use of continuous results to compare elisas for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.six tests for detection of antibodies against the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared at an international workshop in brescia, italy in 2004 on the basis of dichotomous test results. however, as results from all of these assays were also available on a continuous scale, validation was extended by calculating and subsequently analysing the receiver-operator characteristic (roc) curves and likelihood ratios (lr) for each test method. for the purposes of the ...200818450336
study of the genetic heterogeneity of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-saharan africa with specific focus on east africa.the epidemiology of serotype sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-saharan africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1d gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to east africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. the genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between east, southern and south-western africa. one lineage was unique to west africa. ...200718453238
a bayesian evaluation of six diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease for vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.the sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) to discriminate between sero-converted (for non-structural fmd virus proteins) and non-sero-converted cattle were evaluated for vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. since none of the tests could be considered as a proper reference test and for about half of the tested sera the true status (sero-converted or not for non-structural proteins, i.e. presence of antibodies) of the animals was unknown, a bayesian analysi ...200818455817
the effects of il-6 and tnf-alpha as molecular adjuvants on immune responses to fmdv and maturation of dendritic cells by dna vaccination.various approaches have been developed to improve efficacy of dna vaccination, such as the use of plasmid expressing cytokine as a molecular adjuvant. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either il-6 or tnf-alpha as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation with either molecular adjuvant induced a higher ratio of igg2a/igg1, higher levels o ...200818462845
interleukin-15 enhance dna vaccine elicited mucosal and systemic immunity against foot and mouth disease virus.aerosol transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is believed to be an important route of infection. induction of mucosal response is thought to be effective way against such infection. various approaches have been developed including the use of molecules adjuvant and polymers delivery for the mucosal delivery of dna vaccine. in this study, using low molecular weight chitosan as a delivery vehicle, we investigated whether co-administration intranasally of the fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1 ...200818462848
[construction and eukaryotic expression of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of goat complement c3d and foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1].we constructed a recombinant plasmid encoding vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus fused to a molecular adjuvant, goat complement c3d gene. the goat c3d gene was cloned and three copies were tandem-linked with the linker (g4s)2 sequence. vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus was linked to three tandem repeats of c3d through the linker sequence and cloned into puc19 to obtain the recombinant plasmid puc19-vp1-c3d3. the vp1-c3d3 fusion gene was then subcloned into the eukaryot ...200818464602
[cloning and expression of 3c protease gene from foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cell].the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3cpro) is critical for viral pathogenesis, has vital roles in both processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication, and is a potential anti-viral drug target. in the study, 3c gene of fmdv from serotype asia i was obtained through polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and subcloned into baculovirus transfer vector pmelbac-b. the recombinant transfer plasmid and linearized baculovirus dna were co-transfected into sf9 insect cell, and ...200818479056
comparative study of experimental foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (bos indicus) and buffaloes (bubalis bubalus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. the present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fmd virus (fmdv) asia 1. a mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with fmdv. difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between ...200818491212
development and characterization of a bovine serum evaluation panel as a standard for immunoassays based on detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease viral non-capsid proteins.the widespread perception of the effectiveness of applying tests based on the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral non-capsid proteins (ncps) to assess virus circulation irrespective of vaccination triggered the demand for international standards to evaluate the comparative performance of the upcoming assays against the oie index test developed at the pan american foot-and-mouth disease center, paho/who. to this end, a panel was developed composed of 34 cattle sera ...200818499275
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle using homologous and heterologous challenge strains: precision of the "protection against podal generalisation" test.the level of protection conferred by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in primovaccinated animals primarily depends on the potency of the vaccine and the relatedness of the vaccine strain and circulating field isolate. the "gold standard" fmd vaccine potency test is the in vivo test performed in the target species. the objective of the study was to determine the precision of the in vivo "protection against podal generalisation" (ppg) fmd vaccine potency test in cattle using homologous (vacci ...200818499310
