TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
preparation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against fmdv serotype o with synthetic peptide antigen.a short linear peptide was designed according to the antigenic site analysis of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv) serotype o and synthesized as the peptide immunogen. the peptide, which covers the region from amino acid 133 to 160 of vp1 of fmdv, was linked to the n-terminal cysteine and conjugated with the carrier protein of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). normal 6- to 8-week-old balb/c mice were immunized with the 20 μg dose conjugated peptide antigen four times. the splenocytes from ...201021050041
structural analysis provides insights into the modular organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rna translation is driven by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element. the impact of rna structure on the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires activity has been analyzed using selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (shape) and high throughput analysis of rna conformation by antisense oligonucleotides printed on microarrays. shape reactivity revealed the self-folding capacity of domain 3 and evidenced a change of rna structure in a defective gnra mutan ...201021056890
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
promising multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in order to develop a completely safe immunogen to replace the traditional inactivated vaccine, a tandem-repeat multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) type o was developed. it contained three copies each of residues 141 to 160 and 200 to 213 of vp1 of the o/china/99 strain of fmdv coupled with a swine immunoglobulin g heavy-chain constant region (scigg). the data showed that the multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine elicited high titers of anti-fmdv ...201021084463
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus types o and a in malaysia and surrounding countries.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in the countries of mainland southeast asia where it represents a major obstacle to the development of productive animal industries. the aim of this study was to use genetic data to determine the distribution of fmd virus (fmdv) lineages in the southeast asia region, and in particular identify possible sources of fmdv causing outbreaks in malaysia. complete vp1 sequences, obtained from 214 samples collected between 2000 and 2009, from fmd outbreaks in six ...201021093614
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern east africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. to enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype sat 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 vp1 coding sequence ...201021118525
an induced hypersensitive-like response limits expression of foreign peptides via a recombinant tmv-based vector in a susceptible using tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based vectors, foreign epitopes of the vp1 protein from food-and-month disease virus (fmdv) could be fused near to the c-terminus of the tmv coat protein (cp) and expressed at high levels in susceptible tobacco plants. previously, we have shown that the recombinant tmv vaccines displaying fmdv vp1 epitopes could generate protection in guinea pigs and swine against the fmdv challenge. recently, some recombinant tmv, such as tmvfn20 that contains an epitope fn20 ...201021124743
immune responses to the oral administration of recombinant bacillus subtilis expressing multi-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a cholera toxin b subunit.bacillus subtilis has been engineered successfully to express heterologous antigens for use as a vaccine vehicle that can elicit mucosal and systemic immunity response. in this study, a recombinant b. subtilis expressing the b subunit of cholera toxin (ct-b) and an epitope box constituted with antigen sites from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was constructed and named 1a751/ctb-tepias. its capability to induce mucosal, humoral, and cellular responses in mice and guinea pigs was ...201021129406
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in study the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 african buffalos, 21 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major national parks in uganda between 2005 and 2008. serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201021143994
characterisation and epitope mapping of neutralising monoclonal antibodies to a24 cruzeiro strain of fmdv.characterisation of seven neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against foot-and-mouth disease virus a(24) cruzeiro revealed three reactivity groups. gr-i recognised linear epitopes where as gr-ii was conformation-dependent and trypsin-insensitive. the gr-iii was also conformation-dependent, but trypsin-sensitive. mar (mab neutralisation resistant)-mutants could only be produced against gr-i and gr-iii mabs. capsid sequence comparison of gr-i mar-mutants with parent virus revealed c ...201021144677
efficient and stable expression of gfp through wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking.a series of wheat streak mosaic virus (wsmv)-based expression vectors were developed by engineering a cycle 3 gfp (gfp) cistron between p1 and hc-pro cistrons with several catalytic/cleavage peptides at the c-terminus of gfp. wsmv-gfp vectors with the foot-and-mouth disease virus 1d/2a or 2a catalytic peptides cleaved gfp from hc-pro but expressed gfp inefficiently. wsmv-gfp vectors with homologous nia-pro heptapeptide cleavage sites did not release gfp from hc-pro, but efficiently expressed gfp ...201021145088
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
analysis of sat1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins: influence of receptor usage on the properties of virus particles.the three sat serotype viruses, endemic in africa, are well known for their difficulty to adapt to cell culture. the viral mechanism involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) tissue tropism and cell-entry is not well understood. a recombinant, small plaque-forming virus (vsat1tc), derived from a tissue culture-adapted sat1 virus (sar/9/81tc), revealed four amino acid substitutions (vp3 asp192→tyr; vp3 ser217→ile; vp1 ala69→gly and vp1 asn110→lys) in the capsid, compared to the sar/9/81wt i ...201021167231
