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embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. xiii. failure to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus through the transfer of embryos from viremic donors.a total of 436 embryos/unfertilized ova was collected from 30 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viremic cattle; 106 of these embryos/ova were from eight donors that had fmd virus in their reproductive tracts. the 436 embryos/ova were washed and then either assayed in cell culture or intradermally in steer tongues or transferred to recipients. foot-and-mouth infectivity was not found to be associated with any of the embryos/ova assayed in cell culture or intradermally. the 149 embryos transferred prod ...199116726913
foot-and-mouth disease virus strains isolated from persistently infected cell cultures are attenuated for mice and cattle.it was previously reported that during serial passage of a bhk-derived cell line persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, (termed c1-bhk-rc1) the virus became increasingly more virulent for bhk-21 cells (de la torre et al 1988). virus strains isolated from different cell passage levels were tested for virulence in mice and cattle. the results showed that in the course of persistence in bhk cells, fmdv became progressively less virulent for mice and cattle.19901964520
functional aspects of the capsid structure of mengo virus.the three-dimensional structure of the mengo virus capsid has been determined at a resolution of 3.0 a. this achievement is discussed in an historical context, and the general features of picornavirus capsid design are presented. the dynamic functional aspects of the mengo virus capsid--namely its ability to interact with specific receptors on host cells, to dissociate and release the viral genomic rna into the cellular cytoplasm, to assemble with progeny rna molecules and form new virions, and ...19901965133
foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). response to fmdv varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with fmdv serotype a24. another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. two contact llamas, ...19901965585
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. synthesis of fragments (143-145), (146-148), 149-152), (153-155), and (156-159)]. 19901965772
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) protein fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. condensation of fragments].a 17-membered peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence of (143-159) site of protein vp1 of a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus has been obtained by mixed anhydride method condensations of the earlier synthesized fragments. a norleucine residue has been attached, as a label, to the ends of peptides obtained. the complete deprotection was performed by hydrogenation peptides' hydrochlorides and the products were purified by hplc. the antigenic properties of the synthesized peptides are discuss ...19901965773
cdna-cloning and expression of vp1-specific sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a5 and o1.the rna genome of foot- and mouth disease virus strains a5 westerwald and o1 lausanne has been reverse-transcribed and cloned in lambdaphages or plasmids. identification of cdna-clones containing vp1-specific sequences was achieved by hybridization, restriction mapping, and sequence analysis. vp1-coding cdna-fragments were subcloned into the expression vector pex which led to synthesis of fusion proteins with beta-galactosidase. these fusion proteins reacted with anti-vp1 antibodies on a western ...19901966357
[primary structure of the 3'-terminal region of the rna-polymerase gene in foot-and-mouth virus a22].this study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the primary structure of the 3' end gene of rna polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus a22 550. reported are isolation and purification of the virus, isolation of rna, synthesis of cdna, experience obtained from cloning as well as analysis of hybridisation and isolation of plasmid dna. nucleotide sequences, characterised by specific clones, were tested for potential needle structures. also described are homology comparisons among fmd v ...19901966358
investigation of the influence of peptide-carrier conjugation on the immunological activity of vp1-peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1-kaufbeuren.we found coupling of short sequences of vp1 to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) by means of glutaraldehyde to be a very complex phenomenon which could only be controlled by strict standardization of components and reaction conditions. considering the results, we may conclude that big immunogenic proteins, like klh, are advantageous for achieving sufficient and specific antibody response with neutralizing activity. when using klh, we did not find simple dependence of immunogenicity or neutralizing ...19901966359
synthetic peptides against foot-and-mouth disease--immunization with vp1-peptides of type o1-kaufbeuren.coupled synthetic peptides, representing the sequences of amino acids 130-160, 141-160 and 145-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k protein vp1, induced virus-binding and virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs, rabbits, and pigs. we also detected antibody response in guinea pigs after immunization with uncoupled peptides and in cattle with 21 aa-peptide-keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (-klh). the best results were obtained from 21 aa-peptide-klh and 31 aa-peptide with or without klh or ...19901966360
inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in skimmed milk with propionic acid, citric acid and hydrogen peroxide.in order to protect farm animals from infections such as foot and mouth disease (fmd) and tuberculosis, the pasteurisation of milk and milk products designated for the feeding of animals is compulsory in switzerland. nowadays, milk products are often treated chemically with acids or with hydrogen peroxide in order to keep bacterial contamination low. the capacity of these chemical treatments to inactivate fmd virus in skimmed milk within 6 h at 5 degrees c was tested in this study. the results i ...19901966751
a study of antigenic variants of foot and mouth disease virus type a in india between 1977 and 1985.the structural polypeptides of thirty-three field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) collected in india between 1977 and 1985 were analysed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. they were placed in eleven groups based on their patterns and compared with results of conventional serological (virus neutralisation and complement fixation) tests. variation occurred in the structural proteins of the viruses isolated between 1977 and 1981; however, the polypeptide patterns of viruses ...19901966752
inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation.cell culture origin or suckling mouse brain origin viruses of akabane disease, aino, bovine ephemeral fever, swine vesicular disease, hog cholera, bluetongue, and minute virus of mice were each suspended in bovine serum. aliquots (1 ml) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60co source while at -68 degrees c. aliquots (100-ml) of serum from a steer experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were similarly irradiated. the samples were assayed for infectivity in ce ...19902123735
