TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
assessment of suitability of two serotype a candidate vaccine strains for inclusion in fmd vaccine in india.the recent type a foot and mouth disease virus field isolates recovered in india are shown to be antigenically quite divergent from the in-use vaccine strain (ind 17/82), warranting the selection of a suitable vaccine strain which can cover this diversity in antigenic spectrum. in earlier studies employing neutralization test with anti-146s rabbit sera raised against eight candidate vaccine strains, ind 81/00 and ind 40/00 belonging to genotype vii were found to offer the best antigenic coverage ...200818394827
foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrations in products of animal origin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals which can have devastating economic consequences. maintaining an fmd-free status is a priority for non-endemic countries, which restrict importation of animals and animal products from countries in which the disease is present or sporadic, thus presenting a considerable barrier to international trade. this review examines the concentration of fmd virus in animal tissues during the viraemic stage of disease and i ...200818397496
incursions of foot-and-mouth disease virus into europe between 1985 and 2006.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the biggest threats to animal health in european countries. in the last 22 years (1985-2006), fmd has occurred 37 times in 14 european countries. serotype o was most frequently involved in these outbreaks followed by a, c and asia 1. sometimes, epidemics were very limited and at other times, they were the cause of devastating economic losses. in most cases (22/37), the origin of the outbreaks could not be determined. for some of these outbreaks, however, ro ...200818397506
the importance of quality assurance/quality control of diagnostics to increase the confidence in global foot-and-mouth disease control.the last decade international trade in animals and animal products was liberated and confidence in this global trade can increase only if appropriate control measures are applied. as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics will play an essential role in this respect, the food and agriculture organization european commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (eufmd) co-ordinates, in collaboration with the european commission, several programmes to increase the quality of fmd diagnostics. ...200818397507
fmd vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in european disease control policy.most foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the oie manual and, for europe, in the european pharmacopoeia, and for the eu member states in compliance with directive 2001/82/ec of the european parliament and of the council of 6 november 2001 on the community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by directive 2004/28/ec. most of the r ...200818397508
epidemiological patterns of foot-and-mouth disease worldwide.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a clinical syndrome in animals due to fmd virus that exists in seven serotypes, whereby recovery from one sero-type does not confer immunity against the other six. so when considering intervention strategies in endemic settings, it is important to take account of the characteristics of the different serotypes in different ecological systems. fmd serotypes are not uniformly distributed in the regions of the world where the disease still occurs. for example, the cum ...200818397509
evading the host immune response: how foot-and-mouth disease virus has become an effective pathogen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this review, we discuss the mechanisms fmdv has evolved to counteract the host innate and adaptive immune responses and the role of viral proteins in this process. the viral leader proteinase, l pro, limits the host innate response by inhibiting the induction of interferon beta (ifn beta) mrna and blocking host cell translation. a second viral proteinase, 3c pro, may affect host cell trans ...200818400012
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the united kingdom in 2007.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. identifying sources of fmd outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols). here, we show that the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in august 2007 were caused by a derivative of fmdv o(1) bfs 1860, a virus strain h ...200818421380
quantitative risk assessment of foot-and-mouth disease introduction into spain via importation of live animals.spain has been a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-free country since 1986. however, the fmd epidemics that recently affected several european union (eu) member countries demonstrated that the continent is still at high risk for fmd virus (fmdv) introduction, and that the potential consequences of those epidemics are socially and financially devastating. this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the risk of fmdv introduction into spain. results suggest that provinces in north-eastern spain are ...200818430478
induction of protective immunity in swine by immunization with live attenuated recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing the capsid precursor encoding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes morbidity to livestock and serious economic consequences to its associated industry and therefore it is necessary to develop a safe and efficient vaccine to prevent or control this disease. a recombinant live attenuated virus vaccine, designated prv-p1, was generated by insertion of an expression cassette containing cmv promoter, fmdv p1 gene and sv 40 poly-a into the gg gene region of a live attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine strain (tk-/gg-/lacz+). to det ...200818436351
influence of the mutant spectrum in viral evolution: focused selection of antigenic variants in a reconstructed viral quasispecies.rna viruses replicate as complex mutant distributions termed viral quasispecies. despite this, studies on virus populations subjected to positive selection have generally been performed and analyzed as if the viral population consisted of a defined genomic nucleotide sequence; such a simplification may not reflect accurately the molecular events underlying the selection process. in the present study, we have reconstructed a foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies with multiple, low-frequency, ...200818436553
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. recent fmd outbreaks in europe and taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. to aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent fmdv antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved c ...200818440078
epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in landhi dairy colony, pakistan, the world largest buffalo colony.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and causes huge economic losses. this work focus on the landhi dairy colony (ldc), located in the suburbs of karachi. ldc is the largest buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). each month from april 2006 to april 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage ...200818445264
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus using peptides conjugated to nano-beads.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major problem as current vaccines do not allow easy differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. furthermore, large scale production of inactivated virus poses significant risks. to address this we investigated the feasibility of using inert nano-beads that target antigen to dendritic cells (dcs) to induce immune responses against fmdv-specific synthetic peptides in sheep. our results demonstrate that while single peptides ...200818448209
enhanced mucosal immunoglobulin a response and solid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge induced by a novel dendrimeric peptide.the successful use of a dendrimeric peptide to protect pigs against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which causes the most devastating animal disease worldwide, is described. animals were immunized intramuscularly with a peptide containing one copy of a fmdv t-cell epitope and branching out into four copies of a b-cell epitope. the four immunized pigs did not develop significant clinical signs upon fmdv challenge, neither systemic nor mucosal fmdv replication, nor was its tran ...200818448530
dendritic cell internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: influence of heparan sulfate binding on virus uptake and induction of the immune response.dendritic cells (dc), which are essential for inducing and regulating immune defenses and responses, represent the critical target for vaccines against pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although it is clear that fmdv enters epithelial cells via integrins, little is known about fmdv interaction with dc. accordingly, dc internalization of fmdv antigen was analyzed by comparing vaccine virus dominated by heparan sulfate (hs)-binding variants with fmdv lacking hs-binding capacit ...200818448534
use of continuous results to compare elisas for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.six tests for detection of antibodies against the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared at an international workshop in brescia, italy in 2004 on the basis of dichotomous test results. however, as results from all of these assays were also available on a continuous scale, validation was extended by calculating and subsequently analysing the receiver-operator characteristic (roc) curves and likelihood ratios (lr) for each test method. for the purposes of the ...200818450336
comparison of immune responses to different foot-and-mouth disease genetically engineered vaccines in guinea pigs.the p12a3c gene from fmdv (serotype o) encoding the capsid precursor protein, and the highly immunogenic gene fhg, which encodes multiple epitopes of fmdv capsid proteins, were inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors to compare different candidate genetically engineered vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a modified live pseudorabies virus (mlprv) was also used to deliver p12a3c. guinea pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with the candidate vaccines to compare the ability to elicit i ...200817963851
rapid and differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, and vesicular stomatitis by a new multiplex rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex rt-pcr assay has been developed and standardised for the simultaneous and differential detection of the most important vesicular viruses affecting livestock: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). the method uses three primer sets, each one specific for the corresponding virus, selected to detect of all serotypes of fmd and vs. the detection range was confirmed by examinat ...200817964668
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. in contrast, fmd in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. in order to investigate the pathogenesis of fmd in lambs, two groups, aged 10-14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg. one group of lambs (n=8) was inoculated with fmdv in the coronary band, while the other (n=4) was infec ...200817942248
a one-step reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for simple and rapid detection of swine vesicular disease virus.this report describes the development of a one-step reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv). the assay detects the virus rapidly, within 30-60 min and the result is visualised either by gel-electrophoresis or by the naked eye through the addition of sybrgreen. a collection of 28 svdv isolates were tested positive, while heterologous viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis ...200817920701
assessment of the diagnostic potential of immuno-rca in 96-well elisa plates for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the need for fast and very early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has yielded different types of diagnostic tools over the past decades: whereas very sensitive techniques such as virus isolation (vi) and more recently also real-time rt-pcr can provide evidence for the presence of low virus quantities, vi requires additional confirmation of the nature of the virus strain and both techniques (currently) lack the ability for direct serotyping. the latter usually depends on ...200817913251
evaluation of a novel proximity ligation assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a novel proximity ligation assay (pla) using a pan-serotype reactive monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in clinical samples collected from field cases of disease. the fmdv-specific pla was found to be 100 times more sensitive for virus detection than the commonly used antigen capture-elisa (agelisa). as few as five tcid50 were detected in individual assays, which was comparable with the analytical sensitivity of real-time rt-p ...200817897794
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba).a study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). two detection methods: nasba-electrochemiluminescence (nasba-ecl) and a newly developed nasba-enzyme-linked oligonucleotide capture (nasba-eoc) were evaluated. the diagnostic sensitivity of these assays was compared with other laboratory-based methods using 200 clinical samples collected from different regions of the world. assay ...200817728080
immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig farms after the 1997 outbreak in taiwan.this paper reports on a retrospective study of the antibody responses to structural and non-structural proteins of fmd virus o taiwan 97 in six pig herds in taiwan in the year after the 1997 taiwanese fmd outbreak. all herds were vaccinated against fmd after the outbreak as part of the countrywide control program. three of the herds had confirmed fmd infections (herds n, o and p) and three herds remained non-infected (herds k, l and m). the serum neutralizing antibody titers and the non-structur ...200817716836
evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based approach for the selection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine strains.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus exists as seven serotypes within which are numerous variants necessitating careful selection of vaccine strains. currently, a serological assay system based on the use of polyclonal vaccine antisera is widely used for this selection. however, inherent variability in the matching antisera used makes the tests poorly reproducible and difficult to interpret. in this study, we have explored the possibility of replacing or supplementing the polyclonal antibody (pab) ...200817689892
immune responses of swine inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine il-18.two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rfpv-p1 and rfpv-il18-2ap12a) containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 were evaluated to determine their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses in the presence or absence of swine il-18 as genetic adjuvant. the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. all swine were given booster vaccinations at 21 days after the initial inoculation and were challenged 10 days after ...200817706296
molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine toll-like receptor 7 involved in recognition of single-stranded rna virus/ssrna.the interest in understanding interaction between the toll-like receptor and the viral infection has increased because of its importance in disease control. here we have cloned the porcine tlr7 (ptlr7) cdna encoding for 1050 amino acids. the ptlr7 exhibits 90, 87, 87, 86, 84 and 78% similarity to tlr7 from cattle, dog, horse, cat, human and mouse, respectively. rt-pcr data suggested that ptlr7 mrna was mostly synthesized in secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph node and tonsil) and antigen-p ...200817889367
foot-and-mouth disease: measurements of aerosol emission from pigs as a function of virus strain and initial dose.measurements of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus have been made using 20 pigs that had either o ukg or c noville injected into their heel-pads to determine if the kinetics of virus emission are related to the virus strain and dose administered in the challenge inoculum. viable virus was detected in aerosol emissions for 3 days regardless of the strain or dose of virus given. no correlation was found between the peak level of virus emission and dose, but pigs infected with a lower dose of vi ...200817827041
a meta-analysis quantifying transmission parameters of fmdv strain o taiwan among non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs.our aim was to provide additional estimates of main parameters for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain o taiwan (3/97). we used the data of previous experiments in non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs and combined the data of experiments with the same treatment(s). first, we quantified the reproduction ratio r for the various groups using a final-size method. our final-size results predicted that vaccination with a four-fold vaccine dose (but not with a single dose) at 1 ...200817683815
preparation of fmd type a87/irn inactivated vaccine by gamma irradiation and the immune response on guinea pig.fmd is one of the most economically damaging diseases that affect livestock animals. in this study fmd virus type a87/irn was multiplied on bhk21 cells. the virus was titrated by tcid50 method, it was 10(7.5)/ml. the fmd virus samples were inactivated by gamma ray from 60co source at -20°c. safety test was done by ibrs2 monolayer cell culture method, also antigenicity of irradiated and un-irradiated virus samples were studied by complement fixation test. the dose/survival curve for irradiated fm ...200823100729
cytokine mrna responses in bovine epithelia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. the factors which regulate the pathogenesis and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are poorly understood. mrna levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (il)-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and the antiviral cytokines interferon (ifn)-alpha, beta and gamma in microdissected epithelium from cattle acutely infected with fmdv o ukg 3 ...200917920964
airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: evaluation and optimisation of instrumentation and techniques.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted in a variety of ways, one of which is through virus exhaled into the air by infected livestock. it is clear that where there is close contact there will be a range of possible mechanisms for the transmission of disease from animal to animal, including the airborne route if simple barriers between livestock exist. in transmission of fmd over longer distances, airborne transmission represents a significant challenge to the veterinary services in that ...200917977760
measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: preliminary evaluation of two portable air sampling devices.until now measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the field has not been attempted or been practical; measurements have been restricted to the laboratory and isolation units using instruments developed in the 1960s. however, with the development of air sampling devices for other biological purposes, there is now the possibility that this short-coming can be overcome and as a result earlier detection of virus may be possible in the future. two recently-introduced commercial ...200918023217
differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a sau 22/92. five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. the inoculated sheep, which served as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of fmd and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. the presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for seve ...200918687160