a differential elisa based on recombinant immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene of shv-1 in a baculovirus-insect cell system to discriminate between pigs infected naturally with pseudorabies and vaccinated the present study, the fragment corresponding to the immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene (gepi) from the cl15 argentinean strain of pseudorabies virus was expressed successfully in a baculovirus-insect cell system that contained the m6 gene of bluetongue virus, which encodes the ns1 nonstructural protein. this protein has the ability to polymerize into highly immunogenic tubules inside infected cells that can be purified at large quantities by ultracentrifugation. previously, the ns1 prote ...201021168443
integrity of foot-and-mouth disease virions bound to the this study, we examined the integrity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles during their binding to the surface of bhk-21 cells under physiological condition. for monitoring of the virus integrity we used blocking of the endocytosis with dynasore and cytochalasin d followed by rt-pcr for viral protein vp1 and the resistance of fmdv to the treatment of rnase a. our results showed that integrin binding to vp1 did not cause a substantial conformational change in the viral capsid. furt ...201021175256
effect of the route of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of piglets on the course of disease.three different routes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection of piglets, namely intranasal (i.n.) through drops, intradermal (i.d.) into the foot, and intramuscular (i.m.) were compared regarding the onset and severity of the disease. the results showed that the i.d. injection of the virus resulted in the fastest onset of the disease. the i.m. injection led to a delayed onset, but the final effect was identical with i.d. injection. moreover, the i.m. injection was simpler to perform a ...201021175257
foot-and-mouth disease virus exhibits an altered tropism in the presence of specific immunoglobulins, enabling productive infection and killing of dendritic cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. the development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to fmdv. dendritic cells (dc) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in fmdv infection of cattle is uncharacterized. bovine monocyte-derived dc (modc) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of fmdv in vitro. modc were not largely susceptible to inf ...201021177807
a single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid resistance.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at ph values slightly below neutrality. this acid-dependent disassembly process is required for viral rna release inside endosomes. to study the molecular determinants of viral resistance to acid-induced disassembly, six fmdv variants with increased resistance to acid inactivation were isolated. infection by these mutants was more sensitive to drugs that raise the endosomal ph (nh(4)cl and concanamycin a) tha ...201021177816
induction of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific cytotoxic t cell killing by vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. this acute infection is caused by the highly contagious fmd virus (fmdv), which infects cloven-hoofed animals, including large and small ruminants and swine. current vaccine strategies are all directed toward the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. however, the role of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) has not received a great deal of attention, in part because of the t ...201021177918
custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sub-saharan africa. fmd vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the south african territories (sat) type viruses, which exist as distinct genetic and antigenic variants in different geographical regions. a cross-serotype chimeric virus, vknp/sat2, was engineered by replacing the ...201021177923
the use of soluble african horse sickness viral protein 7 as an antigen delivery and presentation system.we have investigated the use of soluble chimeric trimers of the major capsid protein vp7 of african horse sickness virus (ahsv) as a vaccine delivery system by targeting some of the natural hydrophilic loops on the vp7 top domain for the insertion of foreign peptides. key to this trimer display strategy is the solubility of ahsv vp7 and how the solubility of this hydrophobic protein can be manipulated by inserting peptides into the top domain. to investigate, we generated different cloning vecto ...201021195731
inhibitors of foot and mouth disease virus targeting a novel pocket of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. in the case of an fmd outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. there are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of fmdv infections.201021203539
structures of ev71 rna-dependent rna polymerase in complex with substrate and analogue provide a drug target against the hand-foot-and-mouth disease pandemic in china.enterovirus 71 (ev71), one of the major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (hfmd), has caused more than 100 deaths among chinese children since march 2008. the ev71 genome encodes an rnadependent rna polymerase (rdrp), denoted 3d(pol), which is central for viral genome replication and is a key target for the discovery of specific antiviral therapeutics. here we report the crystal structures of ev71 rdrp (3d(pol)) and in complex with substrate guanosine-5'-triphosphate and analog 5- ...201021203964
antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in selected national parks in uganda (2001-2003).in east africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) isolates have over time included serotypes o, a, c, southern african territories (sat) 1 and sat 2, mainly from livestock. sat 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in african buffalos (syncerus caffer). to investigate the presence of antibodies against fmdv serotypes in wildlife in uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. thirty-eight samples from african buffalos ...201020561289