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c induces specific proteolytic cleavage of host cell histone h3.in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, the disappearance of nuclear protein histone h3 and the simultaneous appearance of a new chromatin-associated protein termed pi can be observed (p. r. grigera and s. g. tisminetzky, virology 136:10-19, 1984). we sequenced the amino terminus of protein pi and showed that pi derives from histone h3 by proteolytic cleavage. the 20 n-terminal amino acid residues of histone h3 are specifically cleaved off early during infection. truncated histone ...19902153239
attenuation of mengo virus through genetic engineering of the 5' noncoding poly(c) tract.the murine cardioviruses, such as the mengo and encephalomyocarditis viruses, and the bovine aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, are distinguished among positive-strand rna viruses by the presence of long homopolymeric poly(c) tracts within their 5' noncoding sequences. although the specific lengths (60-350 bases) and sequence discontinuities (for example, uridine residues) that sometimes disrupt the homopolymer have served to characterize natural viral isolates, the biological ...19902153940
protection of cattle and swine against foot-and-mouth disease, using biosynthetic peptide vaccines.a single dose of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protein 1 (vp1) peptide, expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with 190 amino acids (aa) of the le' protein of the tryptophan operon of e coli, elicited an immune response in steers sufficient to withstand the challenge of exposure to animals with acute fmd. the 58-micrograms dose of viral peptide, composed of a segment of the vp1 from the a12 strain (a12) of fmd virus (fmdv; a12-32dimer) in a tandem repeat configuration of aa137 th ...19902154148
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c inhibits cellular transcription and mediates cleavage of histone h3.foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c is essential for the processing of the viral precursor polyprotein. it is shown here to also inhibit gene expression in baby hamster kidney cells after transient expression from transfected cdna fragments. protease 3c could not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence in contrast to other cdna-encoded virus proteins, but protein synthesized de novo 16 hr after transfection could be detected by radioimmunoprecipitation. the cellular translation apparatus ...19902154880
neutralizing antibodies to all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicited by synthetic peptides.uncoupled peptides from all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein vp1 have been used to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in guinea-pigs. the responses were largely serotype specific, although some significant cross-neutralization was observed. dimeric tandem peptides have also been used to simultaneously elicit neutralizing antibodies to two different fmdv serotypes. the possible existence of structural features common to the b-cell neutralization sites or the guin ...19902155177
conformational variability of a picornavirus capsid: ph-dependent structural changes of mengo virus related to its host receptor attachment site and disassembly.the structure of mengo virus had been determined from crystals grown in the presence of 100 mm phosphate buffer at ph 7.4. it is shown that mengo virus is poorly infectious at the phosphate concentration similar to that in which it was crystallized. maximal infectivity is achieved at 10 mm phosphate or less in physiological saline. the phosphate effect is ameliorated when the ph is lowered to 4.6. although it has not been possible to study the crystal structure of the virus at low phosphate conc ...19902155508
structural refinement and analysis of mengo virus.the structure of mengo encephalomyelitis virus was refined at 3 a resolution with a final r-factor of 0.221 and a root-mean-square deviation from idealized bond lengths of 0.019 a for 10 a to 3 a data with f greater than or equal to 3 sigma(f). the hendrickson-konnert refinement was restrained by the phases derived from the molecular replacement averaging procedure and constrained by the icosahedral symmetry of the virus. the virus consists of 60 protomers each having three major subunits, vp1, ...19902156078
comparison of vaccine strains and the virus causing the 1986 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in spain: epizootiological analysis.rnas of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in spain (a5sp86) during the 1986 outbreak, and of the three vaccine strains in use at that time in that country, have been compared. although these viruses are serologically indistinguishable, differences have been found among them by t1 fingerprinting. this genetic heterogeneity affects the immunogenic vp1 gene, with amino acid changes located at the carboxyterminal end of the molecule. vp1-coding sequences obtained have been compar ...19902156389
the detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses using solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization.thirteen complementary dna (cdna) probes were used to detect the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna extracted from cell cultures. when labelled with 32p, these probes enabled the detection of 1 pg of fmdv-rna, or 1 virus copy per cell. two fmdv a12 probes that coded for the leader, structural protein vp1 region and part of the polymerase gene respectively, showed no hybridization with other closely related picornaviruses. differentiation between fmdv serotypes a, o and c was pos ...19902156879
heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.synthetic peptide vaccines of the general sequence cys-cys(200-213)-pro-pro-ser-(141-158)-pro-cys-gly, where the numbered residues refer to vp1 sequences of three different strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, have been evaluated in cattle and guinea pigs. high levels of serotype-specific (homotypic) antiviral and antipeptide antibody were produced with each peptide. the a- and o-serotype peptides provided complete protection of guinea pigs against their respective virus challenges. the c-se ...19902157884
infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus derived from a cloned full-length cdna.a full-length cdna plasmid of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been constructed. rna synthesized in vitro by means of a bacteriophage sp6 promoter inserted in front of the cdna led to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of bhk-21 cells. these particles were also found to be highly infectious for primary bovine kidney cells as well as for baby mice. the difficulty in cloning the foot-and-mouth disease virus cytidyl tract in escherichia coli was circumvented by joining two sep ...19902159523
immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in an experimental murine model. ii. basis of persistent antibody reaction.a murine model was used to study the mechanisms involved in the prolonged immune response to live and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the antibody response elicited by the infection persisted throughout the entire life of the animal, while immunization with inactivated virus induced a transient response. the administration of inactivated virus in a water-in-oil emulsion increased antibody titres to values as high as those obtained by infection. there was a high correlation betwe ...19902160145
