a novel single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr method for quantifying foot-and-mouth disease viral rna.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a positive-sense, single-stranded rna virus with a negative strand as its replication intermediate, which can cause severe acute infection in sensitive cell lines. to investigate better the actual state of virus infection, there is a need to measure the amount of fmdv rna in a single acutely infected cell rather than in a large number of cells. therefore, in the present study, a strand-specific single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr was developed to analyze the ...200919010355
effect of the initial dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the early viral dynamics within pigs.this paper investigates the early viral dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) within infected pigs. using an existing within-host model, we investigate whether individual variation can be explained by the effect of the initial dose of fmd virus. to do this, we consider the experimental data on the concentration of fmd virus genomes in the blood (viral load). in this experiment, 12 pigs were inoculated with one of three different doses of fmd virus: low; medium; or high. measurements of the vi ...200919019816
innate immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus: current understanding and future directions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) represents one of the most economically important diseases of farm animals. the basis for the threat caused by this virus is the high speed of replication, short incubation time, high contagiousness, and high mutation rate resulting in constant antigenic changes. thus, although protective immune responses against fmd virus (fmdv) can be efficacious, the rapidity of virus replication and spread can outpace immune defence development and overrun the immune system. fmdv ...200919026453
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleotide sequence variation within naturally infected important epidemiological tool in the control of epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is genetic tracing using complete virus genome sequence data. however to interpret these genetic data, it is important to quantify underlying variation present in fmdv populations from individual tissue samples. cloned complete capsid sequences from two virus populations from epithelium from a cow (n=26) and from a sheep (n=15) infected during the uk 2001 outbreaks were generated. genetic diversity of t ...200919027805
enhancing effects of the chemical adjuvant levamisole on the dna vaccine pvir-p12a-il18-3c.dna-based vaccination is an attractive alternative for overcoming the disadvantages of inactivated virus vaccines; however, dna vaccines alone often generate only weak immune responses. in this study, the efficacy of lms as a chemical adjuvant on a dna vaccine (pvir-p12a-il18-3c) encoding the p1-2a and 3c genes of the fmdv and swine il-18, which provides protection against fmdv challenge, was tested. all test pigs were administered booster vaccinations 28 days after the initial inoculation, and ...200819039952
some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.the selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "protection against podal generalization" (ppg) test for two serotype a strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase elisa (lpelisa) in three laboratories. the average vnt r-values for medium and high ...200919041355
a conserved domain in the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for proper subcellular localization and function.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (ifn) and by reducing the immediate-early induction of ifn-beta mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. in addition to its role in shutting off cap-dependent host mrna translation, l(pro) is associated with the degradation of the p65/rela subunit of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). bioinformatics analysis suggests that l(pro) contains a sa ...200919052079
foot and mouth's achilles' heel? 200819060865
transient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by sirnas silencing vp1 protein coding region.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a severe, clinically acute, vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) is a mechanism for silencing gene expression post-transcriptionally that is being exploited as a rapid antiviral strategy. to identify efficacious small interfering rnas (sirnas) to inhibit the replication of fmdv, candidate sirnas corresponding to fmdv vp1 gene were designed and synthesized in vitro using t7 rna pol ...200919062053
a novel role for gemin5 in mrna eukaryotic cells translation initiation occurs through two alternative mechanisms, a cap-dependent operating in the majority of mrnas, and a 5'-end-independent driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements, specific for a subset of mrnas. ires elements recruit the translation machinery to an internal position in the mrna through a mechanism involving the ires structure and several trans-acting factors. here, we identified gemin5 protein bound to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...200919066202
hsp70 fused with gp3 and gp5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus enhanced the immune responses and protective efficacy against virulent prrsv challenge in pigs.porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) has been mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry all over the world. current vaccination strategies provide only a limited protection. in this study recombinant adenoviruses expressing gp3/gp5 of highly pathogenic prrsv and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene of heamophilus parasuis were constructed, and the immune responses and protective efficacy against homologous challenge were examined in pigs. the results s ...200919070639
temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).ten male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes o and a were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype a, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by vnt for both serotypes.200819074789
processing of multimer fmd virus vp1-2a protein expressed in e. coli into monomers.expressions of several genes in bacteria were carried out by independent promoter. however, in case of eukaryotes ribosome skipping and introduction of ires are employed as alternative to multiple translation initiation. foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a peptide has been widely used for co-expression of multiple genes in eukaryotic, plant and mammalian systems. the 18 amino acid 2a peptide of fmdv facilitates efficient co-translational dissociation of the polyprotein into discrete protein p ...200819090346