multiple shrnas driven by u6 and cmv promoter enhances efficiency of antiviral effects against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. the current vaccine for fmd provides no protection until 7 days post-vaccination, thus reducing its effectiveness in the case of an outbreak. small interfering rna (sirna) is a promising antiviral approach because it can induce a protective response much more rapidly. this study is the first report to apply multiple short hairpin rna (shrna) expression systems to inhibit foot-and- ...201020561543
letter to the editor. loss of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function coincides with lymphopenia and viremia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection. 201020565298
qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.the risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. this reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. this review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (db) from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-infected cattle, countries or zones. a definition of db is provided along with a description of ...201020569417
status of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan.the present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pakistan during the period 1952-2007. during this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of fmdv. serotype o was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype asia-1 and a. serotype c was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. the disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. t ...201020571838
[fusion expression of asia i type fmdv neutralizing epitope with heavy chain constant region of sheep igg and the assessment of its immunogenicity].vp1 is a major antigenic protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus(fmdv), which induces the immune response against fmdv infection, and contains several epitopes of the virus. we designed and chemically synthesized a dna fragment which encoding a tandem repeat protein of 136-160aa and 198-211aa of a strain of type asia i fmdv, and cloned the gene of heavy chain constant region of sheep igg. by using the bamh i, ecor i and xho i sites, both genes were cloned into pproexhtb vector in turn to form a ...201020575432
a simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the castile and leon region of spain.a spatial stochastic model was used to simulate the spread of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the castile-and-leon (cyl) region of spain. the model was fitted using information available on premises demographics and on assumptions for animal movements, indirect contacts, and airborne exposure. control measures dictated by spanish and european union regulations constituted a reference strategy to which six alternative control strategies were compared. for the reference strategy, the me ...201020579754
domain disruptions of individual 3b proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture or virulence in cattle.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3b (also known as vpg), that is covalently linked to the 5' terminus of the viral genome. in contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3b, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes three copies of 3b. viruses containing disrupted native sequence or deletion of one of their three 3b proteins were derived from a fmdv a24 cruzeiro full-length cdna infectious clone. mutant viruses had growth characterist ...201020580394
baculovirus treatment fully protects mice against a lethal challenge of fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cattle, swine, goat and sheep among others. fmdv is able to overcome the initial host innate immune response by inhibiting the induction of antiviral molecules at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. it has been demonstrated that fmdv a/arg/2001 causes the death of adult c57bl/6 mice within 72h. we evaluated the capacity of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis ...201020580746
the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation. identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of characterize the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle subsequent to simulated natural exposure, 16 steers were aerosol inoculated with fmdv and euthanized at various times. samples were collected from each steer antemortem (serum, nasal swabs, and oral swabs) and postmortem (up to 40 tissues per animal) and screened for fmdv by virus isolation and for fmdv rna by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. tissues that tested positive for fmdv ...201020587691
foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates only transiently in well-differentiated porcine nasal epithelial cells.three-dimensional (3d) porcine nasal mucosal and tracheal mucosal epithelial cell cultures were developed to analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) interactions with mucosal epithelial cells. the cells in these cultures differentiated and polarized until they closely resemble the epithelial layers seen in vivo. fmdv infected these cultures predominantly from the apical side, primarily by binding to integrin alphav beta6, in an arg-gly-asp (rgd)-dependent manner. however, fmdv replicated onl ...201020592089
a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody completely protects mice against lethal challenge with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.a recombinant humanized antibody to venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) was constructed in a monocistronic adenoviral expression vector with a foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2a self-cleavage oligopeptide inserted between the antibody heavy and light chains. after expression in mammalian cells, the heavy and light chains of the humanized antibody (hu1a4a1igg1-2a) were completely cleaved and properly dimerized. the purified hu1a4a1igg1-2a retained veev binding affinity and neutralizi ...201020600509
