PMID(sorted ascending)
[not available]. 194720244008
[not available]. 194720244009
typing of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. 194720266311
screwworms, cochliomyia hominivorax, reared for mass release do not carry and spread foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus.experiments were done to determine if transporting live screwworms cochliomyia hominivorax coquerel (diptera: calliphoridae) for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in mexico and panama, may introduce these exotic diseases into these countries. are screwworms capable of harboring and spreading foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) when they are grown in virus- ...200820302530
genetic characterization of indian type o fmd virus 3a region in context with host cell preference.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. for example, amino acid deletions in the porcinophilic strain (o/taw/97) at 93-102aa of the 153 codons long 3a protein have been recognized as the determinant of species specificity. in the present study, 18 type o fmdv isolates from india were adapted in different cell culture systems and the 3a sequence was analyzed. these isolates had complete 3a coding sequence (153aa) and did not exhibit growth re ...201020302973
an indirect elisa for serodiagnosis of cattle footrot caused by fusobacterium necrophorum.a serodiagnostic elisa (rl-elisa) using recombinant truncated leukotoxin protein pl2 (aa 311-644) of fusobacterium necrophorum as antigen was developed for detection of antibodies against f. necrophorum from cattle footrot. in rl-elisa, the recombinant diagnostic antigen showed no cross-reaction with antisera against bovine foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine rotavirus type a, bovine escherichia coli, and bovine salmonella. the rl-elisa ...201020304080
[transmission risk for foot-and-mouth-disease in an animal-densed region in germany--results from an expert survey].due to its strong impact on economics and trading the foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd) is one of the most important animal diseases within animal husbandry. because no recent specific field observation for fmd exists in germany, the risk assessment needs validated epidemiological models to prepare decision tools for fmd-outbreak management. the aim of this investigation was therefore to prepare a risk assessment for different transmission pathways to use for fmd-models in future. to prepare a fmd-tr ...201020329640
development of tobacco necrosis virus a as a vector for efficient and stable expression of fmdv vp1 peptides.plant virus-based expression systems provide attractive alternatives for production of animal virus-originated antigenic peptides. in the present study, an infectious cdna clone of tobacco necrosis virus a chinese isolate (tnv-a(c)) was used for expression of different peptides derived from foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o vp1 fused downstream of the coat protein (cp) open reading frame (orf). chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with in vitro transcripts of the chimaeras developed ...201020331532
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor protein and 3c protease expression on bovine herpesvirus 1 replication.several reports have previously shown that expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein encoding region p1-2a together with the 3c protease (p1-2a/3c) results in correct processing of the capsid precursor into vp0, vp1 and vp3 and formation of fmdv capsid structures that are able to induce a protective immune response against fmdv challenge after immunization using naked dna constructs or recombinant viruses. to elucidate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) mig ...201020333533
low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype c virus in kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field.most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. in this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype c virus isolates from kenya, one of the few places in the world where serotype c has been endemic and is suspected to remain. the nucleotide sequences encoding the capsid protein vp1 from eight isolates collected between 1967 and 2004 were analysed for patterns of sequ ...201120334728
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses.the objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr). three fmd-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. compost temperatures had reached 50 degrees c and 70 degrees c by days 10 and ...201020357957
genetic and antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in taiwan between 1998 and 2009.a devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by a porcinophilic serotype o virus, occurred in taiwan in march 1997. this outbreak was brought under control by means of a stamping-out policy and vaccination. although mandatory vaccination was conducted in taiwan between 1997 and 2007, sporadic outbreaks of fmd occurred between 1998 and 2009; however, the viruses that caused these outbreaks remain uncharacterized. this article reports the genetic and antigenic characterization of ...201020362404
cell entry of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis a virus is dependent on endosome acidification.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and both are now classified within the genus aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae. for disease security reasons, fmdv can be handled only in high-containment facilities, but these constraints do not apply to erav, making it an attractive alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology. here, we show, using immunofluorescence, pharmacological agents, and dominant negative inhibitors, that er ...201020375159
