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sheep (ovis aries) integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 related to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with homologues.four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are believed to be the receptors used to target epithelial cells in the infected animals. to analyse roles of the alphav integrins from a susceptible species as viral receptors, we have cloned sheep alphav, beta1, and beta6 integrin cdnas and compared them to those of other speci ...200919555755
structure and dynamics of the gh loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid.the gh loop of vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid is important because it is a major antigenic site and an integrin recognition site. the gh loop is disordered in all x-ray structures of the capsid except for serotype o under reduced conditions in which the loop lies on the capsid surface. although the structure of the capsid-integrin complex has not yet been determined, the gh loop is known to protrude from the capsid surface when the capsid is bound with an antigen-binding fragment ...200919734079
neutralizing monoclonal antibody sandwich liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o antibodies.liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lpbe) using the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sandwich method (m-lpbe) for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o antibodies was developed. two neutralizing mabs, 72c1 and 65h6, were raised against the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain, and used as trapping and peroxidase-labeled detecting antibodies, respectively. sera from animals experimentally infected with fmdv showed specific positive results by m-lpbe, which were corr ...200919564498
foot and mouth disease virus vaccines.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating fmd from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the main sanitary barrier to the commerce of animals and animal products. currently available inactivated antigen vaccines applied intramuscularly to individual animals, confer serotype and subtype speci ...200919837296
multiple origins of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 outbreaks, 2003-2007.we investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in asia during 2003-2007. since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern asia (afghanistan, india, iran, nepal, pakistan) northward to encompass kyrgyzstan, tajikistan, uzbekistan, several regions of the people's republic of china, mongolia, eastern russia, and north korea. phylogenetic analysi ...200919624919
systematic study of the genetic response of a variable virus to the introduction of deleterious mutations in a functional capsid region.we have targeted the intersubunit interfaces in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus to investigate the genetic response of a variable virus when individual deleterious mutations are systematically introduced along a functionally defined region of its genome. we had previously found that the individual truncation (by mutation to alanine) of 28 of the 42 amino acid side chains per protomer involved in interactions between capsid pentameric subunits severely impaired infectivity. we have now ...200919625409
recovery of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from full-length genomic cdna clones using an rna polymerase i system.the prototypic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was shown more than a century ago to be the first filterable agent capable of causing fmd, and it has served as an important model for studying basic principles of aphthovirus molecular biology. however, the complex structure and antigenic diversity of fmdv have posed a major obstacle to the attempts at manipulating the infectious virus by reverse genetic techniques. here, we report the recovery of infectious fmdv from cdnas based on an efficien ...200920011974
[rescue and identification foot-and-mouth disease virus asia1/js/china/2005 strain with arg-gly-asp rgd receptor recognition site].to construct an infectious full-length cdna clone of asial/js/china/2005 strain with arg-gly-asp (rgd) receptor recognition site.200919873760
recombinant dna and protein vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease induce humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a small single-stranded rna virus which belongs to the family picornaviridae, genus apthovirus. it is a principal cause of fmd which is highly contagious in livestock. in a wild type virus infection, infected animals usually elicit antibodies against structural and non-structural protein of fmdv. a structural protein, vp1, is involved in neutralization of virus particle, and has both b and t cell epitopes. a rna-dependent rna polymerase, 3d, is highly conse ...200920157614
prevalence estimates of antibodies towards foot-and-mouth disease virus in small ruminants in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. in order for uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. this study summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to fmdv from four districts in 2006 following an fmd outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random ...200919909475
generation of full-length functional antibody against pres2 of hepatitis b virus in hepatic cells in vitro from bicistrons mediated by gutless adenovirus.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) have been developed as effective therapeutics for a wide variety of diseases. delivery of mabs by gene transfer provides an option for overcoming the difficulties in mab production and manufacturing processes. however, for the polymeric structure of full-length mabs, it is important to design an optimal gene transfer system for mab generation.200919894780
structure-function analysis of mutant rna-dependent rna polymerase complexes with vpg.the replication of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome is critically dependent upon the activity of a virally encoded rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp). in this study, four mutant rdrps of fmdv were isolated from viral quasi-species treated with ribavirin, of which two were single mutants (l123f and t381a) and two were double mutants (t291i/t381i and l123f/f244l). the mutant proteins were expressed in escherichia coli and purified by his-bind resin chromatography. in combination wit ...200919916926
