers a new approach for controlling viral infections. there is no report available for fmdv inhibition by vector-delivered mirna, although mirna is believed to have more potential than sirna. in this study, the inhibitory effects of vector-delivered mirnas targeting the 3d gene on fmdv replication were e ...201121663611
immune potential of a novel multiple-epitope vaccine to fmdv type asia 1 in guinea pigs and develop a safe and efficient recombinant subunit vaccine to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 in sheep, a tandem repeated multiple-epitope gene consisting of residues 137-160 and 197-211 of the vp1 gene of fmdv was designed and artificially synthesized. the biologically functional molecule, the ovine igg heavy constant region (oigg) as a protein carrier was introduced for design of the multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine and recombinant expression plasmids pet-30a-re and pet-30 ...201121667339
evolutionary analysis of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan during 2002-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan. three different serotypes of the virus, namely o, a and asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. in the present study, the nucleotide (nt) coding sequences for the vp1 capsid protein (69 samples) or for all four capsid proteins (p1, 7 representative samples) of the serotype a fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the fmdv vp1 coding seq ...201121813704
mechanisms governing the selection of translation initiation sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.translation initiation dependent on the foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site (ires) occurs at two sites (lab and lb), 84 nt apart. in vitro translation of an mrna comprising the ires and lab-lb intervening segment fused to a cat reporter has been used to study the parameters influencing the ratio of the two products and the combined product yield, as measures of relative initiation site usage and productive ribosome recruitment, respectively. with wild-type mrna ~40% of init ...201121813609
expression of foot and mouth disease virus nonstructural polyprotein 3abc with inactive 3c(pro) in escherichia coli.nonstructural 3abc protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was widely used to differentiate vaccinated from natural fmdv-infected animals. 3abc is a polyprotein which is auto-processed to 3a, three copies of 3b and 3c(pro) by 3c(pro) protease. the 3abc gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli as native or mutated 3abc (mu3abc) forms. cysteine residues 142 and 163 of the catalytic triad within the 3c(pro) of mu3abc were changed to serine and glycine, respectively, to inhibit its p ...201121810474
combining livestock trade patterns with phylogenetics to help understand the spread of foot and mouth disease in sub-saharan africa, the middle east and southeast trade in animals and their products is recognised as a primary determinant of the global epidemiology of transboundary diseases such as foot and mouth disease (fmd). as well as causing serious production losses, fmd is highly contagious, being transmitted through multiple routes and hosts, which makes it one of the most important diseases affecting trade in livestock. its occurrence has dramatic consequences for the agricultural economy of a normally disease-free country, as well a ...201121809754
the codon usage model of the context flanking each cleavage site in the polyprotein of foot-and-mouth disease investigate the codon usage pattern of the contexts flanking 11 cleavage sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein, the codon usage model of the corresponding codon position and the synonymous codon usage in the target contexts of 66 strains were characterized by two simple methods based on the relative synonymous codon usage value. the synonymous codons usage pattern was also compared between this virus and two species of hosts (cattle and domestic pig). it is indicated that f ...201121801856
proteomics analysis of porcine serum proteins by lc-ms/ms after foot-and- mouth disease virus (fmdv) analyze serum proteomics differences between normal and foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected piglets, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) was used. samples of venous blood were collected before and after fmdv infection and high abundance serum albumin was removed using a commercial kit. after trypsin digestion, serum samples were processed with lc-ms/ms. proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. we found that apol ...201121799299
chemical disinfection of high-consequence transboundary animal disease viruses on nonporous surfaces.disinfection is a critical part of the response to transboundary animal disease virus (tadv) outbreaks by inactivating viruses on fomites to help control infection. to model the inactivation of tadv on fomites, we tested selected chemicals to inactivate foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), african swine fever virus (asfv), and classical swine fever virus (csfv) dried on steel and plastic surfaces. for each of these viruses, we observed a 2 to 3 log reduction of infectivity due to drying alone. w ...201121798759
enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16 3c proteases: binding to rupintrivir and their substrate, and anti-hfmd drug design.enterovirus 71 (ev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) are the major causative agents of hand foot and mouth disease (hfmd) which is prevalent in asia. thus far there are no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against hfmd. the 3c proteases from ev71 and cva16 play important roles in viral replication and are therefore ideal drug targets. by using biochemical, mutational and structural approaches, we broadly characterized both proteases. a series of high-resolution structures of the free or subst ...201121795339
the complete nucleotide sequences of serotype 'o' and 'a' indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the primary genomic structure of indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a and o vaccine strains was determined, and sequences coding for individual proteins were compared with those of several complete genomic sequences. the clustering based on the whole genome was reflected by that observed with vp1 alone. the indian vaccine strains clustered with currently circulating regional strains, and type a and type o vaccine seeds showed close nucleotide similarity with a22iraq and o1manisa, re ...201121779906
translation of viral mrna without active eif2: the case of picornaviruses.previous work by several laboratories has established that translation of picornavirus rna requires active eif2a for translation in cell free systems or after transfection in culture cells. strikingly, we have found that encephalomyocarditis virus protein synthesis at late infection times is resistant to inhibitors that induce the phosphorylation of eif2a whereas translation of encephalomyocarditis virus early during infection is blocked upon inactivation of eif2a by phosphorylation induced by a ...201121779397