co-circulation of two extremely divergent serotype sat 2 lineages in kenya highlights challenges to foot-and-mouth disease control.amongst the sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the sat 2 serotype is the most widely distributed throughout sub-saharan africa. kenyan serotype sat 2 viruses have been reported to display the highest genetic diversity for the serotype globally. this complicates diagnosis and control, and it is essential that patterns of virus circulation are known in order to overcome these difficulties. this study was undertaken to establish patterns of evolution of fmdv serotype sat 2 in ken ...201020614146
[prokaryotic expression, protein purification and reactivity analysis of the vp1 and its c terminus of a south african isolate of fmdv serotype sat2].to induce the expression of structure protein vp1 and its c terminus of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 in e.coli and analyze their reactivities with fmdv positive antiserum.201020619084
diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa: implications for vaccination policies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in east africa. a sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control fmd mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success. we investigated the genetic relationships among serotype o strains in eastern africa using complete vp1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 fmd virus isolates collected in kenya in the years 1964- ...201020619358
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected from sudan.the aim of this study was to characterize foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses collected between 2004 and 2008 from sudan, a country where fmd is endemic. using virus isolation and antigen elisa, three fmd virus serotypes (o, a and sat2) were detected in 24 samples that were submitted to the fao world reference laboratory for fmd. pan-serotypic real-time rt-pcr assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and 3d genes of fmd virus were also used to contribute to the laboratory diagnosis o ...201020626708
high-resolution in vivo imaging of breast cancer by targeting the pro-invasive integrin alphavbeta6.the integrin alphavbeta6 is expressed only on epithelia and then usually only during processes of tissue remodelling including cancer, where its high expression correlates with reduced survival. thus, alphavbeta6 represents an important target for imaging and therapy of cancer and new molecular-specific targeting agents are required. we have developed a20fmdv2, a peptide derived from the vp1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth-disease virus that binds specifically and stably to alphavbeta6. using a n ...201020629113
adjuvant effect of cliptox on the protective immune response induced by an inactivated vaccine against foot and mouth disease virus in mice.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an acute disease caused by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) which causes important economy losses, this is why it is necessary to obtain a vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response. cliptox is a mineral microparticle that in earlier studies has shown adjuvant activity against different antigens. in this study we have examined the effects of cliptox on the magnitude and type of immunity elicited in response to inactivated fmdv ( ...201020637310
mapping of amino acid residues responsible for adhesion of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease sat type viruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infects host cells by adhering to the alpha(v) subgroup of the integrin family of cellular receptors in a arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent manner. fmd viruses, propagated in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to enter cells via alternative cell surface molecules. sequencing analysis of sat1 and sat2 cell culture-adapted variants showed acquisition of positively charged amino acid residues within surface-exposed loops of the outer capsid stru ...201020637812
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsrna-induced type i interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been identified as an interferon-beta (ifn-beta) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). in this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded rna (dsrna)-induced ifn-alpha1/beta expression caused by l(pro) was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (irf-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation o ...201020638368
confidence in indirect assessment of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency and vaccine matching carried out by liquid phase elisa and virus neutralization tests.the necessity of avoiding the use of animals in vaccine potency testing has been widely recognized. the repeatability and reproducibility of the expected percentage of protection (epp) as a serological potency surrogate for a24 cruzeiro foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain was assessed, and compared with the results obtained with challenge in the protection against podal generalization (ppg) test. to determine the epps, the serum titers obtained by liquid phase blocking competitive elisa ( ...201020643090
translation driven by picornavirus ires is hampered from sindbis virus replicons: rescue by poliovirus 2a protease.alphavirus replicons are very useful for analyzing different aspects of viral molecular biology. they are also useful tools in the development of new vaccines and highly efficient expression of heterologous genes. we have investigated the translatability of sindbis virus (sv) subgenomic mrna bearing different 5'-untranslated regions, including several viral internal ribosome entry sites (iress) from picornaviruses, hepatitis c virus, and cricket paralysis virus. our findings indicate that all th ...201020643140
application of two bicistronic systems involving 2a and ires sequences to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm.coordination of multiple transgenes is essential for metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways. here, we report the utilization of two bicistronic systems involving the 2a sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus and the internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequence from the crucifer-infecting tobamovirus to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm. two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy) from capsicum and carotene desaturase (crti) from pantoea, were linked ...201020649940
