PMID(sorted ascending)
identification of a conformational epitope on the vp1 g-h loop of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by a protective monoclonal antibody.although neutralizing antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be defined by selection of monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutants, no conformational neutralizing epitope on the major antigenic site located on the g-h loop of type asia1 fmdv has been precisely mapped. in this study, we generated a potent neutralizing mab 3e11, which recognized a conformation-dependent epitope and neutralized fmdv asia1/ys/cha/05 in vitro. importantly, a dose of 5.5 nt(50) of the mab 3e11 comple ...201020961714
identification of a conserved linear epitope on the vp1 protein of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus by neutralising monoclonal antibody 8e8.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o remains an important threat to animal husbandry worldwide, and the variability of the virus presents a major problem for fmdv vaccine design. high-affinity neutralising antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype o and protect against future pandemics. we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (mab) 8e8 that potently neutralised infection of fmdv o/ys/cha/05 both in vitro and in v ...201020974198
[not available]. 194620989736
[not available]. 194620991149
studies of vesicular stomatitis with special reference to a virus of swine origin. 194621009445
[not available]. 194321011736
effect of temperature, phenol, and crystal violet on vesicular stomatitis virus. 194621013309
change of type in the virus of foot-and-mouth disease observed in connection with artificial drying of the virus. 194521021833
[not available]. 194521026173
development of a foot-and-mouth disease infection model in severe combined immunodeficient mice for the preliminary evaluation of antiviral drugs.recent european guidelines facilitate the use of emergency vaccines during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease. antiviral drugs could be used as a complementary measure. this study aimed at developing a small animal model to assess the in vivo activity of early antiviral lead molecules with anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) activity in vitro. in a first attempt, several fmdv strains were titrated in balb/c mice. inoculations with o₁ manisa or c₁ noville did not induce clinical disease, wh ...201021029400
multiplex pcr for rapid detection of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus variants with amino acid deletion at position 59 of the capsid protein india, there has been co-circulation, extinction and emergence of genotypes/lineages within serotype a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. at present an antigenically heterogeneous, unique lineage within genotype vii dominates the field outbreaks. this genetic cluster has amino acid deletion at position 59 of vp3 (vp3(59)-deletion group), considered to be critical antigenically. the emergence of this group warrants rapid and accurate detection to facilitate early planning and implementation o ...201021029752
enhancement of dna vaccine (p12a3c-pcdna) efficacy against foot-and-mouth disease by coadministration of interleukin-18-expressing (il18 pcdna) plasmid in guinea-pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. the presently used tissue-cultured inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration of immunity. as one of the approaches to develop alternative vaccines, p12a3c-pcdna (containing p12a and 3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus) and bovine il18 pcdna plasmids were constructed and the immune response of these constr ...201021039923
preparation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against fmdv serotype o with synthetic peptide antigen.a short linear peptide was designed according to the antigenic site analysis of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv) serotype o and synthesized as the peptide immunogen. the peptide, which covers the region from amino acid 133 to 160 of vp1 of fmdv, was linked to the n-terminal cysteine and conjugated with the carrier protein of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). normal 6- to 8-week-old balb/c mice were immunized with the 20 μg dose conjugated peptide antigen four times. the splenocytes from ...201021050041
structural analysis provides insights into the modular organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rna translation is driven by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element. the impact of rna structure on the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires activity has been analyzed using selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (shape) and high throughput analysis of rna conformation by antisense oligonucleotides printed on microarrays. shape reactivity revealed the self-folding capacity of domain 3 and evidenced a change of rna structure in a defective gnra mutan ...201021056890
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
promising multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in order to develop a completely safe immunogen to replace the traditional inactivated vaccine, a tandem-repeat multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) type o was developed. it contained three copies each of residues 141 to 160 and 200 to 213 of vp1 of the o/china/99 strain of fmdv coupled with a swine immunoglobulin g heavy-chain constant region (scigg). the data showed that the multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine elicited high titers of anti-fmdv ...201021084463