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant polymerases with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.passage of poliovirus (pv) or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the presence of ribavirin selected for viruses with decreased sensitivity to r, which included different mutations in their polymerase (3d): g64s located in the finger subdomain in the case of pv and m296i located within loop beta9-alpha11 at the active site in the case of fmdv. to investigate why disparate substitutions were selected in two closely related 3ds, we constructed fmdvs with a 3d that included either g62s (the equi ...201020392853
characteristics of codon usage bias in two regions downstream of the initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mechanism of utilization of alternative two augs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is still unknown to date. in this study, the characteristics of codon usage bias (cub) of the region between the two augs (the region-la) and of the same-sized region behind the second aug (the region-lb) in 94 different fmdv rna sequences were analyzed using relative synonymous codon usage (rscu) values. the results indicated that many codons with negative cub were preferentially used in the region-la. t ...201020398725
assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (gnps) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein was conjugated to gnps ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). an extra cysteine was added to the c-terminus of the fmdv peptide (pfmdv) to ensure maximal conjugation to the gnps, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. the resultant pfmdv-gnp conjugates were then injected into balb/c mice. immuni ...201020400818
no between-pen transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated pigs.many studies have shown transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) within groups of pigs, even when vaccinated, but only limited information is available on transmission between pens. three new experiments were carried out in two replicates, which consisted of infectious pigs housed in a central pen surrounded by four separate pens. first, all pigs were non-vaccinated and pens were separated by a walkway of 40-70 cm. second, all pigs were non-vaccinated again but pens were adjacent. thi ...201020416264
analysis of synonymous codon usage in foot-and-mouth disease this study, we calculate the relative synonymous codon usage (rscu) values and codon usage bias (cub) values to carry out a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern for open reading frames (orfs) among 85 samples which belong to all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although the degree of cub for orfs is a relatively slight, there is a significant variation for cub among different serotypes, which is mainly determined by codon usage pattern depending on rscu. by compa ...201020425142
crystal structure of equine rhinitis a virus in complex with its sialic acid receptor.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) shares many features with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and both are classified within the genus aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae. erav is used as a surrogate for fmdv research as it does not require high-level biosecurity. in contrast to fmdv, which uses integrins as cellular receptors, the receptor for erav has been reported to involve the sugar moiety sialic acid. this study confirmed the importance of sialic acid for cell entry by erav and reports ...201020427563
pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by rt linear-after-the-exponential pcr.a reverse transcription linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction (rt late-pcr) assay was evaluated for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). this pan-serotypic assay targets highly conserved sequences within the 3d (rna polymerase) region of the fmdv genome, and uses end-point hybridisation analysis of a single mismatch-tolerant low temperature probe to confirm the identity of the amplicons. an armored rna served as an internal control to validate virus negative results ...201020433917
recent spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the far east. 201020435988
molecular characterization and expression analysis of porcine integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 that are potentially involved in fmdv the present study, we report the sequences and characterization of the porcine integrin cdnas encoding alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits and compare them to those of other species. the coding sequences for the porcine alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits were found to be 3141, 2289, 2367 and 2304 nucleotides in length, encoding 1046, 762, 788 and 767-amino-acid-residue protein, respectively. the porcine integrin alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunit shares common structural and func ...201020438833
nmr solution structure of poliovirus uridylyated peptide linked to the genome (vpgpu).picornaviruses have a 22-24 amino acid peptide, vpg, bound covalently at the 5' end of their rna, that is essential for replication. vpgs are uridylylated at a conserved tyrosine to form vpgpu, the primer of rna synthesis by the viral polymerase. this first complete structure for any uridylylated vpg, of poliovirus type 1 (pv1)-vpgpu, shows that conserved amino acids in vpg stabilize the bound ump, with the uridine atoms involved in base pairing and chain elongation projected outward. comparing ...201020441784
cell density-dependent expression of viral antigens during persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.immunofluorescence analyses of fmdv persistently infected bhk-21 cells showed that in cultures from early stages of the persistence (passage 15) only about 10% of cells displayed viral antigens, while at late stages (passage 100) no fmdv antigen-positive cells were found. positive cells at passage 15 displayed a number of structural alterations that did not differ from those observed in lytically infected cells. in these monolayers, and remarkably, clusters of cells that exceeded confluence were ...201020444479