intracellular expression and processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursors using vaccinia virus vectors: influence of the l protease.cdna cassettes of fmdv have been constructed which encode the capsid precursor (p1-2a) alone or with the proteases l and 3c which are required for processing of this precursor to the products 1ab, 1c, and 1d. these cassettes have been analyzed using in vitro transcription and translation reactions and within cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses. processing of the precursors occurred more efficiently in cells than in cell-free systems but similar properties were observed. it was not possible ...19902161149
cultivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk21 cells grown in microcarrier culture system.when bhk21 cells were grown according to the microcarrier's system, they reached the highest concentration in 72 hrs. the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bhk21 microcarrier culture increased 10 times compared with the conventional monolayer culture in rolling bottles.19902161995
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vaccinated cattle by antibodies to non-structural virus proteins.antibodies raised in cattle against foot-and-mouth disease virus by vaccination or by experimental infection were distinguished. vaccination elicited only antibodies to virus capsid proteins and the polymerase 3d. virus replication in cattle elicited additional antibodies directed against the non-structural proteins 2b, 2c, 3ab1, and/or 3c irrespective of prior vaccination or whether the cattle exhibited symptoms of disease. non-permissive mice inoculated with virus responded in the same way, in ...19902163574
isotype responses of infected, virus-vaccinated and peptide-vaccinated cattle to foot-and-mouth disease virus.an elisa to measure bovine serum immunoglobulin isotypes (igg1, igg2, igm and iga) specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or for synthetic fmdv peptides is described. sera from cattle infected by fmdv, vaccinated with conventional inactivated virus vaccines or vaccinated with synthetic peptides were examined using this assay. generally igg subclasses dominated the antibody responses of all groups after an early igm response had waned. an exception to this pattern was seen in the case o ...19902163575
identification of a nucleotide deletion in parts of polypeptide 3a in two independent attenuated aphthovirus strains.a set of antisera specific for each viral polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to provide a full comparison of polypeptides of two strains attenuated for cattle with respect to their parental virulent strains. both attenuated strains, belonging to serotypes o1 campos and c3 resende, were obtained through serial passages of the corresponding virulent strains in chicken embryos. although mutations were scattered throughout the genome, both attenuated strains showed an electrophoret ...19902164734
estimation of 140s particles in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine by using the computer analyzing system.the quantity of 140s particles in inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine samples produced in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production center (fmd vaccine production center) in thailand was estimated by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and optical density analysis by using the computer applying system. the soft ware; chromato data system (cds) (nihon chromato works co., ltd. japan) which is prepared for the analysis of chromatography, was applied for the estimation of 14 ...19902166853
synthesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cdna cassettes containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor p1-2a with and without those encoding the proteases l and 3c were introduced into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acmnpv) expression vectors. procapsid proteins 1ab, 1c and 1d were produced in cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, when l and 3c were present in the constructs, indicating that these fmdv proteases were active in insect cells. unlike p1 processing in pol ...19902167924
the effect of peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence on the adsorption of foot-and-mouth disease virus to tissue culture cells.sequencing of the vp1 of a large number of subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has revealed the presence of a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) sequence located in a highly exposed region. this sequence has been shown to be essential for the interaction of certain extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins with a superfamily of cell-surface receptors called integrins. we have examined the effects of synthetic peptides containing the rgd sequence on the binding of eight d ...19902168107
antigenic analysis of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the middle east, 1981 to 1988.during the period 1981-88 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o continued to be isolated from outbreaks in the middle east. field isolates submitted to the world reference laboratory have been examined in relation to reference strains by either complement fixation, virus neutralization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. most isolates were related to the european type o1 reference strains although strains emerging in late 1987 and 1988 were more closely related to o1/manisa. in addit ...19902168609
functional analysis of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.mutagenesis of the large untranslated sequence at the 5' end of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus revealed that a region of approximately 450 nucleotides preceding the open reading frame of the viral polyprotein is involved in the regulation of translation initiation at two internal start sites. variations in two domains of this region reduced the translation efficiency up to 10-fold, whereas an intermediate segment seemed to be less essential. a pyrimidine-rich sequence preceding the s ...19902168956
a cellular 57 kda protein binds to two regions of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a ribosome-associated 57 kda protein from rabbit reticulocytes was linked to the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus by mild uv-irradiation. binding studies with different rna fragments revealed that this protein interacts with two distinct sites within the translational control region. one site is located approximately 400 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and the second binding site could be confined to 60 nucleotides preceding this codon. ...19902169432
foot-and-mouth disease virus subtyping by sequencing vp1 genes.in order to use nucleotide sequencing for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) diagnostic subtyping, it is necessary to shorten the time required for preparation of suitable templates. the time required for analysis was reduced by use of the viral rna present in the total rna extract of tissue from infected cattle as a template in the sanger sequencing reaction. results are now available within 3 days. the sequences determined encode capsid protein vp1 and therefore major neutralization epitopes. ...19902169671