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus types o and a in malaysia and surrounding countries.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in the countries of mainland southeast asia where it represents a major obstacle to the development of productive animal industries. the aim of this study was to use genetic data to determine the distribution of fmd virus (fmdv) lineages in the southeast asia region, and in particular identify possible sources of fmdv causing outbreaks in malaysia. complete vp1 sequences, obtained from 214 samples collected between 2000 and 2009, from fmd outbreaks in six ...201021093614
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern east africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. to enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype sat 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 vp1 coding sequence ...201021118525
an induced hypersensitive-like response limits expression of foreign peptides via a recombinant tmv-based vector in a susceptible using tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based vectors, foreign epitopes of the vp1 protein from food-and-month disease virus (fmdv) could be fused near to the c-terminus of the tmv coat protein (cp) and expressed at high levels in susceptible tobacco plants. previously, we have shown that the recombinant tmv vaccines displaying fmdv vp1 epitopes could generate protection in guinea pigs and swine against the fmdv challenge. recently, some recombinant tmv, such as tmvfn20 that contains an epitope fn20 ...201021124743
immune responses to the oral administration of recombinant bacillus subtilis expressing multi-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a cholera toxin b subunit.bacillus subtilis has been engineered successfully to express heterologous antigens for use as a vaccine vehicle that can elicit mucosal and systemic immunity response. in this study, a recombinant b. subtilis expressing the b subunit of cholera toxin (ct-b) and an epitope box constituted with antigen sites from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was constructed and named 1a751/ctb-tepias. its capability to induce mucosal, humoral, and cellular responses in mice and guinea pigs was ...201021129406
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in study the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 african buffalos, 21 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major national parks in uganda between 2005 and 2008. serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201021143994
characterisation and epitope mapping of neutralising monoclonal antibodies to a24 cruzeiro strain of fmdv.characterisation of seven neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against foot-and-mouth disease virus a(24) cruzeiro revealed three reactivity groups. gr-i recognised linear epitopes where as gr-ii was conformation-dependent and trypsin-insensitive. the gr-iii was also conformation-dependent, but trypsin-sensitive. mar (mab neutralisation resistant)-mutants could only be produced against gr-i and gr-iii mabs. capsid sequence comparison of gr-i mar-mutants with parent virus revealed c ...201021144677
efficient and stable expression of gfp through wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking.a series of wheat streak mosaic virus (wsmv)-based expression vectors were developed by engineering a cycle 3 gfp (gfp) cistron between p1 and hc-pro cistrons with several catalytic/cleavage peptides at the c-terminus of gfp. wsmv-gfp vectors with the foot-and-mouth disease virus 1d/2a or 2a catalytic peptides cleaved gfp from hc-pro but expressed gfp inefficiently. wsmv-gfp vectors with homologous nia-pro heptapeptide cleavage sites did not release gfp from hc-pro, but efficiently expressed gfp ...201021145088
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
the current state of vaccines used in the field for foot and mouth disease virus in china. 201121162615
analysis of sat1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins: influence of receptor usage on the properties of virus particles.the three sat serotype viruses, endemic in africa, are well known for their difficulty to adapt to cell culture. the viral mechanism involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) tissue tropism and cell-entry is not well understood. a recombinant, small plaque-forming virus (vsat1tc), derived from a tissue culture-adapted sat1 virus (sar/9/81tc), revealed four amino acid substitutions (vp3 asp192→tyr; vp3 ser217→ile; vp1 ala69→gly and vp1 asn110→lys) in the capsid, compared to the sar/9/81wt i ...201021167231
a differential elisa based on recombinant immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene of shv-1 in a baculovirus-insect cell system to discriminate between pigs infected naturally with pseudorabies and vaccinated the present study, the fragment corresponding to the immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene (gepi) from the cl15 argentinean strain of pseudorabies virus was expressed successfully in a baculovirus-insect cell system that contained the m6 gene of bluetongue virus, which encodes the ns1 nonstructural protein. this protein has the ability to polymerize into highly immunogenic tubules inside infected cells that can be purified at large quantities by ultracentrifugation. previously, the ns1 prote ...201021168443
integrity of foot-and-mouth disease virions bound to the this study, we examined the integrity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles during their binding to the surface of bhk-21 cells under physiological condition. for monitoring of the virus integrity we used blocking of the endocytosis with dynasore and cytochalasin d followed by rt-pcr for viral protein vp1 and the resistance of fmdv to the treatment of rnase a. our results showed that integrin binding to vp1 did not cause a substantial conformational change in the viral capsid. furt ...201021175256