coexpression of double or triple copies of the rabies virus glycoprotein gene using a 'self-cleaving' 2a peptide-based replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 vector.rabies virus glycoprotein (rvg) is a major structural protein and antigen of rabies virus that induces a highly immunogenic response. in the present study, we have used 2a self-cleaving sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to express double or triple copies of the rvg from a single open reading frame derived from human adenovirus 5 (adhu5). the recombinant adenoviruses produce similar virus titers, indicating that the insertion of double or triple copies of the rvg gene linked wit ...201020682459
development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen many countries, foot and mouth disease (fmd) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (ncp); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against ncp. vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. we have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (fal-elisa), to detect and quantify ncp in vaccine-antig ...201020685600
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
survey for foot-and-mouth disease in the endangered marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from marshlands of the parana river basin, brazil.habitat fragmentation and diseases have resulted in a decline of the marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) throughout its south american range. our objectives were to determine whether marsh deer intended for translocation from a region of the rio paraná basin had been infected previously by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and whether they were carrying virus. we captured marsh deer from june to october 1998 and collected blood from 108 animals and esophageal-pharyngeal fluid from 53. serum wa ...201020688701
serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in uganda.uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. a serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by elisa for antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins. three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural p ...201020696028
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3b protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a iran 05.the a iran 05 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subtype was detected in iran during 2005 and has proven to be highly virulent. this study was undertaken to focus on molecular and phylogenetic analysis of 3a and 3b coding-regions in the a iran 05 field isolate. to assess the genetic relatedness of a iran 05 isolate the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the 3ab region of type a fmdv isolates were compared with twenty previously described type a fmdv isolates. the phylogenetic tree ...201020706032
serological evidence of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in randomly surveyed goat population of orissa, india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and goats constitute the second largest susceptible population of domestic livestock. fmd surveillance and control strategies in the country largely ignore small ruminants, known to be critical in the epidemiology of the disease. here, serological investigations were carried out to generate estimates of antibody prevalence in goats of orissa state to both non-structural (nsp-ab) and structural proteins (sp-ab) of fmd. the apparent overall nsp-ab ...201020723161
phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses in east africa: evidence for interserotypic recombination.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in east africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype o virus. in this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype o fmd viruses from kenya and uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships and processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of diversity within this serotype. fmd virus rna was obtained from six samples following virus isolation in cell culture and in one ca ...201020731826
competition-colonization dynamics: an ecology approach to quasispecies dynamics and virulence evolution in rna viruses.a single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. the subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. these two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. virulent viruses can be regarded as colonizers because they killed the cells faster and they spread faster. the attenuated subpopulation resembles competit ...201020798818
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
study of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine containing structural genes of serotype o in a genome backbone of serotype asia 1 in guinea pigs.since foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes display a great genetic and antigenic diversity, there is a constant requirement to monitor the performance of fmdv vaccines in the field with respect to their antigenic coverage. to avoid possible antigenic changes in field fmdv isolates during their adaptation to bhk-21 cells, a standard step used in production of conventional fmdv vaccines, the custom-made chimeric conventional or dna vaccines, in which antigenic determinants are replaced wi ...201020822311
alternative way to test the efficacy of swine fmd vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (pid50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose.foot-and -mouth disease to pigs is serious recently around the world. "vaccination prevention" is still an important policy. oie specifies 10,000 tcid50(0.2 ml) of virulent virus for challenge test in pigs to test the potency of fmd vaccine by intradermal route inoculating the virus in the heel bulbs of one foot or by intramuscular route administering into one site of the neck behind the ear. convenience and speediness are available in the process of potency test of commercial fmd vaccine. we se ...201020822547
two-dimensional heteronuclear saturation transfer difference nmr reveals detailed integrin αvβ6 protein-peptide interactions.we report the first example of peptide-protein heteronuclear two-dimensional (2d) saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (std nmr). this method, resulting in dramatically reduced overlap, was applied to the interaction of the integrin αvβ6 with a known peptide ligand and highlights novel contact points between the substrate and target protein.201020838674