the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for its physical and biological properties.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been solved at a resolution of 2.9 a by x-ray diffraction techniques. the overall structural organisation of the particle is similar to that seen in other picornaviruses but there are several unique features. many of these help to explain its characteristic physical and biological properties. in particular the canyon or pit found at the surface of other picornaviruses is lacking, which has important implications for cell attachment and the proces ...19902169674
use of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in liquid-phase blocking elisa.a liquid-phase blocking elisa is used by the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease for the quantification of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. the potential for using inactivated fmdv antigens in the assay has been assessed by titrating bovine convalescent sera to all seven serotypes and comparing the titres obtained with live or inactivated antigens. the titres were similar indicating that either live or inactivated antigens can be used in the liquid-phase blocking eli ...19902170435
a region of the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells: involvement with the role of l protease in translational control.plasmids encoding bicistronic mrnas have been constructed and used to identify a region from the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells. the loss of about 30 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' terminus or about 50 nt from the 3' terminus of the 435-nt region completely abolished the activity of this region. the expression of the fmdv l protease severely inhibited the expression of other genes unless they ...19902170677
unique amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus from a persistent infection in cell culture.maintenance of a persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in bhk-21 cells involves a coevolution of cells and virus (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. díez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). the resident fmdv undergoes a number of phenotypic changes, including a gradual decrease in virion stability. here we report the nucleotide sequence of the p1 genomic segment of the virus rescued after 100 passages of the car ...19902170684
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. i. method and characteristics.a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. for each strain two monoclonal antibodies directed against different antigenic sites of fmdv were used. the assay used either infectious, not inactivated antigen or inactivated antigen. we concluded that the ctb-elisa was sensitive, type-specific, and more reproducible (p less th ...19902173248
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. ii. application.the complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated to detect antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. log10 serum titres of uninfected, unvaccinated cattle (n = 100) were less than 1.80 in the ctb-elisa. sera from cattle vaccinated with either monovalent or trivalent vaccines were tested in both the ctb-elisa and the serum neutralisation test (snt); titres in both tests correlated positiv ...19902173249
[synthetic immunogenic complexes containing a peptide from the surface protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].synthetic constructions containing a peptide antigenic determinant (c-terminal peptide 205-213 of the surface vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, o1k strain), glucosaminylmuramayl dipeptide (gmdp), and polyionic synthetic carriers were prepared. the polymerized peptide and peptide-bsa conjugates were synthesized as well. among the constructions obtained only peptide-bsa conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic. application of synthetic constructions to design immunogenic complexes ...19902173604
protection of guinea-pigs against foot-and-mouth disease virus by immunization with a phoe-fmdv hybrid protein.a hybrid protein was constructed containing two antigenic determinants of the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inserted in a cell surface-exposed region of escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe. immunization of guinea-pigs with partially purified protein resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibodies and complete protection against challenge with the virus.19902174595
international bank for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine: stability studies with virus concentrates and vaccines prepared from them.an international bank foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has been established at the pirbright laboratory of the afrc institute for animal health. the bank is based on concentrated virus preparations stored in the gaseous phase of liquid nitrogen and is capable of producing up to 0.5 million cattle doses of each of five common strains of the virus (fmdv) for the member nations of the bank. this paper describes the initial and subsequent testing of the virus concentrates and vaccines prepared f ...19902174597
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. ii. for use in the elisa.live and inactivated preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains 01 bfs 1860 and a22 irq 24/64 were freeze-dried in the presence or absence of additive solutions and assessed for their reactivity by elisa at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution and subsequent storage with or without glycerination. the type specificity of all antigen preparations was maintained throughout the study period and the potency of antigens, judged by ti ...19902175750
quantification of intact 146s foot-and-mouth disease antigen for vaccine production by a double antibody sandwich elisa using monoclonal antibodies.a double antibody sandwich (das) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantify 146s antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a10 holland grown in suspension cultures of surviving bovine tongue epithelium. when virus harvests were incubated with trypsin--which affects vp1, the most immunogenic structural protein of fmdv--the concentration of 146s antigen as determined by elisa was reduced by greater than 90%. therefore, the test detected essentially only those v ...19902178351
evaluation of the use of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates in solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa).fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates were used in direct and trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the detection of mouse igg and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the detection limits for both antigens were compared using different combinations of enzymes and substrates. various times and concentrations of chemicals were used to obtain maximum sensitivity for both systems. similar sensitivities were found using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates. tetramethyl benzidine ...19902178352
[virus carriers in foot-and-mouth disease. review].fmdv infection can cause a long lasting virus carrier state in the oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) region of cattle, sheep, goats, african buffalo, wildebeest and kudu. virus can be recovered from op fluids with low titres for several months up to more than 2 years. during this time phases of positive virus recovery are interrupted by negative phases. the number of virus carriers decreases as time progresses. the virus carrier state is always accompanied by fmdv antibodies in serum and op fluid. vac ...19902191649