effect of the route of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of piglets on the course of disease.three different routes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of piglets, namely intranasal (i.n.) through drops, intradermal (i.d.) into the foot, and intramuscular (i.m.) were compared regarding the onset and severity of the disease. the results showed that the i.d. injection of the virus resulted in the fastest onset of the disease. the i.m. injection led to a delayed onset, but the final effect was identical with i.d. injection. moreover, the i.m. injection was simpler to perform a ...201021175257
foot-and-mouth disease virus exhibits an altered tropism in the presence of specific immunoglobulins, enabling productive infection and killing of dendritic cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. the development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to fmdv. dendritic cells (dc) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in fmdv infection of cattle is uncharacterized. bovine monocyte-derived dc (modc) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of fmdv in vitro. modc were not largely susceptible to inf ...201021177807
a single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid resistance.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid-dependent disassembly process is required for viral rna release inside endosomes. to study the molecular determinants of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly, six fmdv variants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were isolated. infection by these mutants was more sensitive to drugs that raise the endosomal ph (nh(4)cl and concanamycin a) tha ...201021177816
induction of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific cytotoxic t cell killing by vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. this acute infection is caused by the highly contagious fmd virus (fmdv), which infects cloven-hoofed animals, including large and small ruminants and swine. current vaccine strategies are all directed toward the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. however, the role of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) has not received a great deal of attention, in part because of the t ...201021177918
custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sub-saharan africa. fmd vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the south african territories (sat) type viruses, which exist as distinct genetic and antigenic variants in different geographical regions. a cross-serotype chimeric virus, vknp/sat2, was engineered by replacing the ...201021177923
the use of soluble african horse sickness viral protein 7 as an antigen delivery and presentation system.we have investigated the use of soluble chimeric trimers of the major capsid protein vp7 of african horse sickness virus (ahsv) as a vaccine delivery system by targeting some of the natural hydrophilic loops on the vp7 top domain for the insertion of foreign peptides. key to this trimer display strategy is the solubility of ahsv vp7 and how the solubility of this hydrophobic protein can be manipulated by inserting peptides into the top domain. to investigate, we generated different cloning vecto ...201021195731
inhibitors of foot and mouth disease virus targeting a novel pocket of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. in the case of an fmd outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. there are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of fmdv infections.201021203539
structures of ev71 rna-dependent rna polymerase in complex with substrate and analogue provide a drug target against the hand-foot-and-mouth disease pandemic in china.enterovirus 71 (ev71), one of the major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (hfmd), has caused more than 100 deaths among chinese children since march 2008. the ev71 genome encodes an rnadependent rna polymerase (rdrp), denoted 3d(pol), which is central for viral genome replication and is a key target for the discovery of specific antiviral therapeutics. here we report the crystal structures of ev71 rdrp (3d(pol)) and in complex with substrate guanosine-5'-triphosphate and analog 5- ...201021203964
gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.cytokines as molecular adjuvant play a critical role in differentiation of effector t cell subsets and in determination of the magnitude of the response after vaccination. in this study, we investigated the effects of gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant on the immune responses of vp1 recombinant protein as a model antigen for foot and mouth disease.201121214955
epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of a simulated outbreak in california.the epidemic and economic impacts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spread and control were examined by using epidemic simulation and economic (epinomic) optimization models. the simulated index herd was a ≥2,000 cow dairy located in california. simulated disease spread was limited to california; however, economic impact was assessed throughout the united states and included international trade effects. five index case detection delays were examined, which ranged from 7 to 22 days. the simu ...201121217024
biochemical characterization of enterovirus 71 3d rna unusual enterovirus 71 (ev71) epidemic has begun in china since 2008. ev71 rna polymerases (3d(pol)) showed polymerase activity with an mn(2+). little activity was detected with co(2+), and no activity was detected with mg(2+), ca(2+), cu(2+), ni(2+), cd(2+), or zn(2+). it is a primer-dependent polymerase, and the enzyme functioned with both di- and 10-nucleotide rna primers. dna primer, dt15, increased primer activity, similar to other enterovirus 3d(pol). however, ev71 3d(pol) initiated de ...201121220056