the effect of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) might be one of the control measures used during an fmd epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. a sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. an important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute ...200920046605
[construction of an infectious cdna clone derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus o/qyys/s/06].after sequencing, we amplified and cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/qyys/s/06 whole genome by three fragments. these three fragments were cloned into vector p43 one by one to construct recombinant plasmid p43c, which carried the full-length cdna of fmdv o/qyys/s/06. then, plasmid p43c and plasmid t7 expressing t7 rna polymerase were co-transfected into bhk-21 cells. after 48 h, we harvested the culture broth from transfected bhk-21 cells and inoculated into 2-3 day-old sucking mice. ...200919835137
multiplex primer prediction software for divergent targets.we describe a multiplex primer prediction (mpp) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets to amplify all members of large, diverse and unalignable sets of target sequences. the mpp algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. we applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly lar ...200919759213
rna nuclear export is blocked by poliovirus 2a protease and is concomitant with nucleoporin cleavage.cytopathic viruses have developed successful strategies to block or, at least, to attenuate host interference with their replication. here, we have analyzed the effects of poliovirus 2a protease on rna nuclear export. 2a protease interferes with trafficking of mrnas, rrnas and u snrnas from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, without any apparent effect on trna transport. traffic of newly produced mrnas is more strongly affected than traffic of other mrnas over-represented in the cytoplasm, such as mr ...200919789179
potential benefits of sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatments of rna virus infections.lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy consisting of virus extinction associated with enhanced mutagenesis. the use of non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors has faced the problem of selection of inhibitor-resistant virus mutants. quasispecies dynamics predicts, and clinical results have confirmed, that combination therapy has an advantage over monotherapy to delay or prevent selection of inhibitor-escape mutants. using ribavirin-mediated mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), here ...200919911056
structural insights into replication initiation and elongation processes by the fmdv rna-dependent rna polymerase.rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) play central roles in both transcription and viral genome replication. in picornaviruses, these functions are catalyzed by the virally encoded rdrp, termed 3d. polymerase 3d also catalyzes the covalent linkage of ump to a tyrosine on the small protein vpg. uridylylated vpg then serves as a protein primer for the initiation of rna synthesis. seven different crystal structures of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d catalytic complexes have enhanced our unde ...200919914060
[molecular design and immunogenicity of a multiple-epitope foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen, adjuvants, and dna vaccination].we designed and constructed a fuse expression gene oaat and staphylococcal enterotoxin a (sea) on the basis of the oaat designed and constructed which consists of the structural protein vp1 genes from serotypes a and o fmdv, 5 major vp1 immunodominant epitopes from two genotypes of asia1 serotype, and 3 th2 epitopes originating from the non-structural protein, 3abc gene and structural protein vp4 gene. the recombinant plasmids pea was constructed using sea as a genetic adjuvant. expressions of t ...200919637624
phylogenetic analysis of 3c protease (3c(pro)) coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a.nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3c protease (3c(pro)) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a (fmdv-a) isolates from india has revealed incongruous phylogenetic grouping between 3c(pro) and vp1 region possibly due to the genetic recombination or independent evolution of non-structural and structural protein coding regions. similar to the vp1 region, the emerging vp3(59)-deletion group maintained its genetic distinctiveness at 3c(pro) region and was found to be diverging with time. two ...200919941399
[morphological observation of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus l(pro)].in order to explore the morphological changes of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) l protease, we induced the expression of fmdv l protease in bovine kidney cells (mdbk) artificially. all work is carried out on the basis of a stable mdbk cell line inducibly expresses the lab gene under the control of tetracycline. we use cell morphology, hoechst 33258 staining, ao-eb staining, and dna ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of mdbk cells. ...200920222457
[rescue of bovine asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus from a full-length cdna clone].after sequencing the asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (as01 strain), we amplified the two fragments covering the whole genome by overlapping pcr and long pcr. the 5' fragment was 1.8 kb in length including 15cs, and the 3' fragment was 6.7 kb in length. the two fragments were cloned into the pbluescript sk vector to construct recombinant plasmid pbsas carrying the full-length cdna of fmdv as01 strain. the rna transcript was synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase and transfected into ...200920222458