development of a hamster kidney cell line expressing stably t7 rna polymerase using retroviral gene transfer technology for efficient rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.reverse genetics systems, with the ability to manipulate viral genomes at the dna molecular level, are an important platform for study of the assembly and function of viruses. genome manipulation, such as gene recombination, mosaicism, and mutation may interfere with replication, assembly and release of viruses. an efficient, convenient and economical method of virus rescue is undoubtedly required for increasing the efficiency of rescuing recombinant viruses. to develop an efficient, helper viru ...200919095010
pi3k-akt signaling and viral infection.pi3k-akt pathway is an important mechanism through which viral infection influences various cell functions. activating pi3k-akt signaling is a strategy employed by viruses to slow down apoptosis and prolong viral replication in both acute and persistent infection. it is also probable that prevention of cell death facilitates virus-induced carcinogenesis. accumulating evidence suggests that the activity of pi3k or akt is critical for survival of a few viruses. adenovirus relies on pi3k-mediated o ...200819097333
understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling fmdv. in this review i will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. i will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of fmdv, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of fmdv, ...200919100342
pseudorabies virus glycoprotein b can be used to carry foot and mouth disease antigens in dna vaccination of evaluate the feasibility of using pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein b (gb) as a carrier of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens in dna immunization, fmdv b- and t-cell epitopes were inserted either between the two b-cell epitopes of the n-term subunit of prv-gb (bt-prv-gb-n-term construct) or within the b-cell epitope of the c-term subunit of prv-gb (bt-prv-gb-c-term construct). two animal experiments were performed, each with three injections of plasmids 2 weeks apart, followed b ...200919103226
genetic diversity of enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of hand, foot and mouth disease in the 1997, 2000 and 2005 outbreaks, peninsular malaysia.all known field isolates of enterovirus 71 (ev71) can be divided into three distinct genogroups (a, b, c) and 10 subgenogroups (a, b1-5, c1-4) based on vp1 gene sequences. we examined vp1 gene sequences of 10, 12 and 11 ev71 strains isolated in peninsular malaysia during the outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in 1997, 2000 and 2005 respectively. four ev71 strains isolated in the hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak of 2006 in sarawak (malaysian borneo) were included to describe their gen ...200719108398
antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen drb3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. in argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3.2 gene associated with blv-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. a potential risk in expanding or segregati ...200919109295
intradermal vaccination of pigs against fmd with 1/10 dose results in comparable vaccine efficacy as intramuscular vaccination with a full dose.the aim of this study was to investigate whether intradermal (id) vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is suitable as an alternative for the usually used intramuscular (im) route. we compared vaccine efficacy in groups of pigs in which vaccine administration differed with respect to antigen payload of the vaccine, administrated volume and administration route. when compared with pigs that were im vaccinated with a full dose vaccine with a standard antigen payload, pigs vaccinated id ...200919114077
diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in brazil.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of fmd. as these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed.200819117507
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using a western blotting assay based on baculovirus-expressed nonstructural proteins 2c and 3d.baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c and 3d were used as the antigens in a western blotting assay. this assay allowed for differentiation of fmdv-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs. serial studies were performed using sera collected from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs. positive reactions were found in the sera derived from the experimentally infected pigs. there was, however, no positive reaction in the vaccinated pigs. these results su ...200819122405
serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus by antigen capture-elisa using monoclonal antibodies and chicken igy.laboratory detection of specific foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is routinely carried out by elisa and rt-pcr. identification and serotyping of fmdv by elisa requires polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits and guinea pigs. the polyclonal antibodies have certain disadvantages such as batch to batch variation, inconsistent yields of antibodies and limited quantity of serum obtained from individual animals. this paper describes a method wherein monoclonal antibodies and chicken igy were used i ...200819123312
journal club. a crystallographer takes a jaunt into immunology. 200919129809
development of dna aptamers to a foot-and-mouth disease peptide for competitive fret-based detection.we sought to develop a novel competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret)-aptamer-based strategy for detection of foot-and-mouth (fmd) disease within minutes. a 14-amino-acid peptide from the vp1 structural protein, which is conserved among 16 strains of o-serotype fmd virus, was synthesized and labeled with black hole quencher-2 (bhq-2) dye. polyclonal fmd dna aptamers were labeled with alexa fluor 546-14-dutp by polymerase chain reaction and allowed to bind the bhq-2-peptide conju ...200819137093
airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease--model intercomparison.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of fmdv in a number of countries, including the uk, denmark, australia, new zealand, usa and canada. these models were compared at ...201019138867
[screening and stability of madin-darby bovine kidney cell strain co-expressing the capsid precursor protein p1-2a gene and the protease 3c gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus].to screen the madin-darby bovine kidney [co1] cell strains for stable expression of capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv [co2]).200819149169