kinetics of immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (type asia 1) in experimental cattle.humoral and mucosal (secretory antibody)immune response to fmdv type asia 1 in cattle was analyzed after vaccination and infection using virus neutralizing test (vnt). vaccination (1/16th the usual dose) failed to protect cattle from generalized clinical disease following experimental fmdv asia 1 infection. our results showed that infection induced higher and prolonged serum antibody titres indicating antigen mass is important for optimal immune response. experimental fmdv infection induced sign ...200918648998
rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of fmdv field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in argentine facilities. additionally, a typing elisa using strain specific mabs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among fmdv strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. this assay was carried ...200918774662
the plasmid constructs producing shrna corresponding to the conserved 3d polymerase of foot and mouth disease virus protects guinea pigs against challenge virus.rna interference (rnai) has been used as an effective antiviral strategy for its specific silencing of viral gene expression in mammalian cells. in this study, shrna targeting two regions of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) i.e. 3d and 5'utr which are very essential in virus replication were evaluated. the constructs were made using h7k rna polymerase iii promoter. we investigated in vivo inhibitory effect of shrna on fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and guinea pigs. the results showed that t ...200918810649
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared this study, infrared thermography (irt) was assessed as a means of detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cattle before and after the development of clinical signs. preliminary irt imaging demonstrated that foot temperatures increased in fmdv-infected animals. the maximum foot temperatures of healthy (n=53), directly inoculated (di) (n=12), contact (ct) (n=6), and vaccine trial (vt) (n=21) cattle were measured over the course of fmd infection. a cut-off value was established a ...200918308596
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna duration in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.quantitative analysis of the duration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna in tissues was carried out in pigs experimentally infected with fmdv o ukg 34/2001 and o skr 1/2000. the results showed that the viral rna was still detectable in cervical lymph nodes, mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils collected from both inoculated and contact pigs at 28 days post infection. there was no detectable viral rna in the soft palate or pharynx, which are thought to be tissue sites for viral persistence ...200918294878
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 1f10) shown to be pan-reactive to fmdv strains of each serotype by elisa. the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia (304 positive and 1003 negative samples) from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1965 and 2008 and negative samples collected from healt ...200918848845
foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows.transmission of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus by infected animals may already occur before clinical signs are evident. quantitative data for fmd transmission rates during this so-called high-risk period are currently lacking and would provide useful information to develop surveillance systems in which the number of new outbreaks is an outcome variable. in order to address this, we used experimental data to quantify transmission in cattle, swine and sheep during the non-clinical phase of the ...200918929417
shifts in the selection-drift balance drive the evolution and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting wild and domesticated animals. despite the economic burden of the disease and all efforts to eradicate it, fmd outbreaks continue to emerge unexpectedly in developed and developing countries. correlation of the mutational dynamics of the virus with its epidemiology remains unexplored. analysis of 103 complete genomes representing the seven serotypes shows the important role that selection plays in ...200919004952
a novel single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr method for quantifying foot-and-mouth disease viral rna.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a positive-sense, single-stranded rna virus with a negative strand as its replication intermediate, which can cause severe acute infection in sensitive cell lines. to investigate better the actual state of virus infection, there is a need to measure the amount of fmdv rna in a single acutely infected cell rather than in a large number of cells. therefore, in the present study, a strand-specific single-cell quantitative real-time rt-pcr was developed to analyze the ...200919010355
effect of the initial dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the early viral dynamics within pigs.this paper investigates the early viral dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) within infected pigs. using an existing within-host model, we investigate whether individual variation can be explained by the effect of the initial dose of fmd virus. to do this, we consider the experimental data on the concentration of fmd virus genomes in the blood (viral load). in this experiment, 12 pigs were inoculated with one of three different doses of fmd virus: low; medium; or high. measurements of the vi ...200919019816
innate immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus: current understanding and future directions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) represents one of the most economically important diseases of farm animals. the basis for the threat caused by this virus is the high speed of replication, short incubation time, high contagiousness, and high mutation rate resulting in constant antigenic changes. thus, although protective immune responses against fmd virus (fmdv) can be efficacious, the rapidity of virus replication and spread can outpace immune defence development and overrun the immune system. fmdv ...200919026453
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleotide sequence variation within naturally infected important epidemiological tool in the control of epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is genetic tracing using complete virus genome sequence data. however to interpret these genetic data, it is important to quantify underlying variation present in fmdv populations from individual tissue samples. cloned complete capsid sequences from two virus populations from epithelium from a cow (n=26) and from a sheep (n=15) infected during the uk 2001 outbreaks were generated. genetic diversity of t ...200919027805