currently important animal disease management issues in sub-saharan africa.the present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (tads) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. however, for sub-saharan africa and southern africa more particularly, eradication of most tads is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. compounding this, the present basis for acces ...200919967938
foot and mouth disease: a story of resilience. 200920509460
cytokine mrna responses in bovine epithelia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. the factors which regulate the pathogenesis and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are poorly understood. mrna levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (il)-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and the antiviral cytokines interferon (ifn)-alpha, beta and gamma in microdissected epithelium from cattle acutely infected with fmdv o ukg 3 ...200917920964
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna duration in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.quantitative analysis of the duration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna in tissues was carried out in pigs experimentally infected with fmdv o ukg 34/2001 and o skr 1/2000. the results showed that the viral rna was still detectable in cervical lymph nodes, mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils collected from both inoculated and contact pigs at 28 days post infection. there was no detectable viral rna in the soft palate or pharynx, which are thought to be tissue sites for viral persistence ...200918294878
airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: evaluation and optimisation of instrumentation and techniques.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted in a variety of ways, one of which is through virus exhaled into the air by infected livestock. it is clear that where there is close contact there will be a range of possible mechanisms for the transmission of disease from animal to animal, including the airborne route if simple barriers between livestock exist. in transmission of fmd over longer distances, airborne transmission represents a significant challenge to the veterinary services in that ...200917977760
measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: preliminary evaluation of two portable air sampling devices.until now measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the field has not been attempted or been practical; measurements have been restricted to the laboratory and isolation units using instruments developed in the 1960s. however, with the development of air sampling devices for other biological purposes, there is now the possibility that this short-coming can be overcome and as a result earlier detection of virus may be possible in the future. two recently-introduced commercial ...200918023217
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared thermography.in this study, infrared thermography (irt) was assessed as a means of detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cattle before and after the development of clinical signs. preliminary irt imaging demonstrated that foot temperatures increased in fmdv-infected animals. the maximum foot temperatures of healthy (n=53), directly inoculated (di) (n=12), contact (ct) (n=6), and vaccine trial (vt) (n=21) cattle were measured over the course of fmd infection. a cut-off value was established a ...200918308596
kinetics of immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (type asia 1) in experimental cattle.humoral and mucosal (secretory antibody)immune response to fmdv type asia 1 in cattle was analyzed after vaccination and infection using virus neutralizing test (vnt). vaccination (1/16th the usual dose) failed to protect cattle from generalized clinical disease following experimental fmdv asia 1 infection. our results showed that infection induced higher and prolonged serum antibody titres indicating antigen mass is important for optimal immune response. experimental fmdv infection induced sign ...200918648998
a novel single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr method for quantifying foot-and-mouth disease viral rna.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a positive-sense, single-stranded rna virus with a negative strand as its replication intermediate, which can cause severe acute infection in sensitive cell lines. to investigate better the actual state of virus infection, there is a need to measure the amount of fmdv rna in a single acutely infected cell rather than in a large number of cells. therefore, in the present study, a strand-specific single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr was developed to analyze the ...200919010355
rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of fmdv field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in argentine facilities. additionally, a typing elisa using strain specific mabs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among fmdv strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. this assay was carried ...200918774662
ginseng stem-leaf saponins (gsls) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (gsls) as well as the synergistic effect between gsls and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. in experiment a, icr mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmdv antigen with or without gsls (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. highest fmdv-specific igg level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mi ...200918973783
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 1f10) shown to be pan-reactive to fmdv strains of each serotype by elisa. the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia (304 positive and 1003 negative samples) from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1965 and 2008 and negative samples collected from healt ...200918848845
differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a sau 22/92. five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. the inoculated sheep, which served as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of fmd and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. the presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for seve ...200918687160