[preparation of monoclonal antibodies against vp2 protein of asia i type foot-and-mouth disease virus and establishment of a competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies].monoclonal antibodies against fmdv vp2 protein were prepared and a competitive elisa based on the monoclonal antibodies and vp2 protein was established. balb/c mice were immunized with escherichia coli expressed fusion protein. the splenocytes from immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells sp2/0. the hybridism cells were screened by indirect elisa and limited dilution method. two hybndoma cell iines secreting mabs against asia i type foot-and-mouth disease were obtained. the titer and relativ ...200819160854
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
synthesis of empty capsid-like particles of asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells and their immunogenicity in guinea pigs.the assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) requires the cleavage of the p12a polyprotein into individual structural proteins by protease 3c. in this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that simultaneously expressed the genes for the p12a and 3c proteins of asia i fmdv from individual promoters. the capsid proteins expressed in high five insect cells were processed by viral 3c protease, as shown by western blotting, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivity in an in ...200919167843
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
protection of guinea pigs and swine by a recombinant adenovirus expressing o serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus whole capsid and 3c protease.two recombinant adenoviruses were constructed expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and 3c/3cd proteins in replicative deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector. guinea pigs vaccinated with 1-3 x 10(8)tcid(50) ad-p12x3c recombinant adenovirus were completely protected against 10,000gid(50) homologous virulent fmdv challenge 25 days post vaccination (dpv). ad-p12x3cd vaccinated guinea pigs were only partially protected. swine were vaccinated once with 1x10(9)tcid(50) ad-p12x3c hybr ...200819178894
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from south east asia 1998-2006: the lao perspective.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes sporadic disease outbreaks in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) and appears to be endemic within a livestock population largely susceptible to infection. as lao pdr is a major thoroughfare for transboundary animal movement, regular fmd outbreaks occur causing economic hardship for farmers and their families. the dominant serotype causing outbreaks between 1998 and 2006 was type o. using phylogenetic analysis, type o isolated viruses were divided i ...200919181459
thermostable foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate for endemic countries: a perspective. 200919189856
activation of porcine natural killer cells and lysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cells.natural killer (nk) cells play a vital role in innate response against viral infections and cellular transformation. in vivo modulation of their response may enhance their antiviral function. here we describe the phenotype of porcine nk cells, test potential proinflammatory cytokines for activation of these cells and assess the capability of porcine nk cells to kill virus-infected or tumor cells in vitro. the cd2+/cd8+/cd3(-) cell compartment contained porcine nk cells, which at the resting stag ...200919196070
longitudinal study to investigate the role of impala (aepyceros melampus) in foot-and-mouth disease maintenance in the kruger national park, south africa.a longitudinal study was performed in the kruger national park, south africa to investigate the role of impala (aepyceros melampus) in maintaining sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. three sampling sites with different histories of fmd outbreaks in impala and also of varying ecology were chosen. at three monthly intervals approximately 40 impala were bled and examined for clinical fmd at each of these sites for a period of 6 years, followed by 4 years of less frequent sampling. ...200919200295
immune response in goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines and the assessment of maternal immunity in their this investigation, the immune response of goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines (fmdv) was compared. highest mean antibody titre was observed on days 60 and 21 in goats vaccinated with two doses of algel (group 1) and oil adjuvant (group 2) quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in mean antibody titre between the two vaccine groups. however, the antibody titres for type o fell below the protective titres by day 180 and 270 for gr ...200919200298
identification of major histocompatibility complex restriction and anchor residues of foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived bovine t-cell epitopes.despite intensive research on the identification of t-cell epitopes in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection during the last 20 years, knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) restriction and anchor residues of such epitopes is still sparse. therefore, as a first step, we tested lymphocytes from two experimentally fmdv serotype a24-vaccinated and -challenged cattle for recognition of fmdv-derived pentadecapeptides in proliferation assays. two epitopes were identif ...200919211750
attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus rna carrying a deletion in the 3' noncoding region can elicit immunity in swine.we constructed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutants bearing independent deletions of the two stem-loop structures predicted in the 3' noncoding region of viral rna, sl1 and sl2, respectively. deletion of sl2 was lethal for viral infectivity in cultured cells, while deletion of sl1 resulted in viruses with slower growth kinetics and downregulated replication associated with impaired negative-strand rna synthesis. with the aim of exploring the potential of an rna-based vaccine against foot- ...200919211755
influence of exposure intensity on the efficiency and speed of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by direct animal-to-animal contact, indirect contact facilitated by contaminated materials or by airborne spread. the rate of spread and the incubation period, as well as the severity of disease, depends on many variables including the dose received, the route of introduction, the virus strain, the animal species and the conditions under which the animals are kept. quantitative data related to these variables are needed if model predictions are t ...200919215941
internalization of swine vesicular disease virus into cultured cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus.we performed a comparative analysis of the internalization mechanisms used by three viruses causing important vesicular diseases in animals. swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) internalization was inhibited by treatments that affected clathrin-mediated endocytosis and required traffic through an endosomal compartment. svdv particles were found in clathrin-coated pits by electron microscopy and colocalized with markers of early endosomes by confocal microscopy. svdv infectivity was significantly ...200919225001