immunological properties of hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins.the immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an n-terminal fusion with hepatitis b core antigen. in this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide wi ...19902320575
expression in yeast of amino-terminal peptide fusions to hepatitis b core antigen and their immunological properties.hepatitis b core protein (hbcag) is a potent antigen that gives both a t-cell-dependent and a t-cell-independent antibody response. it has been shown that a foreign epitope can be fused to the amino terminus of hbcag without affecting particle integrity, and that the resulting chimaeric cores retain the immunogenicity of the foreign epitope. here we describe the efficient expression in yeast of two different chimaeric cores, carrying epitopes of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) or human chori ...19901369994
structure of viral b-cell epitopes.four categories of viral epitopes can be distinguished that have been designated cryptotopes, neotopes, metatopes and neutralization epitopes. specific examples of each epitope type are presented and the methods used for locating their positions in viral proteins are described. the epitopes of four well-characterized viruses, namely poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza virus and tobacco mosaic virus are briefly described.19901714092
heterotypic recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus by cattle lymphocytes.lymphoproliferation against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated cattle. ten weeks after revaccination the optimum conditions for proliferation were obtained with 1 microgram/ml of purified virus after 5 to 6 days in culture. this contrasted with the response at 20 months post-revaccination, when the response required less antigen and showed a peak response after 3 to 4 days in culture. proliferation was specific for fmd virus, ...19901689767
analysis of immune responses in the sheep to synthetic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus using ovine polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.a 40-residue peptide incorporating residues 200-213 and 141-158 of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 capsid protein strain o1 kaufbeuren was injected uncoupled into sheep, and the immune responses analysed. direct-binding and inhibition experiments showed that the polyclonal antibody response was directed mainly against epitopes unique to the 40-residue peptide but absent from the constituent peptides containing residues 200-213 or 141-158, respectively. further confirmation of the presence of un ...19901690176
a single amino acid substitution affects multiple overlapping epitopes in the major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c were assayed with field isolates and variant fmdvs using several immunoassays. of a total of 36 nmabs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein vp1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of fmdv c. eleven epitopes of fmdv c-s8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of vp1 by quantifying the reactivity of nmabs with synthet ...19901690261
outer membrane phoe protein of escherichia coli as a carrier for foreign antigenic determinants: immunogenicity of epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.outer membrane protein phoe of escherichia coli was used for the expression of antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. five hybrid phoe proteins were constructed containing different combinations of two antigenic determinants of vp1 protein of the virus. the hybrid proteins were expressed in two e. coli strains and the proteins were correctly assembled into the outer membrane. the inserted epitopes were exposed at the surface of the cell and were antigenic in this phoe-associated ...19901690490
antibodies elicited by a biosynthetic peptide related to a major immunogenic area of fmdv a12.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid contains 60 copies each of four structural proteins, virus proteins 1-4. virus protein 1 (vp1) plays an important immunogenic role, being the only vp that is immunogenic as an isolated protein. even peptides representing a partial amino acid (aa) sequence of vp1 can induce protective immunity in experimental hosts. a 32 aa residue, in a tandem repeat configuration (32dimer), of sero/subtype a-12 lp ab vp1 (aa 132-168) was highly immunogenic for its homo ...19901694429
[primary structure of the gene for protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o1 isolated in the ussr].the nucleotides sequence has been determined for the viral rna and some of its cdnas coding for the major antigenic protein of the epidemic stomatitis o1-194 and o1-1618 vp1 viruses. the expressed microheterogeneity has been registered for the population of the strain o1-194.19901694961
synthetic peptides as potential vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease.advances made in our knowledge of the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus have enabled us to identify a fragment, consisting of 20 amino acids, of one of the four proteins of the particle, which elicits neutralizing antibodies in experimental animals and in cattle and pigs. the fragment has been synthesised chemically by merrifield's solid phase method and biochemically as part of different fusion proteins. the level of the immune response to the peptide, which depends critically on the wa ...19901697533
detection of t1-oligonucleotides of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna [correction of dna] by silver staining.viral (v) rna was isolated from purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol treatment, digested by rnase t1 and separated by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the oligonucleotides were detected by silver staining. about 45 micrograms of vrna corresponding to about 100 ml of infectious bhk-21 cell culture fluid yielded a pattern of nearly 20 bands sufficient to differentiate between the fmd viruses.19901698016
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. i. infectivity studies.the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains type o1 bfs 1860 and type a22 irq 24/64 to retain infectivity after freeze-drying with or without additives being made to virus suspensions was studied. the infectivity titres of freeze-dried antigens was assessed at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution to the liquid phase and storage with or without glycerination. certain additive solutions were necessary to prevent degradation of viru ...19901698805
structural and serological evidence for a novel mechanism of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus.changes resulting in altered antigenic properties of viruses nearly always occur on their surface and have been attributed to the substitution of residues directly involved in binding antibody. to investigate the mechanism of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), variants that escape neutralization by a monoclonal antibody have been compared crystallographically and serologically with parental virus. fmdvs form one of the four genera of the picornaviridae. the unenveloped i ...19901699132
sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus: evidence for the involvement of the three surface exposed capsid proteins in four antigenic sites.sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus has been performed. distinct clusters of amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to neutralization at each of the four previously defined antigenic sites (mccahon et al., 1989, j. gen. virol. 70, 639-645) have been identified. one site corresponds to the well-known 140-160 region of vp1, a second site is also on vp1, one site is on vp2, and the fourth site is on vp3. all of the amino acid sub ...19901699353
genetic and phenotypic variability during replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.a plaque-purified preparation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1 (c-s8c1-1), grown in cell culture, was used to infect nonimmunized pigs. no variant genomes were detected in the average populations of 50 viruses isolated from infected animals by direct rna sequencing of the carboxy-terminal half of the vp1 gene. however, a mutant with altered phenotypic properties was present in low proportion in an infected animal. the frequency of mutants resistant to neutralization by sd6 m ...19901700543
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by competitive elisa using a monoclonal antibody specific for the 12s protein subunit from six of the seven serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) prevention and control programs are dependent upon rapid, reliable diagnostic procedures. the widely used fmd diagnostic complement fixation (cf) procedures require a specific antiserum for each of the seven fmdv serotypes making the tests both cumbersome and difficult to standardize. an fmd diagnostic, monoclonal antibody based inhibition-elisa procedure was developed. the test uses a single monoclonal antibody (mab) that reacts with all european and south american ...19901702246
efficient recognition by rat t cell clones of an epitope of mycobacterial hsp 65 inserted in escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe.phoe is a pore-forming protein, abundantly expressed in the escherichia coli outer membrane. previous investigations have shown the possibility of inserting antigenic determinants in cell surface-exposed regions of phoe by recombinant dna techniques without disturbing the biogenesis and the functioning of the protein. this method proved to be successful for foot-and-mouth disease virus b cell determinants. we have now shown for the first time that phoe can also be used as a carrier molecule for ...19901702727
mouse footpad langerhans cells as an indicator for safety of foot and mouth disease virus vaccines.the effect of various vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was tested on langerhans cell density in the footpad epidermis of mice. injection of monovalent, bivalent and trivalent fmdv vaccines caused a reduction in langerhans cell density in the murine skin, which was more marked at the center of the footpad, the site of injection, than at the periphery. testing of the various components of the vaccine showed that saponin caused a marked reduction in langerhans cells while inject ...19901702792
analysis of neutralizing antigenic sites on the surface of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) directed against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to generate neutralization-resistant variants. both plaque reduction neutralization and microneutralization assays showed that the variants were no longer neutralized by the nmabs used to generate them, although some of the variants still reacted with the nmabs at high antibody concentrations. results of cross-neutralization studies by both plaque reduction neutralization ...19892467993
novel low-molecular-weight synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease containing a potent b-cell and macrophage activator.most synthetic peptide vaccines described to date are effective only in combination with proteins and freund's adjuvant. the work describes a novel completely synthetic virus peptide vaccine, which consists of a synthetic activator of b cells and macrophages, covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope. the low-molecular-weight vaccine of 3.4 kda developed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is composed of a synthetic vp1 (135-154) with a sequence homologous to an fm ...19892470215
molecular dynamics of the alpha-helical epitope of a novel synthetic lipopeptide foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.a novel synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccine consisting of a synthetic b-cell and macrophage activator covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope was developed. the low molecular weight vaccine of 3400 daltons is composed of virus vp1 antigenic determinant and the immunologically active lipotripeptide tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-serine (p3css) as built-in adjuvant. the vaccine, tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-seryl-fmdv-vp1 (vp1 ...19892470437
host cell selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a22 iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in bhk monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the a serotype. plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. however, viruses obtained by passage in suspension bhk cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned fr ...19892471782
epitope mapping of foot-and-mouth disease virus with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.epitopes of strain a22 iraq 24/64 of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been mapped with monoclonal antibodies (mabs). three methods were used: (i) an indirect elisa using an overlapping set of peptides, (ii) production of neutralization escape variants against each mab and (iii) sequencing of neutralization escape variants. the study has shown that the virus has at least three overlapping liner neutralizing epitopes within a major antigenic site on vp1. the presence of a second, conformational s ...19892471783
evidence for at least four antigenic sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus involved in neutralization; identification by single and multiple site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus have been characterized on the basis of their reactivity with a panel of single site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants which had defined three antigenic sites. five antibodies neutralized all these mutants, but by selecting further single site mutants with one of these antibodies it was possible to define a fourth site involved in virus neutralization. two monoclonal antibodies still neutralized these mutan ...19892471793
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. identification and characterization of three functionally independent, conformational sites.eleven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced to the o1bfs 1860/67 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and were characterized for their ability to bind viral and subviral antigens in different elisa tests and to neutralize heterologous type o isolates. neutralization escape variants of the homologous virus, isolated under pressure from five of these mabs, were used in cross-neutralization tests with all of the 11 antibodies. these studies identified three functionally ...19892471811