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of serotype sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of the sat 2 serotype was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 2h6). the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia: 305 positive for fmdv type sat 2 from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 30 countries and 1002 samples shown to be negative for fmdv type sat 2 collected from 67 countries between 1968 and 2008. the diagnostic sensitivity of ...201019815031
differential ifn-alpha/beta production suppressing capacities of the leader proteins of mengovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus.picornaviruses encompass a large family of rna viruses. some picornaviruses possess a leader (l) protein at the n-terminus of their polyprotein. the l proteins of encephalomyocarditis virus, a cardiovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), an aphthovirus, are both dispensable for replication and their major function seems to be the suppression of antiviral host cell responses. previously, we showed that the l protein of mengovirus, a strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, inhibits antivira ...201019863558
development and laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow device for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of swine vesicular disease (svd) virus (svdv) and differential diagnosis from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab c70). the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of svdv and porcine teschovirus (enterovirus; pev). the collection of test samples included 157 which were positive for svdv (84 vesicular epithelial s ...201019819260
different infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.clinical observations of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in dairy cows and calves were different. this raised the question whether they would also differ with respect to virus excretion and transmission. data were available from transmission experiments carried out with groups of dairy cows and calves. half of each group was inoculated with fmdv o/ned/2001; the other half contact-exposed to inoculated animals. virus excretion, clinical signs and antibody response were measured and ...201019716326
insights into cleavage specificity from the crystal structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease complexed with a peptide substrate.picornavirus replication is critically dependent on the correct processing of a polyprotein precursor by 3c protease(s) (3c(pro)) at multiple specific sites with related but non-identical sequences. to investigate the structural basis of its cleavage specificity, we performed the first crystallographic structural analysis of non-covalent complexes of a picornavirus 3c(pro) with peptide substrates. the x-ray crystal structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c(pro), mutated to replace the cat ...201019883658
differences in the virulence of two strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a with the same spatiotemporal distribution.during the 2000-2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina, two fmdv serotype a viruses were identified among others. since different pathogenic properties between these virus strains were noticed in cattle, we evaluated several biological properties and features of fmdv a/arg/00 and fmdv a/arg/01 in order to compare these viruses in terms of virulence and pathogenicity. our results indicate that fmdv a/arg/00 grows less efficiently than fmdv a/arg/01, exemplified by small ...201019883705
the 5'-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mrna exhibits cap-independent translation this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (ires) within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-utr) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (mmtv). the 5'-utr of the full-length mrna derived from the infectious, complete mmtv genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream renilla luciferase gene (rluc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (fluc). in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the mmtv 5'-utr was capable of driving translation of ...201019889724
use of a baculovirus-expressed structural protein for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with a baculovirus-expressed structural protein was developed for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a. it exhibited 99% specificity with a cutoff of 53% inhibition. its sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivities of the virus neutralization test and the liquid-phase blocking elisa, indicating its potential as an alternative assay.201019889938
generation of a recombinant full-length human antibody binding to botulinum neurotoxin order to develop a recombinant full-length human anti-botulinum neurotoxin a (bont/a) antibody, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were collected from three healthy volunteers and induced for bont/a-specific immune response by in vitro immunization. the genes encoding human fd fragment, consisting of antibody heavy chain variable region and constant region 1 with the genes encoding antibody light chain, were cloned from the immunized pbmc. afterwards, one combinatory human antige ...201019466383
screening and identification of b cell epitopes of structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1.the objective of this study was to screen and identify the b cell epitopes of structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1. the complete amino acid sequence of all the four structural proteins (p1 region) was analyzed using the dnastar protean system. seventeen peptides were predicted and selected as potential b cell epitopes. the potential b cell epitope genes were cloned into the pgex-6p-1 plasmid, then expressed and purified. the resulting 17 glutathione s-transfe ...201019699594