internalization of swine vesicular disease virus into cultured cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus.we performed a comparative analysis of the internalization mechanisms used by three viruses causing important vesicular diseases in animals. swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) internalization was inhibited by treatments that affected clathrin-mediated endocytosis and required traffic through an endosomal compartment. svdv particles were found in clathrin-coated pits by electron microscopy and colocalized with markers of early endosomes by confocal microscopy. svdv infectivity was significantly ...200919225001
endosperm-specific expression of tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase from a single self-processing polypeptide produces high levels of tyramine derivatives in rice seeds.the plant-specific tyramine derivatives, feruloyltyramine (ft) and 4-coumaroyltyramine (ct), represent bioactive compounds found at low levels in many plant species. we generated transgenic rice seeds that produce high levels of ct (14 microg g(-1) seeds) and ft (2.7 microg g(-1) seeds) through the dual expression of tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase, using the self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a sequence and the endosperm-specific prolamin promoter.200919229478
foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows.transmission of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus by infected animals may already occur before clinical signs are evident. quantitative data for fmd transmission rates during this so-called high-risk period are currently lacking and would provide useful information to develop surveillance systems in which the number of new outbreaks is an outcome variable. in order to address this, we used experimental data to quantify transmission in cattle, swine and sheep during the non-clinical phase of the ...200918929417
immune response in goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines and the assessment of maternal immunity in their kids.in this investigation, the immune response of goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines (fmdv) was compared. highest mean antibody titre was observed on days 60 and 21 in goats vaccinated with two doses of algel (group 1) and oil adjuvant (group 2) quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in mean antibody titre between the two vaccine groups. however, the antibody titres for type o fell below the protective titres by day 180 and 270 for gr ...200919200298
understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling fmdv. in this review i will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. i will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of fmdv, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of fmdv, ...200919100342
attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus rna carrying a deletion in the 3' noncoding region can elicit immunity in swine.we constructed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutants bearing independent deletions of the two stem-loop structures predicted in the 3' noncoding region of viral rna, sl1 and sl2, respectively. deletion of sl2 was lethal for viral infectivity in cultured cells, while deletion of sl1 resulted in viruses with slower growth kinetics and downregulated replication associated with impaired negative-strand rna synthesis. with the aim of exploring the potential of an rna-based vaccine against foot- ...200919211755
a novel role for gemin5 in mrna translation.in eukaryotic cells translation initiation occurs through two alternative mechanisms, a cap-dependent operating in the majority of mrnas, and a 5'-end-independent driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements, specific for a subset of mrnas. ires elements recruit the translation machinery to an internal position in the mrna through a mechanism involving the ires structure and several trans-acting factors. here, we identified gemin5 protein bound to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...200919066202
thermostable foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate for endemic countries: a perspective. 200919189856
some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.the selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "protection against podal generalization" (ppg) test for two serotype a strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase elisa (lpelisa) in three laboratories. the average vnt r-values for medium and high ...200919041355
transient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by sirnas silencing vp1 protein coding region.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a severe, clinically acute, vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) is a mechanism for silencing gene expression post-transcriptionally that is being exploited as a rapid antiviral strategy. to identify efficacious small interfering rnas (sirnas) to inhibit the replication of fmdv, candidate sirnas corresponding to fmdv vp1 gene were designed and synthesized in vitro using t7 rna pol ...200919062053
the plasmid constructs producing shrna corresponding to the conserved 3d polymerase of foot and mouth disease virus protects guinea pigs against challenge virus.rna interference (rnai) has been used as an effective antiviral strategy for its specific silencing of viral gene expression in mammalian cells. in this study, shrna targeting two regions of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) i.e. 3d and 5'utr which are very essential in virus replication were evaluated. the constructs were made using h7k rna polymerase iii promoter. we investigated in vivo inhibitory effect of shrna on fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and guinea pigs. the results showed that t ...200918810649
innate immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus: current understanding and future directions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) represents one of the most economically important diseases of farm animals. the basis for the threat caused by this virus is the high speed of replication, short incubation time, high contagiousness, and high mutation rate resulting in constant antigenic changes. thus, although protective immune responses against fmd virus (fmdv) can be efficacious, the rapidity of virus replication and spread can outpace immune defence development and overrun the immune system. fmdv ...200919026453