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. mapping three conformational sites with synthetic peptide reagents.four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs), recognizing three functionally independent, conformational sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) failed to react with immobilized structural proteins or synthetic peptides but bound to the isolated capsid protein vp1 and peptides in solution. inhibition elisa techniques were, therefore, applied using peptide antigens and anti-peptide sera to block mab binding to virus particles, permitting the identification of those portions of the v ...19892471812
antigenic comparison of different foot-and-mouth disease virus types using monoclonal antibodies defining multiple neutralizing epitopes on fmdv a5 subtypes.thirteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were elicited with a5 spain-86 virus, the cause of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreak in spain. the mabs were tested for ability to bind 140s virions and 12s protein subunits by liquid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria), and to bind vp1 capsid protein by western immunoblot assay. one of the thirteen mab was virion (140s) specific, seven recognized 140s and 12s subunits, one bound to 140s, 12s and vp1 and four were 12s specific. these mabs ...19892473578
[recombinant plasmids containing hybrid protein genes with antigenic determinants of the foot and mouth virus].plasmids have been constructed which contain genes coding for fused proteins including beta-galactosidase or human leukocyte interferon alpha 2 and monomeric or pentameric form of the main antigenic determinant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype 01k. expression of the hybrid genes has been studied. it is shown that fused proteins, containing beta-galactosidase and the antigenic determinant (monomer or pentamer), interact specifically with anti-fmdv anti-sera and with antibodies ...19892473757
implications of a quasispecies genome structure: effect of frequent, naturally occurring amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we provide evidence that the quasispecies nature (extreme genetic heterogeneity) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is relevant to the virus evading an immune response. a monoclonal antibody neutralizing the viral infectivity (clone sd6) recognizes an epitope located around a highly conserved sequence (amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp-leu-ala at positions 141-145) in the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c1. the amino acid substitutions ala-138----thr and leu-147----ile ...19892474821
helper t-cell determinants in vaccine design.mice belonging to the h-2d haplotype do not respond to the 141-160 peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein vp1. however, when defined 'foreign' helper t-cell determinants from ovalbumin or sperm whale myoglobin are added they do respond. these observations are likely to have important implications for the design of peptide vaccines.19892476143
serological prospects for peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 141 to 160 amino acid sequence of the protein vp1 of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) neutralize a wider range of type o isolates than anti-virion serum. extending this peptide at the amino terminus reduced the number of strains neutralized by the antipeptide sera. reactions with antisera to peptides representing non-contiguous native sequences showed that it was also possible to increase the number of strains effectively neutraliz ...19892479714
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. iii. immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides of the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth virus].immunogenic and protective properties of uncoupled and klh-conjugated peptides covering the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been studied. the uncoupled peptides 136-148 o1k, 136-152 o1k, 131-149 a22 and 140-149 a22 were shown to be immunogenic in guinea pigs and induced 50-100% protection against homologous virus. on the other hand, the a22 specific peptides, in contrast to the o1k peptides, were not immunogeni ...19892480134
selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibodies, as revealed by an in situ assay.antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c (isolate c-s8c1) were selected upon serial passage of the virus in cell culture in the absence of anti-fmdv antibodies. the variants rose from frequencies of less than 10(-2) in the initial plaque-purified fmdv c-s8c1 preparation, to 0.1 to 1 in three passaged populations. the proportion of antigenic variants was quantified using a new in situ plaque immunotest. a nitrocellulose filter is applied to the agar overlay of a fmd ...19892481712
identification of virus neutralizing epitopes on naturally occurring variants of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.four naturally occurring antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a12 were examined for their capacity to be neutralized by a number of monoclonal antibodies (mab) which recognize different sites on the virus surface. the vp1 coding region of the rna genome was sequenced and amino acid changes were determined for the variants. one of the neutralizing sites accounted for the differing antigenic properties of the variants and the epitope was mapped to amino acid residues 150-156 of ...19892483013
a possible homology between immunodeficiency virus p24 core protein and picornaviral vp2 coat protein: prediction of hiv p24 antigenic sites.with the use of a sensitive sequence comparison algorithm, a homology has been suggested between the primary structures of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) p24 core protein and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmd) vp2 coat protein. since the fmd sequence is homologous to picornaviral vp2 sequences with known three-dimensional architecture and since the siv p24 sequence can be convincingly aligned with that from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), it was possible to predict an eight-stranded bet ...19892498082
extensive cell heterogeneity during persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.coevolution of viruses and the host cells occurred in bhk-21 cell cultures persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. diez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). in the present report we provide evidence of an extreme phenotypic heterogeneity of the cells, which was generated in the course of persistence. a total of 248 stable cell clones isolated from fmdv carrier cultures at e ...19892535753
protective and immunostimulating activity of a low dose of cyclophosphamide in the experimental infection of mice with foot-and-mouth disease virus.administration to mice of a low, non-immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide 4 days before infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus decreases viral replication, enhances the immune response against the virus and prevents pancreatic damage.19892536333
the three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 a resolution.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been determined at close to atomic resolution by x-ray diffraction without experimental phase information. the virus shows similarities with other picornaviruses but also several unique features. the canyon or pit found in other picornaviruses is absent; this has important implications for cell attachment. the most immunogenic portion of the capsid, which acts as a potent peptide vaccine, forms a disordered protrusion on the virus surface.19892537470