increasing a robust antigen-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte response by fmdv dna vaccination with il-9 expressing construct.various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of dna vaccination. in this study, we sought to investigate if a dna construct expressing il-9 (designed as prov-il9) as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcd-vp1 dna vaccination. mice immunized with pcd-vp1 combined with prov-il9 developed a strong humoral response. in addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cy ...201020445754
construction of a multiple targeting rnai plasmid that inhibits target gene expression and fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and suckling mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that afflicts cloven-hoofed animals. the etiological agent of fmd is foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the vp1 gene of fmdv is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in the attachment of the virus to susceptible cells. we constructed a plasmid, pcwn11, that expresses sirnas multiple-targeting the vp1 genes of fmdv. we evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of the plasmid using an enhanced green fluorescent ...201020446035
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
new vaccine design based on defective genomes that combines features of attenuated and inactivated vaccine designs are needed to control diseases associated with antigenically variable rna viruses. foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that inflicts severe economic losses. although the current whole-virus chemically inactivated vaccine has proven effective, it has led to new outbreaks of fmd because of incomplete inactivation of the virus or the escape of infectious virus from vaccine production premises. we have previously shown that serial passages of ...201020454676
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
formation of virus-like particles from o-type foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells using codon-optimized synthetic genes.a recombinant baculovirus was constructed to simultaneously express codon-optimized virus-like particles (vlp), a vp1-2a-vp3 and vp0 of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), from individual promoters. the target proteins were expressed in insect cells at high level, as shown by indirect sandwich elisa; and the expressed vp1-2a-vp3 could autocatalytically be cleaved into the individual proteins, vp1-2a and vp3, as shown by western-blot analyses. in addition, in the insect cells, the str ...201020464450
localisation of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus protein 2c to the golgi apparatus using antibodies generated against a peptide region.the picornavirus 2c protein is highly conserved and indispensible for virus replication. polyclonal antibodies against theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (tmev) 2c protein were generated by immunisation of rabbits with a peptide comprising amino acids 31-210 of the protein. antibodies were used to investigate the localisation of 2c in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. analysis of infected cells revealed that the distribution of 2c changed during infecti ...201020471424
heterogeneity and genetic variations of serotypes o and asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in vietnam.six field foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs), including four serotype o and two serotype asia 1 strains, were collected from endemic outbreaks in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from four different provinces in vietnam. the viruses were isolated and genetically characterized for their complete genomic sequences. the genetic analysis based on the complete genomic coding sequences revealed that the four serotype o fmdvs were related to each other, sharing 95.2% nucleotide (nt) identity and 97.5-97.6% ami ...201020478669
differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. molecular studies have demonstrated that l(pro) inhibits translation of host capped mrnas and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response. we have used microarray technology to study the gene expression profile of bovine cells infected with wild type (wt) or leaderless fmdv. thirty nine out of approximately 22,000 bovine genes were selectively up-regulated by ...201020494391
remaining vigilant for foot-and-mouth disease. 201020495175
deletion mutants of vpg reveal new cytopathology determinants in a picornavirus.success of a viral infection requires that each infected cell delivers a sufficient number of infectious particles to allow new rounds of infection. in picornaviruses, viral replication is initiated by the viral polymerase and a viral-coded protein, termed vpg, that primes rna synthesis. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is exceptional among picornaviruses in that its genome encodes 3 copies of vpg. why fmdv encodes three vpgs is unknown.201020505767
foot-and-mouth disease virus 2c is a hexameric aaa+ protein with a coordinated atp hydrolysis mechanism.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a positive sense, single-stranded rna virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. like other picornaviruses, fmdv has a conserved 2c protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of aaa+ atpases that has a predicted n-terminal membrane-binding amphipathic helix attached to the main atpase domain. in infected cells, 2c is involved in the formation of membrane vesicles, where it co-localizes with viral rna replication complex ...201020507978
effect of fmd vaccination on semen quality parameters in karan fries and murrah buffalo bulls.effect of foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination was studied on semen quality parameters of 19 karan fries (kf) and eight murrah (mu) breeding bulls during the period 2002 to 2004 at artificial breeding complex, ndri, karnal. a total of non-vaccinated 155 kf and 72 mu bulls' ejaculates were taken as control, while 169 kf and 51 mu bulls' ejaculates, collected after vaccination, were used to study the effect of vaccination stress. the results showed that fmd vaccination had no significant (p > ...201020509049