hsp70 fused with gp3 and gp5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus enhanced the immune responses and protective efficacy against virulent prrsv challenge in pigs.porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) has been mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry all over the world. current vaccination strategies provide only a limited protection. in this study recombinant adenoviruses expressing gp3/gp5 of highly pathogenic prrsv and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene of heamophilus parasuis were constructed, and the immune responses and protective efficacy against homologous challenge were examined in pigs. the results s ...200919070639
evidence of recombination in a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vp1 revealed that a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 identified in mongolia in 2005 was related to chinese and russian strains isolated during the same year. in this study, these strains were defined as east asian strains having a common geographical origin, and the complete genomic sequence of the mongolian strain (as1/mog/05) was determined and compared to other strains of serotype asia 1. as1/mog/05 showed 1 ...200918977402
production of multicistronic hiv-1 based lentiviral vectors.in the last decade lentiviral gene transfer vectors have gained significant place both in basic science and gene therapy applications. a number of gene transfer applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. this chapter focuses on production of bicistronic and tricistronic lentiviral vectors based on the internal ribosomal entry site (ires) sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cleavage factor 2a. multigene vector ...200919378113
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein and monoclonal antibody for detecting antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus serotype new jersey.in this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype new jersey (nj). the glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified vsv-nj, and a neutralizing mab specific to vsv-nj was incorporated to compete with antibodies in a blocking elisa using glycoprotein (gp elisa). the cutoff of the gp elisa was set at 40% inhi ...200919279165
biological effect of muller's ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing.repeated bottleneck passages of rna viruses result in accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. here, we show that clones of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subjected to bottleneck passages, in the form of plaque-to-plaque transfers in bhk-21 cells, increased the thermosensitivity of the viral clones. by constructing infectious fmdv clones, we have identified the amino acid substitution m54i in capsid protein vp1 as one of the lesions associated with thermosensitivity. m54i affects pro ...200919403672
molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3'untranslated region.a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 3'untranslated region (3'utr) was generated by transposon (tn)-mediated mutagenesis. characterization of the mutant virus (a24-3'utr8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the a24 wild-type virus. rna modeling showed that the structures predicted in the 3'utr were not affected by the tn insertion. these results revealed that the 3'utr can to ...200919288053
quantification of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission rates using published data.foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. to understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers alike. however, such quantified parameters are scarcely available, and recently a series of animal experiments was set up to obtain such data experimentally. in this communication, however, we report o ...200919326033
journal club. a crystallographer takes a jaunt into immunology. 200919129809
a dominant-negative mutant of rab5 inhibits infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for virus entry.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can use a number of different integrins (alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8) as receptors to initiate infection. infection mediated by alphavbeta6 is known to occur by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the acidic ph within endosomes. on internalization, virus is detected rapidly in early endosomes (ee) and subsequently in perinuclear recycling endosomes (pnre), but not in late endosomal compartments. due to the extreme sensi ...200919357169
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
activation of porcine natural killer cells and lysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cells.natural killer (nk) cells play a vital role in innate response against viral infections and cellular transformation. in vivo modulation of their response may enhance their antiviral function. here we describe the phenotype of porcine nk cells, test potential proinflammatory cytokines for activation of these cells and assess the capability of porcine nk cells to kill virus-infected or tumor cells in vitro. the cd2+/cd8+/cd3(-) cell compartment contained porcine nk cells, which at the resting stag ...200919196070
antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen drb3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. in argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3.2 gene associated with blv-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. a potential risk in expanding or segregati ...200919109295
infectious bursal disease subviral particles displaying the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site.an antigen delivery system based on subviral particles formed by the self-assembly of the capsid protein of infectious bursal disease virus and carrying foreign peptides at the top of the projection domain was investigated. we report here the effective insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunodominant epitope in one of the four external loops of the subviral particles. out of the two loops tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 12 amino acids without disrupting the subviral ...200918983883