endosperm-specific expression of tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase from a single self-processing polypeptide produces high levels of tyramine derivatives in rice seeds.the plant-specific tyramine derivatives, feruloyltyramine (ft) and 4-coumaroyltyramine (ct), represent bioactive compounds found at low levels in many plant species. we generated transgenic rice seeds that produce high levels of ct (14 microg g(-1) seeds) and ft (2.7 microg g(-1) seeds) through the dual expression of tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase, using the self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a sequence and the endosperm-specific prolamin promoter.200919229478
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness.although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods. this review summarizes the ...200919249976
[virulence comparison of genetic engineering virus containing different length poly(c) tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus].study the association of the length of poly(c) tract with virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus.200819274849
engineering infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus in vivo from a full-length genomic cdna clone of the a/akt/58 strain.two full-length genomic cdna clones, pta/fmdv and pca/fmdv, were constructed that contained three point-mutants [a174g and a308g (not present in pta/fmdv); t1029g] in the genome compared with the wild type a/akt/58 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus. these two viruses were rescued by co-transfection of pca/fmdv with pct7rnap, which can express t7 rna polymerase in bhk-21 cell-lines, or by transfection of the in vitro transcribed rna. their biological properties were analyzed for their antige ...200919277527
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein and monoclonal antibody for detecting antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus serotype new this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype new jersey (nj). the glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified vsv-nj, and a neutralizing mab specific to vsv-nj was incorporated to compete with antibodies in a blocking elisa using glycoprotein (gp elisa). the cutoff of the gp elisa was set at 40% inhi ...200919279165
foot and mouth disease in the lao people's democratic republic: ii. seroprevalence estimates, using structured surveillance and surveys of examination of the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus was conducted in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) from 1996 to 2005, using structured surveillance and abattoir-based studies. under structured surveillance, seropositivity ranged from 65.7% (vientiane capital, 1996) to 3% (houaphan, 2005) for cattle and buffalo; and from 2.8% (vientiane capital, 1998) to 0% in separate studies of pigs. in each study, species composition was significantly associated with ser ...200819284052
molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3'untranslated region.a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 3'untranslated region (3'utr) was generated by transposon (tn)-mediated mutagenesis. characterization of the mutant virus (a24-3'utr8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the a24 wild-type virus. rna modeling showed that the structures predicted in the 3'utr were not affected by the tn insertion. these results revealed that the 3'utr can to ...200919288053
the effect of vaccination on undetected persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds and sheep flocks.the importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persi ...200919288960
molecular characterization of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in limpopo province, south africa.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. the virus is a single-stranded rna virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. in southern africa the south african territories (sat) 1-3 serotypes of fmd virus are maintained by large numbers of african buffaloes (syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. during february 2001, an ...200819294983
quantification of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission rates using published data.foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. to understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers alike. however, such quantified parameters are scarcely available, and recently a series of animal experiments was set up to obtain such data experimentally. in this communication, however, we report o ...200919326033
pynttttgt prototype oligonucleotide imt504, a novel effective adjuvant of the fmdv dna vaccine.synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) such as cpg can stimulate b and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vertebrate immune systems. several studies showed that non-cpg odns could also induce strong stimulation of b and t cells. pynttttgt odns, non-cpg odns, can activate and cause immunoglobulin secretion by b cells and proliferation of t cells in vivo. by using pynttttgt odns as an adjuvant for a fmdv dna vaccine, we found that levels of antibody production, t-cell proliferation, and ctl activity ...200919327000
analytical epidemiology of genomic variation among pan asia strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic data from field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used to trace the source of recent outbreaks of fmd, to design better vaccines and diagnostic tests for fmdv, and to make conclusions regarding the general variability in the fmdv genome. though epidemiologic data associated with fmdv isolates are available, these data have been used rarely to explore possible associations of epidemiologic factors with evolution or variation of the fmdv genome. in this study, facto ...200919341389
construction of a recombinant bhv-1 expressing the vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus and its immunogenicity in a rabbit model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) are two important infectious diseases of cattle. using bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) as a gene delivery vector for development of live-viral vaccines has gained widespread interest. in this study, a recombinant bhv-1 was constructed by inserting the synthetic fmdv (o/china/99) vp1 gene in the the ge locus of bhv-1 genome under the control of immediately early gene promoter of human cytomegalovirus (phie cmv) and bovine ...200919343503