foot and mouth disease: a story of resilience. 200920509460
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
functional expression of secreted proteins from a bicistronic retroviral cassette based on foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a can be position dependent.the expression of two or more genes from a single viral vector has been widely used to label or select for cells containing the transgenic element. identification of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a cleavage peptide as a polycistronic linker capable of producing equivalent levels of transgene expression has greatly improved this approach in the field of gene therapy. however, as a consequence of 2a posttranslational cleavage the upstream protein is left with a residual 19 amino acids f ...201020528679
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. the chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a) stability: their shapes were stable at ph 7.0 and ph 8.0 and -30 ...201020540780
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in selected national parks in uganda (2001-2003).in east africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) isolates have over time included serotypes o, a, c, southern african territories (sat) 1 and sat 2, mainly from livestock. sat 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in african buffalos (syncerus caffer). to investigate the presence of antibodies against fmdv serotypes in wildlife in uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. thirty-eight samples from african buffalos ...201020561289
multiple shrnas driven by u6 and cmv promoter enhances efficiency of antiviral effects against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. the current vaccine for fmd provides no protection until 7 days post-vaccination, thus reducing its effectiveness in the case of an outbreak. small interfering rna (sirna) is a promising antiviral approach because it can induce a protective response much more rapidly. this study is the first report to apply multiple short hairpin rna (shrna) expression systems to inhibit foot-and- ...201020561543
letter to the editor. loss of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function coincides with lymphopenia and viremia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection. 201020565298
qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.the risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. this reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. this review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (db) from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-infected cattle, countries or zones. a definition of db is provided along with a description of ...201020569417
status of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan.the present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pakistan during the period 1952-2007. during this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of fmdv. serotype o was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype asia-1 and a. serotype c was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. the disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. t ...201020571838
[fusion expression of asia i type fmdv neutralizing epitope with heavy chain constant region of sheep igg and the assessment of its immunogenicity].vp1 is a major antigenic protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus(fmdv), which induces the immune response against fmdv infection, and contains several epitopes of the virus. we designed and chemically synthesized a dna fragment which encoding a tandem repeat protein of 136-160aa and 198-211aa of a strain of type asia i fmdv, and cloned the gene of heavy chain constant region of sheep igg. by using the bamh i, ecor i and xho i sites, both genes were cloned into pproexhtb vector in turn to form a ...201020575432
a simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the castile and leon region of spain.a spatial stochastic model was used to simulate the spread of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the castile-and-leon (cyl) region of spain. the model was fitted using information available on premises demographics and on assumptions for animal movements, indirect contacts, and airborne exposure. control measures dictated by spanish and european union regulations constituted a reference strategy to which six alternative control strategies were compared. for the reference strategy, the me ...201020579754
domain disruptions of individual 3b proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture or virulence in cattle.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3b (also known as vpg), that is covalently linked to the 5' terminus of the viral genome. in contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3b, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes three copies of 3b. viruses containing disrupted native sequence or deletion of one of their three 3b proteins were derived from a fmdv a24 cruzeiro full-length cdna infectious clone. mutant viruses had growth characterist ...201020580394
baculovirus treatment fully protects mice against a lethal challenge of fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cattle, swine, goat and sheep among others. fmdv is able to overcome the initial host innate immune response by inhibiting the induction of antiviral molecules at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. it has been demonstrated that fmdv a/arg/2001 causes the death of adult c57bl/6 mice within 72h. we evaluated the capacity of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis ...201020580746
the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation. identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of characterize the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle subsequent to simulated natural exposure, 16 steers were aerosol inoculated with fmdv and euthanized at various times. samples were collected from each steer antemortem (serum, nasal swabs, and oral swabs) and postmortem (up to 40 tissues per animal) and screened for fmdv by virus isolation and for fmdv rna by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. tissues that tested positive for fmdv ...201020587691
foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates only transiently in well-differentiated porcine nasal epithelial cells.three-dimensional (3d) porcine nasal mucosal and tracheal mucosal epithelial cell cultures were developed to analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) interactions with mucosal epithelial cells. the cells in these cultures differentiated and polarized until they closely resemble the epithelial layers seen in vivo. fmdv infected these cultures predominantly from the apical side, primarily by binding to integrin alphav beta6, in an arg-gly-asp (rgd)-dependent manner. however, fmdv replicated onl ...201020592089
a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody completely protects mice against lethal challenge with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.a recombinant humanized antibody to venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) was constructed in a monocistronic adenoviral expression vector with a foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2a self-cleavage oligopeptide inserted between the antibody heavy and light chains. after expression in mammalian cells, the heavy and light chains of the humanized antibody (hu1a4a1igg1-2a) were completely cleaved and properly dimerized. the purified hu1a4a1igg1-2a retained veev binding affinity and neutralizi ...201020600509
co-circulation of two extremely divergent serotype sat 2 lineages in kenya highlights challenges to foot-and-mouth disease control.amongst the sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the sat 2 serotype is the most widely distributed throughout sub-saharan africa. kenyan serotype sat 2 viruses have been reported to display the highest genetic diversity for the serotype globally. this complicates diagnosis and control, and it is essential that patterns of virus circulation are known in order to overcome these difficulties. this study was undertaken to establish patterns of evolution of fmdv serotype sat 2 in ken ...201020614146
[prokaryotic expression, protein purification and reactivity analysis of the vp1 and its c terminus of a south african isolate of fmdv serotype sat2].to induce the expression of structure protein vp1 and its c terminus of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 in e.coli and analyze their reactivities with fmdv positive antiserum.201020619084
diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa: implications for vaccination policies.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in east africa. a sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control fmd mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success. we investigated the genetic relationships among serotype o strains in eastern africa using complete vp1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 fmd virus isolates collected in kenya in the years 1964- ...201020619358
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected from sudan.the aim of this study was to characterize foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses collected between 2004 and 2008 from sudan, a country where fmd is endemic. using virus isolation and antigen elisa, three fmd virus serotypes (o, a and sat2) were detected in 24 samples that were submitted to the fao world reference laboratory for fmd. pan-serotypic real-time rt-pcr assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and 3d genes of fmd virus were also used to contribute to the laboratory diagnosis o ...201020626708
high-resolution in vivo imaging of breast cancer by targeting the pro-invasive integrin alphavbeta6.the integrin alphavbeta6 is expressed only on epithelia and then usually only during processes of tissue remodelling including cancer, where its high expression correlates with reduced survival. thus, alphavbeta6 represents an important target for imaging and therapy of cancer and new molecular-specific targeting agents are required. we have developed a20fmdv2, a peptide derived from the vp1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth-disease virus that binds specifically and stably to alphavbeta6. using a n ...201020629113
adjuvant effect of cliptox on the protective immune response induced by an inactivated vaccine against foot and mouth disease virus in mice.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an acute disease caused by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) which causes important economy losses, this is why it is necessary to obtain a vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response. cliptox is a mineral microparticle that in earlier studies has shown adjuvant activity against different antigens. in this study we have examined the effects of cliptox on the magnitude and type of immunity elicited in response to inactivated fmdv ( ...201020637310
mapping of amino acid residues responsible for adhesion of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease sat type viruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infects host cells by adhering to the alpha(v) subgroup of the integrin family of cellular receptors in a arg-gly-asp (rgd) dependent manner. fmd viruses, propagated in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to enter cells via alternative cell surface molecules. sequencing analysis of sat1 and sat2 cell culture-adapted variants showed acquisition of positively charged amino acid residues within surface-exposed loops of the outer capsid stru ...201020637812
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsrna-induced type i interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been identified as an interferon-beta (ifn-beta) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). in this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded rna (dsrna)-induced ifn-alpha1/beta expression caused by l(pro) was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (irf-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation o ...201020638368