intradermal vaccination of pigs against fmd with 1/10 dose results in comparable vaccine efficacy as intramuscular vaccination with a full dose.the aim of this study was to investigate whether intradermal (id) vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is suitable as an alternative for the usually used intramuscular (im) route. we compared vaccine efficacy in groups of pigs in which vaccine administration differed with respect to antigen payload of the vaccine, administrated volume and administration route. when compared with pigs that were im vaccinated with a full dose vaccine with a standard antigen payload, pigs vaccinated id ...200919114077
effect of the initial dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the early viral dynamics within pigs.this paper investigates the early viral dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) within infected pigs. using an existing within-host model, we investigate whether individual variation can be explained by the effect of the initial dose of fmd virus. to do this, we consider the experimental data on the concentration of fmd virus genomes in the blood (viral load). in this experiment, 12 pigs were inoculated with one of three different doses of fmd virus: low; medium; or high. measurements of the vi ...200919019816
pynttttgt prototype oligonucleotide imt504, a novel effective adjuvant of the fmdv dna vaccine.synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) such as cpg can stimulate b and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vertebrate immune systems. several studies showed that non-cpg odns could also induce strong stimulation of b and t cells. pynttttgt odns, non-cpg odns, can activate and cause immunoglobulin secretion by b cells and proliferation of t cells in vivo. by using pynttttgt odns as an adjuvant for a fmdv dna vaccine, we found that levels of antibody production, t-cell proliferation, and ctl activity ...200919327000
a conserved domain in the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for proper subcellular localization and function.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (ifn) and by reducing the immediate-early induction of ifn-beta mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. in addition to its role in shutting off cap-dependent host mrna translation, l(pro) is associated with the degradation of the p65/rela subunit of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). bioinformatics analysis suggests that l(pro) contains a sa ...200919052079
development of a hamster kidney cell line expressing stably t7 rna polymerase using retroviral gene transfer technology for efficient rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.reverse genetics systems, with the ability to manipulate viral genomes at the dna molecular level, are an important platform for study of the assembly and function of viruses. genome manipulation, such as gene recombination, mosaicism, and mutation may interfere with replication, assembly and release of viruses. an efficient, convenient and economical method of virus rescue is undoubtedly required for increasing the efficiency of rescuing recombinant viruses. to develop an efficient, helper viru ...200919095010
identification of major histocompatibility complex restriction and anchor residues of foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived bovine t-cell epitopes.despite intensive research on the identification of t-cell epitopes in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection during the last 20 years, knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) restriction and anchor residues of such epitopes is still sparse. therefore, as a first step, we tested lymphocytes from two experimentally fmdv serotype a24-vaccinated and -challenged cattle for recognition of fmdv-derived pentadecapeptides in proliferation assays. two epitopes were identif ...200919211750
counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its rna-dependent rna polymerase replacement m296i that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin.200919436746
identification of cellular genes affecting the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. like other viral pathogens, fmdv recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. to identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense rna strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ests) to randoml ...200919369337
synthesis of empty capsid-like particles of asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells and their immunogenicity in guinea pigs.the assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) requires the cleavage of the p12a polyprotein into individual structural proteins by protease 3c. in this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that simultaneously expressed the genes for the p12a and 3c proteins of asia i fmdv from individual promoters. the capsid proteins expressed in high five insect cells were processed by viral 3c protease, as shown by western blotting, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivity in an in ...200919167843
a recombinant protein-based elisa for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.a recombinant protein-based elisa was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. the recombinant protein (rp13c) was derived from the p1 precursor and 3c protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. this protein elicited a low titer of fmdv neutralizing antibodies in pigs. its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking elisa using monoclonal antibodies. the rp13c elisa yielded higher ...200919442854
bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 as fmdv receptors: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with other species.integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that participate in a variety of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions. many integrins recognize rgd sequences displayed on extracellular matrix proteins and the exposed loops of viral capsid proteins. four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are belie ...200919443046