expression and purification of an anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus single chain variable antibody fragment in tobacco plants.low-cost recombinant antibodies could provide a new strategy to control foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks by passive immunization of susceptible animals. in this study, a single chain variable antibody fragment (scfv) recognizing fmdv coat protein vp1 was expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. to enhance the accumulation of scfv protein, the codon-usage of a murine hybridoma-derived scfv gene was adjusted to mimic highly expressed tobacco genes and fused to an elastin-like polypepti ...200919343526
enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of an extract made from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram).this study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram) on the immune responses in mice immunized with fmdv type o vaccine. thirty-five icr mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried ram, respectively. after that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmd ...200919356611
a dominant-negative mutant of rab5 inhibits infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for virus entry.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can use a number of different integrins (alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8) as receptors to initiate infection. infection mediated by alphavbeta6 is known to occur by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the acidic ph within endosomes. on internalization, virus is detected rapidly in early endosomes (ee) and subsequently in perinuclear recycling endosomes (pnre), but not in late endosomal compartments. due to the extreme sensi ...200919357169
passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs.we aim to develop a method that confers rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by passive immunization with recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs). previously constructed genetic fusions of two vhhs (vhh2s) that either neutralizes fmdv or binds to porcine immunoglobulin to increase the serum half-life, conferred only limited protection to pigs. we therefore now generated vhh3s containing an additional fmdv binding vhh. two vhh3s neutralized fmdv more potently th ...200919368770
in vivo retargeting of adenovirus type 5 to alphavbeta6 integrin results in reduced hepatotoxicity and improved tumor uptake following systemic delivery.a key impediment to successful cancer therapy with adenoviral vectors is the inefficient transduction of malignant tissue in vivo. compounding this problem is the lack of cancer-specific targets, coupled with a shortage of corresponding high-efficiency ligands, permitting selective retargeting. the epithelial cell-specific integrin alphavbeta6 represents an attractive target for directed therapy since it is generally not expressed on normal epithelium but is upregulated in numerous carcinomas, w ...200919369326
identification of cellular genes affecting the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. like other viral pathogens, fmdv recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. to identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense rna strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ests) to randoml ...200919369337
accessory-cell-mediated activation of porcine nk cells by toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7) and tlr8 agonists.the induction of innate immune responses by toll-like receptor (tlr) agonists is the subject of intense investigation. in large part, this reflects the potential of such compounds to be effective vaccine adjuvants. for that reason, we analyzed the activation of innate cells in swine by tlr7 and tlr8 agonists. these agonists activated porcine nk cells by increasing gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) expression and perforin storage. the activation of porcine nk cells was mediated by accessory cells, sin ...200919369481
production of multicistronic hiv-1 based lentiviral the last decade lentiviral gene transfer vectors have gained significant place both in basic science and gene therapy applications. a number of gene transfer applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. this chapter focuses on production of bicistronic and tricistronic lentiviral vectors based on the internal ribosomal entry site (ires) sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cleavage factor 2a. multigene vector ...200919378113
rescue of internal initiation of translation by rna complementation provides evidence for a distribution of functions between individual ires domains.picornavirus rnas initiate translation using an internal ribosome entry site (ires)-dependent mechanism. the ires element of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is organized in domains, being different from each other in rna structure and rna-protein interaction. wild-type transcripts provided in trans rescue defective fmdv ires mutants. complementation, however, was partial since translation efficiency of the mutant rnas was up to 10% of the wild type ires. we report here that mutations diminis ...200919383564
biological effect of muller's ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing.repeated bottleneck passages of rna viruses result in accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. here, we show that clones of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subjected to bottleneck passages, in the form of plaque-to-plaque transfers in bhk-21 cells, increased the thermosensitivity of the viral clones. by constructing infectious fmdv clones, we have identified the amino acid substitution m54i in capsid protein vp1 as one of the lesions associated with thermosensitivity. m54i affects pro ...200919403672
performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus during field outbreaks in the united kingdom in 2007.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the present report describes the practical steps undertaken to deploy a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) to process the samples received during the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in 2007. two independent real-time rt-pcr assays targeting different regions (5'utr and 3d) of the fmd virus (fmdv) genome were used to confirm the presence of fmdv in clin ...200919407083
genome analysis and development of infectious cdna clone of a virulence-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 from china.the rna genome sequence of the rabbit passage-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia 1, zb/cha/58(att), was determined to be 8165 nt in length excluding the poly(c) tract in the 5' utr and the poly(a) tail at the 3' end. zb/cha/58(att) was most similar to the vaccine strain asia 1/ynbs/58 in genome sequence and there were no deletions or insertions within the deduced polyprotein between zb/cha/58(att) and ynbs/58, but there were a total of 25 substitutions at the amino aci ...200919410387