phylogenetic structure of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus: global diversity and the indian epidemiological analysis is vital for implementing progressive regional foot-and-mouth disease control programmes. here, we have generated vp1 region sequences for 55 indian type a outbreak strains and have included complete vp1 sequences from 46 other countries to obtain a comprehensive global phylogeographical impression. a total of 26 regional genotypes within three continental topotypes, based on a 15% nucleotide divergence cut-off criterion, could be identified. these genotypes corre ...201121228130
evaluation of cross-protection between o1 manisa and o1 campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated o1 manisa antigen.serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the o(1) manisa strain of fmdv against challenge with either a homologous (o(1) manisa) or a heterologous strain (o(1) campos). serology by virus neutralization test (vnt) using o(1) manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protect ...201121236232
picornavirus non-structural proteins as targets for new anti-virals with broad activity.picornaviridae is one of the largest viral families and is composed of 14 genera, six of which include human pathogens. the best known picornaviruses are enteroviruses (including polio, pv, and rhinoviruses), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and hepatitis a virus (hav). although infections often are mild, certain strains may cause pandemic outbreaks accompanied with meningitis and/or paralysis. vaccines are available for pv, hav and fmdv. when the oral vaccines are given to immunocompromised ...201121236302
transmission of swine pathogens: different means, different needs.there seems to be two main types of pathogens that cause diseases in swine: those that are mainly introduced through direct pig contacts, and those that are often, and in some situations mainly introduced by indirect transmission means. in this review, the mange mite (sarcoptes scabiei), toxigenic pasteurella multocida and brachyspira hyodysenteriae will be used as examples of the first type, and foot and mouth disease virus, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory synd ...201121241537
study on seroprevalence, risk factors, and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in borena pastoral and agro-pastoral system, southern ethiopia.cross-sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral area to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection and to assess community perceptions as to importance of the disease. a multistage random sampling was carried out to select cattle for seroprevalence and households for interviews. totally, 768 sera were collected from 111 herds. the overall individual level seroprevalence of 23.0% ( ...201121249448
influence of mutagenesis and viral load on the sustained low-level replication of an rna virus.lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy that aims to extinguish viruses as a consequence of enhanced mutation rates during virus replication. the molecular mechanisms that underlie virus extinction by mutagenic nucleoside analogues are not well understood. when mutagenic agents and antiviral inhibitors are administered sequentially or in combination, interconnected and often conflicting selective constraints can influence the fate of the virus either towards survival through selection of mut ...201121256131
short-lived carriage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in human nasal cavities after exposure to infected animals.a quarantine period for potentially contaminated personnel can be used to reduce the risk of transfer of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from infected to susceptible premises. this is set at 72 hours in the uk, on the basis of results from laboratory studies and field observations. previous analysis of fmdv carriage within human nasal cavities has relied upon virus isolation by culture in susceptible cells. this study, involving 51 people, evaluated a pcr method, which detected viral genomic ...201021262692
capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length fmdv cdnas and characterized. the parental virus cdna was derived from the cell-culture-adapted o1kaufbeuren b64 (o1k b64) strain. chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived from the o/ukg/34/2001 or a/turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the o1k b64 cdna, and viable viruses (o1k/o-ukg and o1k/a-tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in ...201121270284
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o with emphasis on korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics.we determined complete 1d gene sequences for one serotype a and seven additional serotype o korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type a and 300 type o isolates from throughout the world using a bayesian coalescent approach. here, korean serotype a virus was linked with those from laos. korean serotype o viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from japan, thailand, the uk, france, ireland, ...201121279395
effects of macromolecular crowding on the inhibition of virus assembly and virus-cell receptor recognition.biological fluids contain a very high total concentration of macromolecules that leads to volume exclusion by one molecule to another. theory and experiment have shown that this condition, termed macromolecular crowding, can have significant effects on molecular recognition. however, the influence of molecular crowding on recognition events involving virus particles, and their inhibition by antiviral compounds, is virtually unexplored. among these processes, capsid self-assembly during viral mor ...201121281589
diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. the aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (mic) evaluation of the fmd virus-induced cytopathic effect (cpe). therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (celltiter 96(®) aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay ( ...201121295609
rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral rna samples.foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. it is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a positive sense rna genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.201121298025
common conformational changes induced in type 2 picornavirus iress by cognate trans-acting factors.type 2 internal ribosomal entry sites (iress) of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and other picornaviruses comprise five major domains h-l. initiation of translation on these iress begins with specific binding of the central domain of initiation factor, eif4g to the j-k domains, which is stimulated by eif4a. eif4g/eif4a then restructure the region of ribosomal attachment on the ires and promote recruitment of ribosomal 43s pre-initiation complexes. in additi ...201121306989
bovine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the major source of type i interferon in response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.type i interferons (alpha/beta interferons [ifn-a/ß]) are the main innate cytokines that are able to induce a cellular antiviral state, thereby limiting viral replication and disease pathology. plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially in response to viruses that have evolved mechanisms to block the type i ifn signal transduction pathway. using density gradient separation and cell sorting, we have highly enriched a population of bovine ...201121307187
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus negatively regulates the type i interferon pathway by acting as a viral deubiquitinase.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a papain-like proteinase that plays an important role in fmdv pathogenesis. previously, it has been shown that l(pro) is involved in the inhibition of the type i interferon (ifn) response by fmdv. however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. here we demonstrate that fmdv lb(pro), a shorter form of l(pro), has deubiquitinating activity. sequence alignment and structural bioinformatics analyses revealed that the catalyt ...201121307201
a replication analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine lymphoid tissue might indicate a putative carrier stage in pigs.abstract: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmvd), one of the most contagious viruses of cloven-hoofed animals, may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants, named the "carrier state". however, it remains an open question whether this carrier state occurs in pigs. here we present quantitative analyses of the duration of fmdv rna and infectivity in lymphoid and epithelial tissues in experimentally infected pigs with fmdv c-s8c1. the data indicated that although fmdv rna r ...201121314905
dna immunization of pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus minigenes: from partial protection to disease exacerbation.despite several attempts to design new vaccines, there are as of yet no available alternatives to the conventional fmdv vaccines. here, we present the divergent results obtained in pigs after immunization with two experimental dna vaccines encoding one b and two t cell fmdv epitopes, either expressed alone (pcmv-btt) or fused to a strong signal peptide (pcmv-spbtt). while all pigs vaccinated with pcmv-spbtt showed both a delay in the disease onset and reduced severity of signs and lesions after ...201121315115
effect of thiomersal on dissociation of intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12s particles as assessed by novel elisas specific for either 146s or 12s particles.intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virions (fmdvs) can dissociate into specific (12s) viral capsid degradation products. using two single-domain antibody fragments that bind specifically to either 146s or 12s particles we developed two elisas for the quantification of these particles in fmdv antigen preparations used for vaccine manufacturing. only o serotype strains are detected in the 146s specific elisa whereas strains of most serotypes are detected in the 12s specific elisa. however, the 1 ...201121316500
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh, and to implement an effective fmd control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. here, we report on the characterization of fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from fmd outbreaks in bangladesh in late 2009. all isolated viruses belonged to the fmdv serotype o. the phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineag ...201121320294
active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide elk16 in escherichia recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (ibs) could be biologically active. in particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, ß-galactosidase, ß-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, d-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active ibs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein vp1, or the human ß-amylo ...201121320350
integrin sub-unit expression in cell cultures used for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability to propagate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in laboratory diagnosis and the production of vaccines to control the spread of the disease. many established cell lines suffer from poor sensitivity for isolating virus from field samples. one possible factor that limits sensitivity to fmdv is the lack of expression of surface integrins, the primary class of cell receptor used by fmdv to initiate infection. in this study we have sequenced cdnas encoding these m ...201121329991