molecular imaging and contrast agent database (micad)integrins belong to the seven transmembrane protein receptor families, and the receptor is composed of an α (24 forms) and a β (8 forms) subunit that can associate in different combinations to produce at least 24 types of heterodimeric molecules as described by bandyopadhyay and raghvan (1). the integrin receptor activity is influenced by the type of constitutive α and β subunit combination, and, depending on the combination, the receptor can promote cell adhesion to fibronectin, laminins, or co ...200420641219
molecular imaging and contrast agent database (micad)integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins on cell surfaces that mediate diverse biological events involving cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions (1). integrins consist of an α and a β subunit and are important for cell adhesion and signal transduction. the αvβ3 integrin is the most prominent receptor affecting tumor growth, tumor invasiveness, metastasis, tumor-induced angiogenesis, inflammation, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis (2-7). expression of the αvβ3 integrin is stron ...200420641575
confidence in indirect assessment of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency and vaccine matching carried out by liquid phase elisa and virus neutralization tests.the necessity of avoiding the use of animals in vaccine potency testing has been widely recognized. the repeatability and reproducibility of the expected percentage of protection (epp) as a serological potency surrogate for a24 cruzeiro foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain was assessed, and compared with the results obtained with challenge in the protection against podal generalization (ppg) test. to determine the epps, the serum titers obtained by liquid phase blocking competitive elisa ( ...201020643090
translation driven by picornavirus ires is hampered from sindbis virus replicons: rescue by poliovirus 2a protease.alphavirus replicons are very useful for analyzing different aspects of viral molecular biology. they are also useful tools in the development of new vaccines and highly efficient expression of heterologous genes. we have investigated the translatability of sindbis virus (sv) subgenomic mrna bearing different 5'-untranslated regions, including several viral internal ribosome entry sites (iress) from picornaviruses, hepatitis c virus, and cricket paralysis virus. our findings indicate that all th ...201020643140
application of two bicistronic systems involving 2a and ires sequences to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm.coordination of multiple transgenes is essential for metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways. here, we report the utilization of two bicistronic systems involving the 2a sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus and the internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequence from the crucifer-infecting tobamovirus to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm. two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy) from capsicum and carotene desaturase (crti) from pantoea, were linked ...201020649940
direct typing and molecular evolutionary analysis of field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus collected in viet nam between 2006 and this study, we used universal or duplex serotype-specific (o and asia 1) rt-pcr to analyze clinical field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or virus isolates collected in viet nam between 2006 and 2007. we found viral serotypes o and asia 1 circulating concurrently during this period. direct sequencing of type-specific rt-pcr products revealed the existence of three different topotypes of serotype o: southeast asia (sea), middle east-south asia (me-sa), and cathay. of these, sea ...201120667669
coexpression of double or triple copies of the rabies virus glycoprotein gene using a 'self-cleaving' 2a peptide-based replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 vector.rabies virus glycoprotein (rvg) is a major structural protein and antigen of rabies virus that induces a highly immunogenic response. in the present study, we have used 2a self-cleaving sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to express double or triple copies of the rvg from a single open reading frame derived from human adenovirus 5 (adhu5). the recombinant adenoviruses produce similar virus titers, indicating that the insertion of double or triple copies of the rvg gene linked wit ...201020682459
development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen many countries, foot and mouth disease (fmd) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (ncp); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against ncp. vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. we have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (fal-elisa), to detect and quantify ncp in vaccine-antig ...201020685600
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
survey for foot-and-mouth disease in the endangered marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from marshlands of the parana river basin, brazil.habitat fragmentation and diseases have resulted in a decline of the marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) throughout its south american range. our objectives were to determine whether marsh deer intended for translocation from a region of the rio paraná basin had been infected previously by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and whether they were carrying virus. we captured marsh deer from june to october 1998 and collected blood from 108 animals and esophageal-pharyngeal fluid from 53. serum wa ...201020688701
serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in uganda.uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. a serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by elisa for antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins. three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural p ...201020696028