fluorescence-based multiplex real-time rt-pcr arrays for the detection and serotype determination of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study reports the development of distinct fluorescence-based multiplex rrt-pcr arrays, which are comprised of unique primer pairs that are statistically modeled from publicly available sequences, for overall foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotype-specific detection. performance of the multiplex pan fmdv (mpfmdv) array was compared to the 5' utr and two 3d(pol) assays, following tests on the miniopticon (biorad) and 7900ht sds (abi) platforms. the mpfmdv array and a recently developed alt ...200919427333
t-705 (favipiravir) and related compounds: novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of rna viral infections.a series of pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives t-705 (favipiravir), t-1105 and t-1106 were discovered to be candidate antiviral drugs. these compounds have demonstrated good activity in treating viral infections in laboratory animals caused by various rna viruses, including influenza virus, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, west nile virus (wnv), yellow fever virus (yfv), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). treatment has in some cases been effective when initiated up to 5-7 days after virus infectio ...200919428599
construction of an infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o 1 bfs 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in india. a stable,full-length cdna clone of fmdv type o 1 bfs 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pgem r- - 7zf(-). an 8.2 kb pcr product was amplified from the cdna clone and a full-length rna was generated from it by in vitro transcription.transfection of bhk-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious reco ...200919430118
genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a of indian origin and detection of positive selection and recombination in leader protease-and capsid-coding regions.the leader protease (l pro) and capsid-coding sequences (p1) constitute approximately 3 kb of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we studied the phylogenetic relationship of 46 fmdv serotype a isolates of indian origin collected during the period 1968-2005 and also eight vaccine strains using the neighbour-joining tree and bayesian tree methods. the viruses were categorized under three major groups -asian, euro-south american and european. the indian isolates formed a distinct genetic group ...200919430121
recent spread of a new strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in the middle east.this report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a responsible for recent fmd outbreaks in the middle east. initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from iran, during 2005 and 2006 this fmdv lineage (proposed to be named a-iran-05) spread into saudi arabia and jordan and then further west into turkey reaching european thrace in january 2007. most recently a-iran-05 has been found in bahrain. to the east of iran, it has been recogni ...200919432637
pathology and viral distributions of the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus strain (o/taiwan/97) in experimentally infected pigs.twenty-four specific pathogen free pigs were inoculated intradermally at the front-right heel bulb with 0.5 ml of viral suspension containing 10(6.0)tissue culture infectious dose (tcid(50)) with the porcinophillic strain (o/taiwan/97) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated from the epizootic of fmd in taiwan in 1997. two pigs were euthanatized at 8 h, 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15, 21, 26 and 63 days post-inoculation (dpi), and two pigs remained for long-term observation and terminated at 400 ...200919432640
counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its rna-dependent rna polymerase replacement m296i that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin.200919436746
[construction and identification of infectious molecular clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/china/99].nine primers were designed for the full-length genome of o/china/99 and each sequence fragment was obtained by rt-pcr, and cloned into pok12 vecter, the full-length genome cdna clone of o/china/99 was identified by restriction enzymes digestion, pcr, and the whole genome sequencing. the results showed that the o/china/99 whole genome was formed with the length of 8200 nt. the nucleotide sequence of the full-length cdna shared 99.1% homology with its prototype. rna synthesized in vitro by means o ...200919437888
[prokaryotic expression and bioreactivity analysis of a major epitope region of 2c with 3ab within non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus].in recent years, the potential value of nonstructural protein (nsp) 2c was well documented for distinguishing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in infected animals and vaccinated animals. in order to develop a more sensitive approach to detect natural infected fmdv while there is no interact with vaccinated fmdv, we incorporated a major epitope region of 2c with whole 3ab coding region within nsp and expressed in escherichia coli. we got a 47.6 kd fusion protein named 2c'3ab. the product showe ...200919441220
a recombinant protein-based elisa for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.a recombinant protein-based elisa was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. the recombinant protein (rp13c) was derived from the p1 precursor and 3c protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. this protein elicited a low titer of fmdv neutralizing antibodies in pigs. its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking elisa using monoclonal antibodies. the rp13c elisa yielded higher ...200919442854
bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 as fmdv receptors: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with other species.integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that participate in a variety of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions. many integrins recognize rgd sequences displayed on extracellular matrix proteins and the exposed loops of viral capsid proteins. four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are belie ...200919443046
comparative analysis of the large fragment of the 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates from india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and in recent years a unique group within serotype a, carrying a codon deletion at an antigenically critical site in capsid protein vp3 has emerged (vp3(59)-deletion group). this tempted us to analyze the noncoding region, which is an under represented area, though critically associated with virus biology and pathogenesis. analysis of the large fragment of 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of type a fmd virus revealed discrepancy in the overall ...200919444600