ginseng stem-leaf saponins (gsls) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (gsls) as well as the synergistic effect between gsls and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. in experiment a, icr mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmdv antigen with or without gsls (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. highest fmdv-specific igg level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mi ...200918973783
evidence of recombination in a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vp1 revealed that a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 identified in mongolia in 2005 was related to chinese and russian strains isolated during the same year. in this study, these strains were defined as east asian strains having a common geographical origin, and the complete genomic sequence of the mongolian strain (as1/mog/05) was determined and compared to other strains of serotype asia 1. as1/mog/05 showed 1 ...200918977402
infectious bursal disease subviral particles displaying the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic antigen delivery system based on subviral particles formed by the self-assembly of the capsid protein of infectious bursal disease virus and carrying foreign peptides at the top of the projection domain was investigated. we report here the effective insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunodominant epitope in one of the four external loops of the subviral particles. out of the two loops tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 12 amino acids without disrupting the subviral ...200918983883
transient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by sirnas silencing vp1 protein coding region.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a severe, clinically acute, vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) is a mechanism for silencing gene expression post-transcriptionally that is being exploited as a rapid antiviral strategy. to identify efficacious small interfering rnas (sirnas) to inhibit the replication of fmdv, candidate sirnas corresponding to fmdv vp1 gene were designed and synthesized in vitro using t7 rna pol ...200919062053
a novel role for gemin5 in mrna eukaryotic cells translation initiation occurs through two alternative mechanisms, a cap-dependent operating in the majority of mrnas, and a 5'-end-independent driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements, specific for a subset of mrnas. ires elements recruit the translation machinery to an internal position in the mrna through a mechanism involving the ires structure and several trans-acting factors. here, we identified gemin5 protein bound to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ...200919066202
hsp70 fused with gp3 and gp5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus enhanced the immune responses and protective efficacy against virulent prrsv challenge in pigs.porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) has been mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry all over the world. current vaccination strategies provide only a limited protection. in this study recombinant adenoviruses expressing gp3/gp5 of highly pathogenic prrsv and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene of heamophilus parasuis were constructed, and the immune responses and protective efficacy against homologous challenge were examined in pigs. the results s ...200919070639
some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.the selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "protection against podal generalization" (ppg) test for two serotype a strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase elisa (lpelisa) in three laboratories. the average vnt r-values for medium and high ...200919041355
a conserved domain in the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for proper subcellular localization and function.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (ifn) and by reducing the immediate-early induction of ifn-beta mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. in addition to its role in shutting off cap-dependent host mrna translation, l(pro) is associated with the degradation of the p65/rela subunit of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). bioinformatics analysis suggests that l(pro) contains a sa ...200919052079
quantification of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission rates using published data.foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. to understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers alike. however, such quantified parameters are scarcely available, and recently a series of animal experiments was set up to obtain such data experimentally. in this communication, however, we report o ...200919326033
pynttttgt prototype oligonucleotide imt504, a novel effective adjuvant of the fmdv dna vaccine.synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) such as cpg can stimulate b and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vertebrate immune systems. several studies showed that non-cpg odns could also induce strong stimulation of b and t cells. pynttttgt odns, non-cpg odns, can activate and cause immunoglobulin secretion by b cells and proliferation of t cells in vivo. by using pynttttgt odns as an adjuvant for a fmdv dna vaccine, we found that levels of antibody production, t-cell proliferation, and ctl activity ...200919327000
analytical epidemiology of genomic variation among pan asia strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic data from field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used to trace the source of recent outbreaks of fmd, to design better vaccines and diagnostic tests for fmdv, and to make conclusions regarding the general variability in the fmdv genome. though epidemiologic data associated with fmdv isolates are available, these data have been used rarely to explore possible associations of epidemiologic factors with evolution or variation of the fmdv genome. in this study, facto ...200919341389
construction of a recombinant bhv-1 expressing the vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus and its immunogenicity in a rabbit model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) are two important infectious diseases of cattle. using bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) as a gene delivery vector for development of live-viral vaccines has gained widespread interest. in this study, a recombinant bhv-1 was constructed by inserting the synthetic fmdv (o/china/99) vp1 gene in the the ge locus of bhv-1 genome under the control of immediately early gene promoter of human cytomegalovirus (phie cmv) and bovine ...200919343503