attenuated salmonella choleraesuis-mediated rnai targeted to conserved regions against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs and this study, specific sequences within three genes (3d, vp4 and 2b) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome were determined to be effective rnai targets. these sequences are highly conserved among different serotype viruses based on sequence analysis. small interfering rna (sirna)-expressing plasmids (p3d-nt19, p3d-nt56, pvp4-nt19, pvp4-nt65 and p2b-nt25) were constructed to express sirna targeting 3d, vp4 and 2b, respectively. the antiviral potential of these sirna for various fmdv ...201020167192
hsp70 enhances presentation of fmdv antigen to bovine cd4+ t cells in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious acute vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep and pigs. the current vaccine induces a rapid humoral response, but the duration of the protective antibody response is variable, possibly associated with a variable specific cd4+ t cell response. we investigated the use of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a molecular chaperone to target viral antigen to the major histocompatibility co ...201020167197
quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking elisa for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.a single serum-dilution liquid phase elisa (slpelisa) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. the absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase elisa (lpelisa), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. a straight line was obtained by linear regression anal ...201020170683
transgenic mouse model integrating sirna targeting the foot and mouth disease virus.we have constructed 2 small interfering rnas (sirnas) specifically targeting homogenous 3d and 2b1 regions of 7 serotypes of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and tested the ability of sirnas to inhibit virus replication in baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells and suckling mice. in this study, we generated transgenic mouse models integrating short hairpin rna (shrna) targeting microinfected fmdv. when examined at the 7th passage in transgenic mice, the target gene was still found by pcr to b ...201020176056
limiting the impacts of foot and mouth disease in large ruminants in northern lao people's democratic republic by vaccination: a case study.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the most important global transboundary livestock disease and is endemic in lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) with outbreaks occurring regularly. lao pdr shares borders with five countries and as a major thoroughfare for transboundary livestock movement, is vulnerable to the social and economic impacts of fmd. the fmd outbreak occurred in january 2009 in the pek district, located in the north-eastern lao pdr province of xieng khuang and involved all 111 v ...201020180923
a novel system for the production of high levels of functional human therapeutic proteins in stable cells with a semliki forest virus noncytopathic vector.semliki forest virus (sfv) vectors lead to high protein expression in mammalian cells, but expression is transient due to vector cytopathic effects, inhibition of host cell proteins and rna-based expression. we have used a noncytopathic sfv mutant (ncsfv) rna vector to generate stable cell lines expressing two human therapeutic proteins: insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) and cardiotrophin-1 (ct-1). therapeutic genes were fused at the carboxy-terminal end of puromycin n-acetyl-transferase gene ...201020188220
the relationship between cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus asia 1 and viral persistence in indian cattle (bosindicus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the most contagious animal disease, is associated with persistent viral infection in ruminants, despite the induction of systemic immune response. the present study was performed to decipher the relation between the persistent fmd virus (fmdv) infection and cellular immune response in indian cattle (bosindicus) following experimental inoculation of fmdv asia 1. persistent viral infection (carriers) was detected by antigen capture rt-pcr on the oesophageal-pharyngeal ...201020189208
tailoring the switch from ires-dependent to 5'-end-dependent translation with the rnase p ribozyme.translation initiation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements is dependent on the structural organization of the ires region. we have previously shown that a structural motif within the foot-and-mouth-disease virus ires is recognized in vitro as substrate for the synechocystis sp. rnase p ribozyme. here we show that this structure-dependent endonuclease recognizes the ires element in cultured cells, leading to inhibition of translation. inhibition of ires activity was dependent o ...201020194518
a recombinant truncated fmdv 3ab protein used to better distinguish between infected and vaccinated distinguish the antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination, a recombinant n-terminal truncated fmdv non-structural protein (nsp) of 3ab, designated as r3ab, was constructed by deleting 80 amino acids displayed about 30% homology to transposase is4 family protein of escherichia coli, expressed in e. coli bl21 (de3) and then purified. the r3ab was majorly expressed in soluble fraction and presented as homogeneous monomers after purifica ...201020197135
marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion.previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. this indicated that the vp1 g-h loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against fmdv. if this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop fmd marker vaccines, characterised by the abse ...201020199761
the development of oral fluid-based diagnostics and applications in veterinary medicine.the purpose of this review was to discuss the history of the development and implementation of oral fluid diagnostics for infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. the use of oral fluid for the assessment of health and diagnosis of disease in humans and animals has a surprisingly long history. as early as 1909, pollaci and ceraulo reported sensitive and specific agglutination of 'micrococcus melitensis' (brucella melitensis) by oral fluid from patients diagnosed with malta fever. a 198 ...201020202287