validation of two real-time rt-pcr methods for foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis: rna-extraction, matrix effect, uncertainty of measurement and precision.real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assays are being used routinely for diagnosing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although most laboratories determine analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, a thorough validation in terms of establishing optimal rna-extraction conditions, matrix effect, uncertainty of measurement and precision is not performed or reported generally. in this study, different rna-extraction procedures were compared for two fmdv ...200919447138
unravelling selection shifts among foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes.fmdv virus has been increasingly recognised as the most economically severe animal virus with a remarkable degree of antigenic diversity. using an integrative evolutionary and computational approach we have compelling evidence for heterogeneity in the selection forces shaping the evolution of the seven different fmdv serotypes. our results show that positive darwinian selection has governed the evolution of the major antigenic regions of serotypes a, asia1, o, sat1 and sat2, but not c or sat3. c ...200719455214
enhancement of toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity of single-domain antibody fragments by n-glycosylation.single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) have several beneficial properties as compared to conventional antibody fragments. however, their small size complicates their toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity. we isolated 27 vhhs binding escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and expressed these in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the most potent neutralizing vhh (lt109) was n-glycosylated, resulting in a large increase in molecular mass. this suggests that n-glycosylation of lt109 improves its neutralizing c ...200919455325
genetic characterization of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a region in context of the reemergence of vp359-deletion lineage in india.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. here we analyzed the 3a region of serotype a virus in view of the emergence of a variant group in india with an amino acid deletion at an antigenically critical position of capsid protein, vp3. the 3a region exhibited extreme variability with 38% of the amino acid positions showing substitutions and the c-terminal third (127-151) region was most flexible. genotype inclusive grouping of type a foot-and- ...200919460313
generation of a recombinant full-length human antibody binding to botulinum neurotoxin order to develop a recombinant full-length human anti-botulinum neurotoxin a (bont/a) antibody, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were collected from three healthy volunteers and induced for bont/a-specific immune response by in vitro immunization. the genes encoding human fd fragment, consisting of antibody heavy chain variable region and constant region 1 with the genes encoding antibody light chain, were cloned from the immunized pbmc. afterwards, one combinatory human antige ...201019466383
sensing picornaviruses using molecular imprinting techniques on a quartz crystal microbalance.molecular imprinting techniques were adapted to design a sensor for the human rhinovirus (hrv) and the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which are two representatives of picornaviruses. stamp imprinting procedures lead to patterned polyurethane layers that depict the geometrical features of the template virus, as confirmed by afm for hrv. quartz crystal microbalance (qcm) measurements show that the resulting layers incorporate the template viruses reversibly and lead to mass effects that are ...200919469532
immunosuppression during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine is mediated by il-10.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious animal viruses, causing a devastating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with enormous economic consequences. identification of the different parameters involved in the immune response elicited against fmdv remains unclear, and it is fundamental the understanding of such parameters before effective control measures can be put in place. in the present study, we show that interleukin-10 (il-10) production by dendritic cells (dcs) is d ...200919478852
foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing antibodies production induced by pcdna3 and sindbis virus based plasmid encoding fmdv p1-2a3c3d in swine.dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an attractive and alternative strategy to the use of classical inactivated viral vaccines. the injection of a pcdna3.1-based dna vaccine encoding for fmdv p1-2a3c3d and gm-csf proteins had previously been shown to induce the production of neutralizing antibodies against fmdv and partially protect swine against an experimental challenge. based on the induction of fmdv humoral immune responses, the aim of the present study was to see i ...200919501256
a web-based system for near real-time surveillance and space-time cluster analysis of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases.considerable attention has been given lately to the need for global systems for animal disease surveillance that support real-time assessment of changing temporal-spatial risks. until recently, however, prospects for development of such systems have been limited by the lack of informatics tools and an overarching collaboration framework to enable real-time data capturing, sharing, analysis, and related decision-making. in this paper, we present some of the tools of the fmd bioportal system (www. ...200919505735
calcium phosphate nanoparticle prepared with foot and mouth disease virus p1-3cd gene construct protects mice and guinea pigs against the challenge virus.calcium phosphate nanoparticles provide safe and easily manufactured vaccine adjuvant and delivery system for dna vaccines. in the present study fmdv "o" p1-3cd dna vaccine was encapsulated in calcium phosphate nanoparticles of size 50-100 nm diameters. the maximum loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were studied by spectrophotometer, as well as agarose gel electrophoresis. in vitro transfection efficiency of these calcium phosphate nanoparticles was found to be as good as commerc ...200919505774
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor expression in tissues from naïve and infected cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals principally affecting cattle, pigs and sheep. fmd virus (fmdv) uses the alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(6), and alpha(v)beta(8) integrins as receptors in vitro via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah loop of vp1. immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to study the expression of two major fmdv receptors, alph ...200919515380