expression and purification of an anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus single chain variable antibody fragment in tobacco plants.low-cost recombinant antibodies could provide a new strategy to control foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreaks by passive immunization of susceptible animals. in this study, a single chain variable antibody fragment (scfv) recognizing fmdv coat protein vp1 was expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. to enhance the accumulation of scfv protein, the codon-usage of a murine hybridoma-derived scfv gene was adjusted to mimic highly expressed tobacco genes and fused to an elastin-like polypepti ...200919343526
enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of an extract made from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram).this study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram) on the immune responses in mice immunized with fmdv type o vaccine. thirty-five icr mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried ram, respectively. after that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmd ...200919356611
a dominant-negative mutant of rab5 inhibits infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for virus entry.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can use a number of different integrins (alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8) as receptors to initiate infection. infection mediated by alphavbeta6 is known to occur by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the acidic ph within endosomes. on internalization, virus is detected rapidly in early endosomes (ee) and subsequently in perinuclear recycling endosomes (pnre), but not in late endosomal compartments. due to the extreme sensi ...200919357169
passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs.we aim to develop a method that confers rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by passive immunization with recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs). previously constructed genetic fusions of two vhhs (vhh2s) that either neutralizes fmdv or binds to porcine immunoglobulin to increase the serum half-life, conferred only limited protection to pigs. we therefore now generated vhh3s containing an additional fmdv binding vhh. two vhh3s neutralized fmdv more potently th ...200919368770
in vivo retargeting of adenovirus type 5 to alphavbeta6 integrin results in reduced hepatotoxicity and improved tumor uptake following systemic delivery.a key impediment to successful cancer therapy with adenoviral vectors is the inefficient transduction of malignant tissue in vivo. compounding this problem is the lack of cancer-specific targets, coupled with a shortage of corresponding high-efficiency ligands, permitting selective retargeting. the epithelial cell-specific integrin alphavbeta6 represents an attractive target for directed therapy since it is generally not expressed on normal epithelium but is upregulated in numerous carcinomas, w ...200919369326
identification of cellular genes affecting the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. like other viral pathogens, fmdv recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. to identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense rna strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ests) to randoml ...200919369337
accessory-cell-mediated activation of porcine nk cells by toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7) and tlr8 agonists.the induction of innate immune responses by toll-like receptor (tlr) agonists is the subject of intense investigation. in large part, this reflects the potential of such compounds to be effective vaccine adjuvants. for that reason, we analyzed the activation of innate cells in swine by tlr7 and tlr8 agonists. these agonists activated porcine nk cells by increasing gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) expression and perforin storage. the activation of porcine nk cells was mediated by accessory cells, sin ...200919369481
production of multicistronic hiv-1 based lentiviral the last decade lentiviral gene transfer vectors have gained significant place both in basic science and gene therapy applications. a number of gene transfer applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. this chapter focuses on production of bicistronic and tricistronic lentiviral vectors based on the internal ribosomal entry site (ires) sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cleavage factor 2a. multigene vector ...200919378113
rescue of internal initiation of translation by rna complementation provides evidence for a distribution of functions between individual ires domains.picornavirus rnas initiate translation using an internal ribosome entry site (ires)-dependent mechanism. the ires element of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is organized in domains, being different from each other in rna structure and rna-protein interaction. wild-type transcripts provided in trans rescue defective fmdv ires mutants. complementation, however, was partial since translation efficiency of the mutant rnas was up to 10% of the wild type ires. we report here that mutations diminis ...200919383564
biological effect of muller's ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing.repeated bottleneck passages of rna viruses result in accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. here, we show that clones of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subjected to bottleneck passages, in the form of plaque-to-plaque transfers in bhk-21 cells, increased the thermosensitivity of the viral clones. by constructing infectious fmdv clones, we have identified the amino acid substitution m54i in capsid protein vp1 as one of the lesions associated with thermosensitivity. m54i affects pro ...200919403672
performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus during field outbreaks in the united kingdom in 2007.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the present report describes the practical steps undertaken to deploy a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) to process the samples received during the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in 2007. two independent real-time rt-pcr assays targeting different regions (5'utr and 3d) of the fmd virus (fmdv) genome were used to confirm the presence of fmdv in clin ...200919407083