multiple invasions of o1 fmdv serotype into israel revealed by genetic analysis of vp1 genes of israeli's isolates from 1989 to 2007.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), one of the most dangerous viruses affecting cloven-hoofed animals, comprises seven serotypes that do not mutually cross-protect, with a total of about 80 subtypes. the middle east is an fmd-endemic region, with repeated fmd outbreaks and in spite of its compulsory vaccination policy in israel, outbreaks occur repeatedly. in order to compare the israeli isolates, the complete viral vp1 genes of representative viruses isolated during the major outbreaks from 19 ...201120702050
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3b protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a iran 05.the a iran 05 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subtype was detected in iran during 2005 and has proven to be highly virulent. this study was undertaken to focus on molecular and phylogenetic analysis of 3a and 3b coding-regions in the a iran 05 field isolate. to assess the genetic relatedness of a iran 05 isolate the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the 3ab region of type a fmdv isolates were compared with twenty previously described type a fmdv isolates. the phylogenetic tree ...201020706032
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
serological evidence of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in randomly surveyed goat population of orissa, india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and goats constitute the second largest susceptible population of domestic livestock. fmd surveillance and control strategies in the country largely ignore small ruminants, known to be critical in the epidemiology of the disease. here, serological investigations were carried out to generate estimates of antibody prevalence in goats of orissa state to both non-structural (nsp-ab) and structural proteins (sp-ab) of fmd. the apparent overall nsp-ab ...201020723161
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses in east africa: evidence for interserotypic recombination.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in east africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype o virus. in this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype o fmd viruses from kenya and uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships and processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of diversity within this serotype. fmd virus rna was obtained from six samples following virus isolation in cell culture and in one ca ...201020731826
competition-colonization dynamics: an ecology approach to quasispecies dynamics and virulence evolution in rna viruses.a single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. the subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. these two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. virulent viruses can be regarded as colonizers because they killed the cells faster and they spread faster. the attenuated subpopulation resembles competit ...201020798818
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
study of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine containing structural genes of serotype o in a genome backbone of serotype asia 1 in guinea pigs.since foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes display a great genetic and antigenic diversity, there is a constant requirement to monitor the performance of fmdv vaccines in the field with respect to their antigenic coverage. to avoid possible antigenic changes in field fmdv isolates during their adaptation to bhk-21 cells, a standard step used in production of conventional fmdv vaccines, the custom-made chimeric conventional or dna vaccines, in which antigenic determinants are replaced wi ...201020822311
alternative way to test the efficacy of swine fmd vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (pid50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose.foot-and -mouth disease to pigs is serious recently around the world. "vaccination prevention" is still an important policy. oie specifies 10,000 tcid50(0.2 ml) of virulent virus for challenge test in pigs to test the potency of fmd vaccine by intradermal route inoculating the virus in the heel bulbs of one foot or by intramuscular route administering into one site of the neck behind the ear. convenience and speediness are available in the process of potency test of commercial fmd vaccine. we se ...201020822547
two-dimensional heteronuclear saturation transfer difference nmr reveals detailed integrin αvβ6 protein-peptide interactions.we report the first example of peptide-protein heteronuclear two-dimensional (2d) saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (std nmr). this method, resulting in dramatically reduced overlap, was applied to the interaction of the integrin αvβ6 with a known peptide ligand and highlights novel contact points between the substrate and target protein.201020838674
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-aug region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the l protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates translation from two in-frame aug codons producing two forms of the leader (l) proteinase, lab (starting at the first aug) and lb (starting at second aug). in a previous study, we have demonstrated that a cdna-derived mutant fmdv (a24-l1123) containing a 57-nucleotide transposon (tn) insertion between the two aug initiation codons (inter-aug region) was completely attenuated in cattle, suggesting that this region is involved in viral pathogenesis. to ...201120849893
hsv-1 amplicon vectors that direct the in situ production of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens in mammalian cells can be used for genetic immunization.hsv-1 amplicon vectors encoding heterologous antigens were capable to mediate in situ generation of protein synthesis and to generate a specific immune response to the corresponding antigens. in this study, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus antigens were used to generate a genetic vaccine prototype. the amplicons were designed to provide a high safety profile as they do not express any hsv-1 genes when packaged using a helper virus-free system, and they are able to encapsidate several copies of ...201020851082