modelling spread of foot-and-mouth disease in wild white-tailed deer and feral pig populations using a geographic-automata model and animal distributions.we investigated how the size and distribution of wild deer and feral pigs - species that might act as potential foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus maintenance hosts - might affect the persistence and spread of fmd. we used a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model and spatially referenced data from southern texas, usa. within this study area, 100 locations were randomly selected and fmd virus spread was simulated (50 simulations each) at each location. as expected, the pr ...200919515439
full sequencing of viral genomes: practical strategies used for the amplification and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequencing is now commonplace in most research and diagnostic virology laboratories. the data generated can be used to compare novel strains with other viruses and allow the genetic basis of important phenotypic characteristics, such as antigenic determinants, to be elucidated. furthermore, virus sequence data can also be used to address more fundamental questions relating to the evolution of viruses. recent advances in laboratory methodologies allow rapid sequencing of virus genome ...200919521878
development and validation of a duplex quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay for simultaneous detection and quantitation of foot-and-mouth disease viral positive-stranded rnas and negative-stranded rnas.a simplified, cost-effective, two-step duplex quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay was shown to detect and quantify foot-and-mouth disease virus positive-stranded rnas and negative-stranded rnas simultaneously for improved investigation of the state of virus infection and replication. the primers and taqman probes were selected from the coding regions of 2b gene and 3d gene respectively, which have the least variations among serotypes. cells infected acutely, tissue samples and single cell sample ...200919539655
[expression of recombinant vp1 protein of enterovirus 71 and development of serological assay for detection of ev71 infection].to obtain a recombinant purified enterovirus 71 vpi protein and establishment of an early, rapid and accurate serological elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for detection of ev71 infection.200819544656
targeted in vivo imaging of integrin alphavbeta6 with an improved radiotracer and its relevance in a pancreatic tumor model.the cell surface receptor alpha(v)beta(6) is epithelial specific, and its expression is tightly regulated; it is low or undetectable in adult tissues but has been shown to be increased in many different cancers, including pancreatic, cervical, lung, and colon cancers. studies have described alpha(v)beta(6) as a prognostic biomarker linked to poor survival. we have recently shown the feasibility of imaging alpha(v)beta(6) in vivo by positron emission tomography (pet) using the peptide [(18)f]fba- ...200919549907
discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals by use of beta-galactosidase allosteric biosensors.recombinant beta-galactosidases accommodating one or two different peptides from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b per enzyme monomer showed a drastic enzymatic activity reduction, which mainly affected proteins with double insertions. recombinant beta-galactosidases were enzymatically reactivated by 3b-specific murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies. interestingly, these recombinant beta-galactosidases, particularly those including one copy of each of ...200919553549
innate immune defenses induced by cpg do not promote vaccine-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.emergency vaccination as part of the control strategies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has the potential to limit virus spread and reduce large-scale culling. to reduce the time between vaccination and the onset of immunity, immunostimulatory cpg was tested for its capacity to promote early protection against fmdv challenge in pigs. to this end, cpg 2142, an efficient inducer of alpha interferon, was injected intramuscularly. increased transcription of mx1, oas, and irf-7 was identi ...200919553550
sheep (ovis aries) integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 related to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with homologues.four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are believed to be the receptors used to target epithelial cells in the infected animals. to analyse roles of the alphav integrins from a susceptible species as viral receptors, we have cloned sheep alphav, beta1, and beta6 integrin cdnas and compared them to those of other speci ...200919555755
cellular receptors for foot and mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype member of the aphthovirus genus, is a single-stranded, positive-sense rna genome virus, which affects many domestic livestock cloven-hoofed animals, causing substantial lost of milk in dairy cattle, reduction in the growth rate of meat animals, among others. it has been shown that the virus can enter to the cells using different pathways; the main one binding integrins via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway, trafficking throughout the aci ...200919556802
neutralizing monoclonal antibody sandwich liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o antibodies.liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lpbe) using the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sandwich method (m-lpbe) for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o antibodies was developed. two neutralizing mabs, 72c1 and 65h6, were raised against the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain, and used as trapping and peroxidase-labeled detecting antibodies, respectively. sera from animals experimentally infected with fmdv showed specific positive results by m-lpbe, which were corr ...200919564498
use of infrared thermography to detect thermographic changes in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease.infrared thermography (irt) measures the heat emitted from a surface, displays that information as a pictorial representation called a thermogram, and is capable of being a remote, noninvasive technology that provides information on the health of an animal. foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by fmd virus (fmdv) is a severe, highly communicable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including both domestic and wild ruminants. early detection of the disease may reduce economic loss and loss of s ...200919569476
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