genome analysis and development of infectious cdna clone of a virulence-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 from china.the rna genome sequence of the rabbit passage-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia 1, zb/cha/58(att), was determined to be 8165 nt in length excluding the poly(c) tract in the 5' utr and the poly(a) tail at the 3' end. zb/cha/58(att) was most similar to the vaccine strain asia 1/ynbs/58 in genome sequence and there were no deletions or insertions within the deduced polyprotein between zb/cha/58(att) and ynbs/58, but there were a total of 25 substitutions at the amino aci ...200919410387
fluorescence-based multiplex real-time rt-pcr arrays for the detection and serotype determination of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study reports the development of distinct fluorescence-based multiplex rrt-pcr arrays, which are comprised of unique primer pairs that are statistically modeled from publicly available sequences, for overall foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotype-specific detection. performance of the multiplex pan fmdv (mpfmdv) array was compared to the 5' utr and two 3d(pol) assays, following tests on the miniopticon (biorad) and 7900ht sds (abi) platforms. the mpfmdv array and a recently developed alt ...200919427333
t-705 (favipiravir) and related compounds: novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of rna viral infections.a series of pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives t-705 (favipiravir), t-1105 and t-1106 were discovered to be candidate antiviral drugs. these compounds have demonstrated good activity in treating viral infections in laboratory animals caused by various rna viruses, including influenza virus, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, west nile virus (wnv), yellow fever virus (yfv), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). treatment has in some cases been effective when initiated up to 5-7 days after virus infectio ...200919428599
construction of an infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o 1 bfs 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in india. a stable,full-length cdna clone of fmdv type o 1 bfs 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pgem r- - 7zf(-). an 8.2 kb pcr product was amplified from the cdna clone and a full-length rna was generated from it by in vitro transcription.transfection of bhk-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious reco ...200919430118
genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a of indian origin and detection of positive selection and recombination in leader protease-and capsid-coding regions.the leader protease (l pro) and capsid-coding sequences (p1) constitute approximately 3 kb of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we studied the phylogenetic relationship of 46 fmdv serotype a isolates of indian origin collected during the period 1968-2005 and also eight vaccine strains using the neighbour-joining tree and bayesian tree methods. the viruses were categorized under three major groups -asian, euro-south american and european. the indian isolates formed a distinct genetic group ...200919430121
recent spread of a new strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in the middle east.this report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a responsible for recent fmd outbreaks in the middle east. initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from iran, during 2005 and 2006 this fmdv lineage (proposed to be named a-iran-05) spread into saudi arabia and jordan and then further west into turkey reaching european thrace in january 2007. most recently a-iran-05 has been found in bahrain. to the east of iran, it has been recogni ...200919432637
pathology and viral distributions of the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus strain (o/taiwan/97) in experimentally infected pigs.twenty-four specific pathogen free pigs were inoculated intradermally at the front-right heel bulb with 0.5 ml of viral suspension containing 10(6.0)tissue culture infectious dose (tcid(50)) with the porcinophillic strain (o/taiwan/97) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated from the epizootic of fmd in taiwan in 1997. two pigs were euthanatized at 8 h, 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15, 21, 26 and 63 days post-inoculation (dpi), and two pigs remained for long-term observation and terminated at 400 ...200919432640
counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its rna-dependent rna polymerase replacement m296i that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin.200919436746
[construction and identification of infectious molecular clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/china/99].nine primers were designed for the full-length genome of o/china/99 and each sequence fragment was obtained by rt-pcr, and cloned into pok12 vecter, the full-length genome cdna clone of o/china/99 was identified by restriction enzymes digestion, pcr, and the whole genome sequencing. the results showed that the o/china/99 whole genome was formed with the length of 8200 nt. the nucleotide sequence of the full-length cdna shared 99.1% homology with its prototype. rna synthesized in vitro by means o ...200919437888
[prokaryotic expression and bioreactivity analysis of a major epitope region of 2c with 3ab within non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus].in recent years, the potential value of nonstructural protein (nsp) 2c was well documented for distinguishing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in infected animals and vaccinated animals. in order to develop a more sensitive approach to detect natural infected fmdv while there is no interact with vaccinated fmdv, we incorporated a major epitope region of 2c with whole 3ab coding region within nsp and expressed in escherichia coli. we got a 47.6 kd fusion protein named 2c'3ab. the product showe ...200919441220
a recombinant protein-based elisa for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.a recombinant protein-based elisa was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. the recombinant protein (rp13c) was derived from the p1 precursor and 3c protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. this protein elicited a low titer of fmdv neutralizing antibodies in pigs. its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking elisa using monoclonal antibodies. the rp13c elisa yielded higher ...200919442854
bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 as fmdv receptors: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with other species.integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that participate in a variety of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions. many integrins recognize rgd sequences displayed on extracellular matrix proteins and the exposed loops of viral capsid proteins. four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are belie ...200919443046