genomic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus r strain and its chick-passaged attenuated strain.the present study examined the genomic differences between foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) r strain and its attenuated, chick-passaged (r(304)) strain. eleven pairs of primers were used to amplify the complete genome of fmdv r and r(304) by rt-pcr. each fragment was cloned into pmd18-t vector and sequenced. nucleotide analyses showed that the genome encoding regions of r and r(304) strains open reading frame (orf) were both 6966 nucleotides (nt) in length, encoding 2322 amino acids. one hund ...201121330068
a simple and rapid colloidal gold-based immunochromatogarpic strip test for detection of fmdv serotype a.a sandwich format immunochromatographic assay for detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes was developed. in this rapid test, affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from guinea pigs which were immunized with sucking-mouse adapted fmd virus (a/av88(l) strain) were conjugated to colloidal gold beads and used as the capture antibody, and affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from rabbits which were immunized with cell-culture adapted fmd virus (a/cha/09 strain) were used as detect ...201121331888
experimental evidence for competitive growth advantage of genotype vii over vi: implications for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a genotype turnover in india, systematic genotype replacement has been observed for serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus. after a decade of co-circulation of genotypes vi and vii, genotype vii emerged as the single dominant genotype since 2001. to derive possible explanations for such epochal evolution dynamics, in vitro intergenotype growth competition experiments involving both co- and superinfection regimes were conducted. coinfection of bhk-21 cells demonstrated abrupt loss in the genotype vi viral load with ...201121338995
a pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a t-cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control fmd. currently, inactivated vaccine of fmdv has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. development of a novel effective vaccine is must.201121342530
development and initial results of a low cost, disposable, point-of-care testing device for pathogen detection.development of small footprint, disposable, fast, and inexpensive devices for pathogen detection in the field and clinic would benefit human and veterinary medicine by allowing evidence-based responses to future out breaks. we designed and tested an integrated nucleic acid extraction and amplification device employing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) or reverse transcriptase-lamp assay. our system provides a screening tool with polymerase-chain-reaction-level sensitivity and speci ...201121342806
transmission risks and control of foot-and-mouth disease in the netherlands: spatial 2001 the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in great britain, the netherlands and france have shown how fast fmdv may spread between farms. the massive socio-economic impact of these epidemics and the intervention measures taken demonstrate the need for quantitative assessments of the efficacy of candidate intervention strategies. here we use a mathematical model to describe the spatial transmission of fmdv in the netherlands and use the dutch 2001 outbreak data to estimate mode ...201021352775
estimating risk factors for farm-level transmission of disease: foot and mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in great britain.controlling an epidemic would be aided by establishing whether particular individuals in infected populations are more likely to transmit infection. however, few analyses have characterised such individuals. such analyses require both data on who infected whom and on the likely determinants of transmission; data that are available at the farm level for the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in great britain. using these data a putative number of daughter infected premises (ips) resulting from ...201021352781
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
synthetic peptides.efforts to produce more stable and defined vaccines have concentrated on studying, in detail, the immune response to many infectious diseases in order to identify the antigenic sites on the pathogens that are involved in stimulating protective immumty. armed with this knowledge, it is possible to mimic such sites by producing short chains of amino acids (peptides) and to use these as the basis for novel vaccines. the earliest documented work on peptide immunization is actually for a plant virus, ...199621359696
the expressions of hsp70 and ab-crystallin in myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus in lambs.this study describes the expression of heat shock protein70 (hsp70) and alpha-basic-crystallin (a-bc) and their association with apoptosis and some related adaptor proteins in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-induced myocarditis in lambs. hsp70 was generally overexpressed in the myocardial tissues and inflammatory cells of fmdv-induced myocarditis with differential accumulation and localization in same hearts when compared to non-foot-and-mouth disease control hearts. a-bc ...201121368565
fine mapping of a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope recognized by serotype-independent monoclonal antibody 4b2.vp2 is a structural protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, a fmdv serotype-in-dependent monoclonal antibody (mab), 4b2, was generated. by screening a phage-displayed random 12-peptide library, we found positive phages displaying the consensus motif ettxle (x is any amino acid (aa)), which is highly homologous to (6)ettlle(11) at the n-terminus of the vp2 protein. subsequently, a series of gst-fusion proteins expressing a truncated n-terminus of vp2 were examined by we ...201121369985