induction of a cross-reactive cd8(+) t cell response following foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. current inactivated fmdv vaccines generate short-term, serotype-specific protection, mainly through neutralizing antibody. an improved understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity would aid design of more effective vaccines. we have previously reported the presence of virus-specific cd8(+) t cells in fmdv-vaccinated and -infected cattle. in the current study, we aimed to identify cd8(+) t ...201020861264
development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous identification of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16.human enterovirus 71 (hev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) are two major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) in children. recently there have been several large outbreaks of hfmd in vietnam and the asia-pacific region. in this study, a multiplex rt-pcr assay was developed in order to detect simultaneously hev71, cva16 and other human enteroviruses. enterovirus detection was performed with a mixture of three pairs of oligonucleotide primers: one pair of published primers f ...201020863857
expression of the major epitope regions of 2c integrated with the 3ab non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated recent years, the potential value of the non-structural proteins (nsp) 2c and 3abc has been well documented for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated animals (diva). in order to develop a more sensitive approach to detect animals infected naturally in herds of fmdv-vaccinated animals, a 47.6kd fusion protein named 2c3ab was expressed in bacteria which incorporated two major b-cell epitope regions of 2c and the whole 3ab within the nsp of ...201020863858
a multi-step process of viral adaptation to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue by modulation of transition types leads to extinction-escape.resistance of viruses to mutagenic agents is an important problem for the development of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy. previous studies with rna viruses have documented that resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1-h-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is mediated by amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase that either increase the general template copying fidelity of the enzyme or decrease the incorporation of ribavirin into rna. here we ...201020865120
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
porcine type i interferon rapidly protects swine against challenge with multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. current inactivated vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, but before this time vaccinated animals remain susceptible to disease. previously, we demonstrated that intramuscular (im) inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vector containing a porcine interferon α gene (pifnα) can protect swine challenged 1 day later by intradermal (id) injection with f ...201020874428
improved immune response by id-pvac: a secretory dna vaccine construct delivered by plg micro particles against foot and mouth disease in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks usually have devastating effects on the economy of countries were disease is endemic due to direct and indirect cost; most of them related to international trade embargoes of animals and animal products. although currently used inactivated vaccine provides protection, it has several drawbacks like short duration of immunity, and the requirement for containment facilities. a dna vaccine construct which expresses the secretary antigens, delivered through micr ...201020884037
recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing p12a and 3c of fmdv can partially protect piglets against fmdv of the crucial factors for evaluation of an effective genetically engineered vaccine is whether susceptible animals are protected from virus challenge after vaccination. in this study, a recombinant pseudorabies virus (prv-p12a3c) that expressed capsid precursor polypeptide p12a and nonstructural protein 3c of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used as a vaccine. the expression of p12a3c and its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against fmdv challenge were measured. humoral and cel ...201020947111
development and validation of a lateral flow immunoassay using colloidal gold for the identification of serotype-specific foot-and-mouth disease virus o, a and asia 1.a lateral flow immunoassay (lfi) was developed to identify and diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia 1. antibodies obtained from rabbits and guinea pigs immunized with cell-culture-adapted virus strains (o/cha/99, a/gs/lx/66, asia 1/chn/05) and suckling-mouse adapted virus strains (o/av99(l), a/av88(l), asia 1/ynbs/58) were used as capture antibodies. the diagnostic kit included three immunochromatographic strips of types o, a and asia 1, and the type-specific resu ...201020951743
b cell epitopes within vp1 of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus for detection of viral this study, the coding region of type o fmdv capsid protein vp1 and a series of codon optimized dna sequences coding for vp1 amino acid residues 141-160 (epitope1), tandem repeat 200-213 (epitope2 (+2)) and the combination of two epitopes (epitope1-2) was genetically cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pp(ro)exhtb and pgex4t-1, respectively. vp1 and the fused epitopes gst-e1, gst-e2 (+2) and gst-e1-2 were successfully solubly expressed in the cytoplasm of escherichia coli and wester ...201020960280
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