comparative analysis of the large fragment of the 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates from india.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and in recent years a unique group within serotype a, carrying a codon deletion at an antigenically critical site in capsid protein vp3 has emerged (vp3(59)-deletion group). this tempted us to analyze the noncoding region, which is an under represented area, though critically associated with virus biology and pathogenesis. analysis of the large fragment of 5' untranslated region (lf-5' utr) of type a fmd virus revealed discrepancy in the overall ...200919444600
validation of two real-time rt-pcr methods for foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis: rna-extraction, matrix effect, uncertainty of measurement and precision.real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assays are being used routinely for diagnosing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although most laboratories determine analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, a thorough validation in terms of establishing optimal rna-extraction conditions, matrix effect, uncertainty of measurement and precision is not performed or reported generally. in this study, different rna-extraction procedures were compared for two fmdv ...200919447138
journal club. a crystallographer takes a jaunt into immunology. 200919129809
understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling fmdv. in this review i will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. i will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of fmdv, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of fmdv, ...200919100342
pseudorabies virus glycoprotein b can be used to carry foot and mouth disease antigens in dna vaccination of evaluate the feasibility of using pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein b (gb) as a carrier of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens in dna immunization, fmdv b- and t-cell epitopes were inserted either between the two b-cell epitopes of the n-term subunit of prv-gb (bt-prv-gb-n-term construct) or within the b-cell epitope of the c-term subunit of prv-gb (bt-prv-gb-c-term construct). two animal experiments were performed, each with three injections of plasmids 2 weeks apart, followed b ...200919103226
development of a hamster kidney cell line expressing stably t7 rna polymerase using retroviral gene transfer technology for efficient rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.reverse genetics systems, with the ability to manipulate viral genomes at the dna molecular level, are an important platform for study of the assembly and function of viruses. genome manipulation, such as gene recombination, mosaicism, and mutation may interfere with replication, assembly and release of viruses. an efficient, convenient and economical method of virus rescue is undoubtedly required for increasing the efficiency of rescuing recombinant viruses. to develop an efficient, helper viru ...200919095010
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
synthesis of empty capsid-like particles of asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells and their immunogenicity in guinea pigs.the assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) requires the cleavage of the p12a polyprotein into individual structural proteins by protease 3c. in this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that simultaneously expressed the genes for the p12a and 3c proteins of asia i fmdv from individual promoters. the capsid proteins expressed in high five insect cells were processed by viral 3c protease, as shown by western blotting, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivity in an in ...200919167843
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen drb3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. in argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3.2 gene associated with blv-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. a potential risk in expanding or segregati ...200919109295
intradermal vaccination of pigs against fmd with 1/10 dose results in comparable vaccine efficacy as intramuscular vaccination with a full dose.the aim of this study was to investigate whether intradermal (id) vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is suitable as an alternative for the usually used intramuscular (im) route. we compared vaccine efficacy in groups of pigs in which vaccine administration differed with respect to antigen payload of the vaccine, administrated volume and administration route. when compared with pigs that were im vaccinated with a full dose vaccine with a standard antigen payload, pigs vaccinated id ...200919114077
[morphological observation of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus l(pro)].in order to explore the morphological changes of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) l protease, we induced the expression of fmdv l protease in bovine kidney cells (mdbk) artificially. all work is carried out on the basis of a stable mdbk cell line inducibly expresses the lab gene under the control of tetracycline. we use cell morphology, hoechst 33258 staining, ao-eb staining, and dna ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of mdbk cells. ...200920222457
[rescue of bovine asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus from a full-length cdna clone].after sequencing the asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (as01 strain), we amplified the two fragments covering the whole genome by overlapping pcr and long pcr. the 5' fragment was 1.8 kb in length including 15cs, and the 3' fragment was 6.7 kb in length. the two fragments were cloned into the pbluescript sk vector to construct recombinant plasmid pbsas carrying the full-length cdna of fmdv as01 strain. the rna transcript was synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase and transfected into ...200920222458
foot and mouth disease: a story of resilience. 200920509460
optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues.immunohistochemical (ihc) and fluorescent antibody (fa) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structural and nonstructural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded (pfpe) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. immunohistochemical localization of fmdv was compared with 7 detection systems, 8 primary antibodies, and 11 epitope retrieval techniques. all serotypes tested (o, a, asia, c [cryosection]; o, a, asia [pfpe]) were localize ...200919901278
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