rapid and transient activation of +¦+¦ t cells to ifn-+¦ production, nk cell-like killing, and antigen processing during acute virus infection.+¦+¦ t cells are the majority peripheral blood t cells in young cattle. the role of +¦+¦ t cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus was analyzed on consecutive 5 d following infection. before infection, bovine wc1(+) +¦+¦ t cells expressed a nonactivated phenotype relative to cd62l, cd45ro, and cd25 expression and did not produce ifn-+¦ ex vivo. additionally, cd335 expression was lacking and no spontaneous target cell lysis could be detected in vitro, althoug ...201121383249
absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected indian cattle (bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. we studied the heat intolerance (hi) (panting) syndrome and the effect of fmd virus (fmdv) infection on thyroid gland function in indian cattle (bos indicus). experimental infection with fmdv asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered ani ...201121388520
development of expression vectors based on pepino mosaic virus. 201121396092
the importance of being short: the role of rabies virus phosphoprotein isoforms assessed by differential ires translation initiation.the rabies virus (rv) phosphoprotein p is a multifunctional protein involved in viral rna synthesis and in counteracting host innate immune responses. we have previously shown that rv p gene expression levels can be regulated by using picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we exploited a particular feature of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires, namely, preferential initiation at a downstream initiation codon, to address the role of n-terminally truncated rv pho ...201121397980
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsrna-induced rantes transcription in pk-15 cells.the chemokine rantes (regulated upon activation, normal t-cells expressed and secreted) plays an essential role in inflammation and immune response. infection with wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pk-15 cells strongly inhibits the expression of rantes compared to infection with a genetically engineered mutant lacking the leader protein (l(pro)) coding region. this suggests that l(pro) is involved in rantes regulation. however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. i ...201121399922
2a to the fore - research, technology and applications.the 2a region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes a short sequence that mediates self-processing by a novel translational effect. translation elongation arrest leads to release of the nascent polypeptide and re-initiation at the next in-frame codon. in this way discrete translation products are derived from a single open reading frame. active 2a-like sequences have been found in (many) other viruses and trypanosome non-ltr retrotransposons. exponential growth of 2a technology with ...201021415883
foot-and-mouth disease in feral swine: susceptibility and transmission.experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. in this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with fmdv (a24-cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to a-24 cruzeiro fmd virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. typical clinical signs in fera ...201121418546
pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using a minor groove binder probe reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a novel assay for the pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was designed using a 5' conjugated minor groove binder (mgb) probe real-time rt-pcr system. this assay targets the 3d region of the fmdv genome and is capable of detecting 20 copies of a transcribed rna standard. the linear range of the test was eight logs from 2 × 10¹ to 2 × 108 copies and amplification time was approximately 2 h. using a panel of 83 rna samples from representative fmdv isolates, the diagnostic ...201121419170
genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pakistan and afghanistan, 1997-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan; serotypes o, a and asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with fmdv type o usually being the most common. in the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the fmdv capsid protein vp1 from virus samples were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the serotype o fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineage ...201121419880
5-fluorouracil in lethal mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.5-fluorouracil (fu) is a pyrimidine analogue extensively used in cancer chemotherapy. fu can be metabolized into 5-fluorouridine-triphosphate, which can be used as substrate for viral rna-dependent rna polymerases. this results in the incorporation of mutations into viral rna. accumulation of mutations may lead to loss of virus infectivity, in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. rna virus pathogens are particularly difficult to control because they are highly mutable, and mutants resistant to ...200921426129
florfenicol impairs the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.florfenicol is a new type of broad-spectrum antibacterial that has been used in veterinary clinics. it showed immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o in mice. in the present study, balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with fmdv serotype o antigen on days 1 and 14. beginning on day 21, mice were treated with a single daily oral dose of florfenicol (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. on day 28, b ...201121428714