comparative analysis of the large fragment of the 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates from india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and in recent years a unique group within serotype a, carrying a codon deletion at an antigenically critical site in capsid protein vp3 has emerged (vp3(59)-deletion group). this tempted us to analyze the noncoding region, which is an under represented area, though critically associated with virus biology and pathogenesis. analysis of the large fragment of 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of type a fmd virus revealed discrepancy in the overall ...200919444600
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
recent spread of a new strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in the middle east.this report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a responsible for recent fmd outbreaks in the middle east. initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from iran, during 2005 and 2006 this fmdv lineage (proposed to be named a-iran-05) spread into saudi arabia and jordan and then further west into turkey reaching european thrace in january 2007. most recently a-iran-05 has been found in bahrain. to the east of iran, it has been recogni ...200919432637
genetic characterization of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a region in context of the reemergence of vp359-deletion lineage in india.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. here we analyzed the 3a region of serotype a virus in view of the emergence of a variant group in india with an amino acid deletion at an antigenically critical position of capsid protein, vp3. the 3a region exhibited extreme variability with 38% of the amino acid positions showing substitutions and the c-terminal third (127-151) region was most flexible. genotype inclusive grouping of type a foot-and- ...200919460313
in vivo retargeting of adenovirus type 5 to alphavbeta6 integrin results in reduced hepatotoxicity and improved tumor uptake following systemic delivery.a key impediment to successful cancer therapy with adenoviral vectors is the inefficient transduction of malignant tissue in vivo. compounding this problem is the lack of cancer-specific targets, coupled with a shortage of corresponding high-efficiency ligands, permitting selective retargeting. the epithelial cell-specific integrin alphavbeta6 represents an attractive target for directed therapy since it is generally not expressed on normal epithelium but is upregulated in numerous carcinomas, w ...200919369326
pathology and viral distributions of the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus strain (o/taiwan/97) in experimentally infected pigs.twenty-four specific pathogen free pigs were inoculated intradermally at the front-right heel bulb with 0.5 ml of viral suspension containing 10(6.0)tissue culture infectious dose (tcid(50)) with the porcinophillic strain (o/taiwan/97) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated from the epizootic of fmd in taiwan in 1997. two pigs were euthanatized at 8 h, 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15, 21, 26 and 63 days post-inoculation (dpi), and two pigs remained for long-term observation and terminated at 400 ...200919432640
[prokaryotic expression and bioreactivity analysis of a major epitope region of 2c with 3ab within non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus].in recent years, the potential value of nonstructural protein (nsp) 2c was well documented for distinguishing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in infected animals and vaccinated animals. in order to develop a more sensitive approach to detect natural infected fmdv while there is no interact with vaccinated fmdv, we incorporated a major epitope region of 2c with whole 3ab coding region within nsp and expressed in escherichia coli. we got a 47.6 kd fusion protein named 2c'3ab. the product showe ...200919441220
foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing antibodies production induced by pcdna3 and sindbis virus based plasmid encoding fmdv p1-2a3c3d in swine.dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an attractive and alternative strategy to the use of classical inactivated viral vaccines. the injection of a pcdna3.1-based dna vaccine encoding for fmdv p1-2a3c3d and gm-csf proteins had previously been shown to induce the production of neutralizing antibodies against fmdv and partially protect swine against an experimental challenge. based on the induction of fmdv humoral immune responses, the aim of the present study was to see i ...200919501256
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness.although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods. this review summarizes the ...200919249976
5-fluorouracil in lethal mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.5-fluorouracil (fu) is a pyrimidine analogue extensively used in cancer chemotherapy. fu can be metabolized into 5-fluorouridine-triphosphate, which can be used as substrate for viral rna-dependent rna polymerases. this results in the incorporation of mutations into viral rna. accumulation of mutations may lead to loss of virus infectivity, in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. rna virus pathogens are particularly difficult to control because they are highly mutable, and mutants resistant to ...200921426129
transmission risks and control of foot-and-mouth disease in the netherlands: spatial patterns.in 2001 the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in great britain, the netherlands and france have shown how fast fmdv may spread between farms. the massive socio-economic impact of these epidemics and the intervention measures taken demonstrate the need for quantitative assessments of the efficacy of candidate intervention strategies. here we use a mathematical model to describe the spatial transmission of fmdv in the netherlands and use the dutch 2001 outbreak data to estimate mode ...201021352775