parameterization of the duration of infection stages of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus: an analytical review and meta-analysis with application to simulation models.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is considered one of the most important infectious diseases of livestock because of the devastating economic consequences that it inflicts in affected regions. the value of critical parameters, such as the duration of the latency or the duration of the infectious periods, which affect the transmission rate of the fmd virus (fmdv), are believed to be influenced by characteristics of the host and the virus. disease control and surveillance strategies, as well as fmd si ...201020205988
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in aqueous and oil-emulsion formulations.we have used a novel method, surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (seldi-tof-ms), to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine antigens. using specific capture with fmdv binding recombinant antibody fragments and tryptic digestion of fmdv antigens the spectral peaks representing the fmdv structural proteins vp1, vp2, vp3 and vp4 were identified. vp1 existed as 2 variants differing by 0.2kda and vp4 as 8 variants differing by 14-17da. such h ...201020206283
a single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid lability and confer resistance to acid-dependent uncoating inhibition.the acid-dependent disassembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is required for viral rna release from endosomes to initiate replication. although the fmdv capsid disassembles at acid ph, mutants escaping inhibition by nh(4)cl of endosomal acidification were found to constitute about 10% of the viruses recovered from bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv c-s8c1. for three of these mutants, the degree of nh(4)cl resistance correlated with the sensitivity of the virion to acid-induced inactivation ...201020053737
effect of the extract made from cochinchina momordica seeds on the humoral immune responses of mice to a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (serotypes o and asia 1).the extract from ecms was investigated for its effect on the humoral immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. fifty-six mice were randomly divided into seven groups with eight animals in each. mice in groups 5 to 7 were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 0.5 mg dex daily for 4 days to induce immunosuppression. the animals were then orally given ecms (200 microg in 250 microl saline) in groups 3 and 6 or 250 microl saline in group 2, or s.c. injected with ecms (50 microg in 100 mi ...201020055940
phylogenetic analysis of indian serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth-disease virus isolates revealed emergence and reemergence of different genetic lineages.foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 causes significant number of disease outbreaks in india. indian asia1 virus isolates were shown to be genetically heterogeneous and of the two lineages (lineage b and lineage c) described in india, lineage c caused majority of the outbreaks. emergence of a novel divergent lineage (lineage d) within lineage c has been described in 2001. in the present report, the complete vp1 genomic region of 41 fmdv asia1 field isolates collected between 2003 a ...201020080365
competition-colonization dynamics in an rna virus.during replication, rna viruses rapidly generate diverse mutant progeny which differ in their ability to kill host cells. we report that the progeny of a single rna viral genome diversified during hundreds of passages in cell culture and self-organized into two genetically distinct subpopulations that exhibited the competition-colonization dynamics previously recognized in many classical ecological systems. viral colonizers alone were more efficient in killing cells than competitors in culture. ...201020080701
possible use of rna isolate from inactivated vaccine for external positive control in reverse transcription-based detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bull semen.this study has demonstrated the novel use of inactivated and purified vaccine against fmd virus for detection and analysis. rna isolate was efficiently generated from the vaccine for an external positive control for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays. the target dna fragment sequences from the 2b region and 3d rna polymerase gene of the virus for rt-pcr and rt-lamp respectively were successful ...201020097168
molecular characterization of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in vietnam in 2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in vietnam in recent years. in this work, six serotype a foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv), collected from endemic outbreaks during january and february of 2009 in four different provinces in vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identi ...201020097490
development of an immunochromatographic strip for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype immunochromatographic strip was developed for the serological detection of type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in swine. in the strip, the expressed protein of vp1, the main protective antigen of fmdv, labeled with colloidal gold was used as the detector, the staphylococcal protein a (spa) and swine anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibody were blotted on the nitrocellulose membrane for the test and control lines, respectively. 296 swine serum samples were collected to evaluate the c ...201020100515
iga antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. after natural infection, the primary site of replication of fmdv is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. determining whethe ...201020107003
loss of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function coincides with lymphopenia and viremia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute, highly contagious disease of livestock. though fmdv is very sensitive to interferon-alpha (ifn-alpha), ifn-beta, and ifn-gamma, the virus has evolved mechanisms to evade such innate responses. for instance, during acute infection, fmdv suppresses ifn-alpha production by skin and myeloid dendritic cells (dcs). we have previously reported that fmdv infection induces a transient lymphopenia and interruption of t-lymphocyte responses to mitogenic ...201020121400
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