a brief review on diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease of livestock: conventional to molecular tools.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the highly contagious diseases of domestic animals. effective control of this disease needs sensitive, specific, and quick diagnostic tools at each tier of control strategy. in this paper we have outlined various diagnostic approaches from old to new generation in a nutshell. presently fmd diagnosis is being carried out using techniques such as virus isolation (vi), sandwich-elisa (s-elisa), liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe), multiplex-pcr (m-pcr), and ind ...201121776357
differential effects of viral vectors on migratory afferent lymph dendritic cells in vitro predicts enhanced immunogenicity in vivo.targeting dendritic cells (dc) is key to driving effective immune responses. lymphatic cannulation provides access to the heterogeneous populations of dc draining peripheral sites in rodents and ruminants. afferent lymph dec-205(+)cd11c(+)sirpa(+) dc were preferentially infected ex vivo with three vaccine viral vectors: replication defective human adenovirus-5 (rhuadv5); modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva) and fowlpox virus (rfpv) all expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). the rhuadv5 inf ...201121752909
structural basis for the biological relevance of the invariant apical stem in ires-mediated translation.rna structure plays a fundamental role in internal initiation of translation. picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) are long, efficient cis-acting elements that recruit the ribosome to internal mrna sites. however, little is known about long-range constraints determining the ires rna structure. here, we sought to investigate the functional and structural relevance of the invariant apical stem of a picornavirus ires. mutation of this apical stem revealed better performance of g:c compa ...201121742761
understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus early pathogenesis and immune responses. 201121733132
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. the occurrence of persistently infected "carriers" of fmd-virus (fmdv) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control. there have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. i ...201121831538
in-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-rgd receptor recognition sites.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) uses a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. previous sequence analyses of the 1d-encoding region of an fmdv field isolate (asia1/js/cha/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an arg-asp-asp (rdd) or an arg-ser-asp (rsd) triplet instead of the rgd integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution ...201121711567
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the breath of infected cattle using a hand-held device to collect aerosols.exhaled air of individual cattle infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sampled to assess the feasibility of a rapid, non-invasive general screening approach for identifying sources of fmdv infection. the air sampler used was a handheld prototype device employing electrostatic particle capture in a microchip chamber of 10-15╬╝l and was shown to effectively capture a high percentage of airborne microorganisms. the particles were eluted subsequently from the chip cham ...201121723882
[foot and mouth disease virus keeps lurking around the corner]. 201121702179
predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the south african territories (sat) types using virus neutralization data.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outer capsid proteins 1b, 1c and 1d contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. this study presents phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analyses of south african territories (sat) serotypes prevalent in sub-saharan africa. here, we show that the high levels of genetic diversity in the p1-coding region within the sat serotypes are reflected in the antigenic properties of these viruses and t ...201121697350
a dna vaccine encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus b and t-cell epitopes targeted to class ii swine leukocyte antigens protects pigs against viral challenge.development of efficient and safer vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a must. previous results obtained in our laboratory have demonstrated that dna vaccines encoding b and t cell epitopes from type c fmdv, efficiently controlled virus replication in mice, while they did not protect against fmdv challenge in pigs, one of the fmdv natural hosts. the main finding of this work is the ability to improve the protection afforded in swine using a new dna-vaccine prototype (pcmv-apc ...201121820470
in silico analysis of ires rnas of foot-and-mouth disease virus and related picornaviruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) uses an internal ribosome entry site (ires), a highly structured segment of its genomic rna, to hijack the translational apparatus of an infected host. computational analysis of 162 type ii picornavirus ires rna sequences yielded secondary structures that included only base pairs supported by comparative or experimental evidence. the deduced helical sections provided the foundation for a hypothetical three-dimensional model of fmdv ires rna. the model was furt ...201121681504
recombinant vp1, an akt inhibitor, suppresses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing apoptosis and modulation of ccl2 production.the application of viral elements in tumor therapy is one facet of cancer research. recombinant capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. here, we aim to further investigate its apoptotic mechanism and possible anti-metastatic effect in murine models of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc), one of the most common human cancers worldwide.201121826248
Comparative study of codon substitution patterns in foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype O).We compared genetic variations in the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) isolated since 2000 according to the region of the world from. We analyzed relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and phylogenetic relationship between geographical regions, and calculated the genetic substitution patterns between Korean isolate and those from other countries. We calculated the ratios of synonymously substituted codons (SSC) to all observed substitutions and developed a new analytical parame ...201121825834
rapid typing of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia 1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was rapidly used to detect serotype asia 1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) within 45 min at 61°c. all fmdv serotype asia 1 reference strains were positive by rt-lamp, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes o, c, a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and japanese encephalitis virus remained negative. furthermore, fmdv sreotype as ...201122040459
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