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposure.the goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. a novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early replication sites. virus distribution after aerosol inoculation was compared at 24h post inoculation with simple nasal instillation. aerosol inoculation of fmdv consistently resulted in virus detection b ...201018930417
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in uganda.uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. a serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by elisa for antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins. three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural p ...201020696028
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3b protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a iran 05.the a iran 05 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subtype was detected in iran during 2005 and has proven to be highly virulent. this study was undertaken to focus on molecular and phylogenetic analysis of 3a and 3b coding-regions in the a iran 05 field isolate. to assess the genetic relatedness of a iran 05 isolate the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the 3ab region of type a fmdv isolates were compared with twenty previously described type a fmdv isolates. the phylogenetic tree ...201020706032
chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus.in the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. the chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a) stability: their shapes were stable at ph 7.0 and ph 8.0 and -30 ...201020540780
serological evidence of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in randomly surveyed goat population of orissa, india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and goats constitute the second largest susceptible population of domestic livestock. fmd surveillance and control strategies in the country largely ignore small ruminants, known to be critical in the epidemiology of the disease. here, serological investigations were carried out to generate estimates of antibody prevalence in goats of orissa state to both non-structural (nsp-ab) and structural proteins (sp-ab) of fmd. the apparent overall nsp-ab ...201020723161
increasing a robust antigen-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte response by fmdv dna vaccination with il-9 expressing construct.various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of dna vaccination. in this study, we sought to investigate if a dna construct expressing il-9 (designed as prov-il9) as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcd-vp1 dna vaccination. mice immunized with pcd-vp1 combined with prov-il9 developed a strong humoral response. in addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cy ...201020445754
construction of a multiple targeting rnai plasmid that inhibits target gene expression and fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and suckling mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that afflicts cloven-hoofed animals. the etiological agent of fmd is foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the vp1 gene of fmdv is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in the attachment of the virus to susceptible cells. we constructed a plasmid, pcwn11, that expresses sirnas multiple-targeting the vp1 genes of fmdv. we evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of the plasmid using an enhanced green fluorescent ...201020446035
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs.an immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant polymerases with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.passage of poliovirus (pv) or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the presence of ribavirin selected for viruses with decreased sensitivity to r, which included different mutations in their polymerase (3d): g64s located in the finger subdomain in the case of pv and m296i located within loop beta9-alpha11 at the active site in the case of fmdv. to investigate why disparate substitutions were selected in two closely related 3ds, we constructed fmdvs with a 3d that included either g62s (the equi ...201020392853
high-resolution in vivo imaging of breast cancer by targeting the pro-invasive integrin alphavbeta6.the integrin alphavbeta6 is expressed only on epithelia and then usually only during processes of tissue remodelling including cancer, where its high expression correlates with reduced survival. thus, alphavbeta6 represents an important target for imaging and therapy of cancer and new molecular-specific targeting agents are required. we have developed a20fmdv2, a peptide derived from the vp1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth-disease virus that binds specifically and stably to alphavbeta6. using a n ...201020629113
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
localisation of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus protein 2c to the golgi apparatus using antibodies generated against a peptide region.the picornavirus 2c protein is highly conserved and indispensible for virus replication. polyclonal antibodies against theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (tmev) 2c protein were generated by immunisation of rabbits with a peptide comprising amino acids 31-210 of the protein. antibodies were used to investigate the localisation of 2c in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. analysis of infected cells revealed that the distribution of 2c changed during infecti ...201020471424
heterogeneity and genetic variations of serotypes o and asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in vietnam.six field foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs), including four serotype o and two serotype asia 1 strains, were collected from endemic outbreaks in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from four different provinces in vietnam. the viruses were isolated and genetically characterized for their complete genomic sequences. the genetic analysis based on the complete genomic coding sequences revealed that the four serotype o fmdvs were related to each other, sharing 95.2% nucleotide (nt) identity and 97.5-97.6% ami ...201020478669
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