development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. although mortality is usually low in adult animals, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate fmd. the causing virus, fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly variable rna virus occurring in seven serotypes (a, o, c, asia 1, sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3) and a large number of subtypes. fmdv is one of the most infectious agents kno ...201121434805
antiviral activity of bovine type iii interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel fmd control strategies is imperative. here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (ifn-++3), a member of the type iii ifn family. expression of boifn-++3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (ad5-boifn-++3) yielde ...201121435672
viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.the evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and rna genetics. theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter rna segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. however, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite rna virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, ...201121437265
phylogenomics and molecular evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this report describes the use of bayesian methods to analyze polyprotein coding region sequences (n = 217) obtained from genbank to define the genome-wide phylogeny of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). the results strongly supported the monophyly of five fmdv serotypes, o, a, asia 1, c, and sat 3, while sequences for the two remaining fmdv serotypes, sat 1 and sat 2 did not separate into entirely distinct clades. the phylogenomic tree revealed three sister-group relationships, serotype o + as ...201121448588
skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols.this review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) aerosols. infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. the evidence for a similar mechanism for fmdv is: (i) fmdv is trophic for animal skin and fmdv epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for fmdv skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent wi ...201121450741
a highly sensitive detection for foot-and-mouth disease virus by gold nanopariticle improved immuno-pcr.abstract: background: foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious of all artiodactyl animal diseases, and its infection has an obvious ability to spread over long distances and to contribute to epidemics in fmd-free areas. a highly sensitive and specfic method is required to detect fmdv. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a bio-barcode assay (bca) technique for detecting clinical samples of fmdv. methods: highly sensitive gold nanopariticle (gnp) improved immuno -pcr (g ...201121453461
viewpoint: factors involved in type i interferon responses during porcine virus infections.since type i interferon (ifn-i) is considered a potent antiviral defence mechanism, it is not surprising that during evolution viruses have development of various mechanisms to counteract ifn-i induction or release. despite this, certain virus infections are associated with very high levels of systemic ifn-i. one explanation for this observation is the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc), which are able to produce high levels of ifn-i despite the presence of viral ifn-i antagonists. e ...201121458079
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using antibody-detecting sandwich elisa.the presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can differentiate fmdv-infected animals from vaccinated animals. in this study, a sandwich elisa was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antibodies; it was based on an escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3abc nonstructural protein of the fmdv o/tw/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. the diagnostic sensitivi ...201121467761
closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry for continuous real-time detection and evaluation of cultured mammalian cell activity and responses.closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry (imc) is a simple, powerful, nondestructive, and convenient technique that allows continuous, real-time detection and evaluation of cultured cell activity and responses. at a selected set temperature, imc measures the heat flow between a sample and a heat sink and compares it to the heat-flow between a thermally inactive reference and the heat sink. since heat flow rates are proportional to the rates of chemical reactions and changes of state, imc provi ...201121468980
comparative sequence analysis of representative foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes from southeast asia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in mainland southeast asia where up to seven genetically distinct viral lineages co-circulate (o/sea/mya-98, o/sea/cam-94, o/me-sa/panasia, o/me-sa/panasia-2, o/cathay, a/asia/sea-97, and serotype asia 1). the aim of this study was to analyse the sequence variability between representative complete genomes for these seven lineages. the genome sequences varied from 8130 to 8192 nucleotides in length and shared nucleotide identities ranging from 91.8 to 78.9 ...201121479678
[current situation and future preventive measures of foot-and-mouth disease in japan].foot-and-mouth disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a severe and acute vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. as fmdv is highly contagious and causes productivity losses among infected animals, outbreaks of the disease are a primary animal health concern worldwide. in april, 2010, the disease reoccurred in miyazaki prefecture in 10 years. compared to the outbreak in 2000 in which no infection among pigs was observed, a total of 292 ...201021488337
Displaying items 3301 - 3400 of 4462