manipulation of antipeptide immune response by varying the coupling of the peptide with the carrier protein.antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides of two regions of the surface protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the peptides were conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin via c- or n-terminal amino acid residues by use of different coupling agents. the fine specificity of the resulting antibodies was determined by pepscan methods. in general, amino acid residues specific for antibody recognition tended to be located opposite to those used for coupling with the carrier protein. depe ...19892538727
resistance to foot-and-mouth disease virus mediated by trans-acting cellular products.upon serial passage of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c-s8c1, cells with increased resistance to the virus were selected (j. c. de la torre, e. martinez-salas, j. diez, and e. domingo, j. virol. 63:59-63, 1989). two highly resistant cell clones, 74a11 and 74d12, were transformed to puromycin resistance (purr) and were fused to bhk-21 cells transformed to neomycin resistance (neor). the hybrid neor purr cells showed the specific resistance to fmdv c-s8 ...19892539526
the nucleotide sequence of the structural-protein-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3.the nucleotide sequence coding for the structural proteins and nonstructural protein p2a has been determined for a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated in africa. this virus, serotypically designated sat3 (south african territories type 3), shows about 60% homology at the nucleotide level to prototype viruses from the o, a and c serotypes of fmdv. the highest region of variability was shown in structural protein vp1, presumably a consequence of its position on the surface of the virus an ...19892541051
the suitability of different microtitre plates for detection of antibody to virus antigens by indirect elisa.to optimize enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of virus-specific antibodies, a range of commercially available microtitre plates was evaluated for their ability to bind virus antigen. rinderpest virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus were investigated as target antigens. binding capacity for antigen, binding ratios (attachment of specific antibody versus that of non-immune antibody) and the variation in the results of the tests within and between plates were measured. ...19892541132
t cell-dependent induction of antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a mouse model.nude and normal balb/c mice were primed by intravenous inoculation of purified, infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a24, strain cruzeiro. frequency estimation of antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) and thy 1+ t cells in the spleens of immunized mice identified that the igm response was similar for both nude and normal mice, whereas substantial numbers of both igg asc and thy 1+ cells were present in normal mice only. in contrast, nude and normal mouse sera both contai ...19892543745
the cell attachment site on foot-and-mouth disease virus includes the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid).the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) is highly conserved in the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), despite being situated in the immunodominant hypervariable region between amino acids 135 and 160. rgd-containing proteins are known to be important in promoting cell attachment in several different systems, and we report here that synthetic peptides containing this sequence are able to inhibit attachment of the virus to baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. inhi ...19892543752
[primary structure of the a22 rna polymerase gene of the foot and mouth disease virus].complete nucleotide sequence of gene rna polymerase for the foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a22 has been determined.19892545214
modification of foot-and-mouth disease virus after serial passages in the presence of antiviral polyclonal sera.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shows a remarkable antigenic variability. like other rna viruses, this virus has a high rate of mutation. it has been proposed that selection exerted by the host's antibodies could play a major role in the rapid evolution of fmdv. the present work reports the selection of fmdv antibody-resistant populations (nr), after serial passages of cloned fmdv a24 cruzeiro strain on secondary monolayers of bovine fetal kidney cells in the presence of subneutralizing anti ...19892548330
sequences of capsid protein vp1 of two type a foot-and-mouth disease viruses.we have sequenced the nucleotides of the regions that encode the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) a5bernbeuren/1984 and a iran/1987. amino acid sequences and secondary protein structures are provided. both proteins consist of 212 amino acids. the sequences and secondary structures are compared to those of fmdv a22/cccp/64, a strain previously endemic in the near east. nucleotide divergency among the three sequences is highest for fmdv a5bernbeuren/1984 (18% compare ...19892548339
evaluation of techniques to demonstrate foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine tongue epithelium: comparison of the sensitivity of cattle, mice, primary cell cultures, cryopreserved cell cultures and established cell lines.tongue epithelia infected with each of the 7 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to evaluate in vivo and in vitro systems for the detection of fmdv. cattle inoculated by the intradermal route in the tongue (idl) and suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally were compared for susceptibility to fmdv with freshly prepared bovine thyroid cell cultures; cultures from cryopreserved bovine thyroid, bone marrow, mammary gland, myocardium, tongue, ovary and kidney cells; cultures ...19892549683
antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection associated (via) antigen: use of a bioengineered via protein as antigen in an elisa.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection associated (via) antigen (viral rna polymerase) in cattle sera, was developed using a bioengineered via (biovia) protein antigen. compared with the classical immunodiffusion test, with viral rna polymerase purified from infected cell cultures as antigen, this elisa was more sensitive. however, depending on the cattle population examined, sera with antibodies to viral rna polymerase, ...19892549685
characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies generated against foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used to induce polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ids) in rabbits. the anti-ids were semi-purified through isotype affinity columns and assayed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay for cross-reactivity. nmabs which map to the same epitope on the virion appear to contain a common idiotype, and the corresponding anti-ids competitively inhibited the virus-nmab reaction. using a m ...19892550021
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