diagnostic specificity of a real-time rt-pcr in cattle for foot-and-mouth disease and swine for foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever based on non-invasive specimen collection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) are highly contagious and can cause great economic losses when introduced into disease-free regions. accurate estimates of diagnostic specificity (sp) are important when considering the implementation of surveillance for these agents. the purpose of this study was to estimate diagnostic sp of a real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr assay developed for detection of fmdv in cattle and domestic swine and csfv in domestic swine ...200818499360
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of fmd because of either incomplete inactivation of fmdv or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. thus, it is urgent to develop a novel fmdv vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.200818509464
immune responses of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine interferon alpha in mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, we constructed and characterized the immune responses and vaccine efficacy conferred by the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of fmdv and porcine interferon alpha as fusion protein (rad-pifnalpha-vp1). six groups of female balb/c mice each with 18 were inoculated subcutaneously twice 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses. the results show ...200818511133
comparative genomics of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from india sampled over the last two decades.this study deals with a comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of twenty-one serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) field viruses isolated over a period of two decades from india, two vaccine strains and seven exotic sequences. the indian viruses could be grouped in to three distinct lineages at the entire coding region, evolving independently probably under differential selection pressure as evident from the lineage-specific signatures identified. this comparison revealed 80% o ...200818511143
partial sequence analysis of vp1 of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.nucleotide sequence of 3' end of vp1 (1d region) was determined using rt-pcr amplified dna of 31 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 field isolates originating from 11 different geographically distinct states of india during the period 1987-2000. these field strains exhibited an average of 7.5% divergence among them and were found to be divergent from the indian vaccine strains asia-1 wbn 117/85, ind 8/79, and ind 63/72, by an average 5.9, 14.8, and 7.4% divergence, respectively. phy ...200818512139
emergency vaccination of sheep against foot-and-mouth disease: significance and detection of subsequent sub-clinical infection.this study has quantified the level of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication and shedding in vaccinated sheep and correlated this to the severity of clinical signs, the induction of antibodies against fmdv non-structural proteins (nsps) and the transmission of virus to in-contact vaccinated sentinel sheep. to mimic an emergency vaccination regime in the field, sheep were vaccinated with o(1) manisa vaccine and 4 or 10 days later were indirectly challenged with aerosols from o(1) ukg fm ...200818513836
production of monoclonal antibodies against whole virus particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o and a and their potential use in quantification of intact virus for vaccine manufacture.a double antibody sandwich elisa for quantification of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) whole virus particle was developed using two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and a. the antibody binding epitopes were characterized. the two mabs reacted with all of the tested fmdv strains. the use of these two mabs in the sandwich elisa will allow the quantification of fmd whole virus particles during vaccine manufacture.200818513841
enhanced immune response of dna vaccine (vp1-pcdna) adsorbed on cationic plg for foot and mouth disease in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major constraint to international trade in livestock and animal products. though conventional vaccine has shown to provide protection, it has several limitations, like short duration of immunity and poor cell mediated immune response compared to dna vaccines, which are known to induce both cell mediated as well as humoral responses. the present work envisages the production of dna vaccine construct with partial 1d gene (coding for vp1) of fmdv type 'a' and stu ...200818516668
passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. we aim to develop an immunotherapy that confers rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. for this purpose, we previously isolated llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) binding to fmdv or porcine immunoglobulin (pig). the pig binding vhhs can be genetically fused to other vhhs, resulting in so-called vhh2s. as compared to non-pig binding vhhs such v ...200818534789
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in infected pigs by rt-pcr four weeks after challenge. 200818540035
john burns brooksby cbe: 25 december 1914 - 17 december 1998.john brooksby was an outstanding veterinary virologist, who worked at the animal virus disease research institute, pirbright, for 40 years, for 16 of which he was director of the institute. he will be remembered for his contributions to the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, for his discovery of four new types, for the classification of subtypes and for fundamental studies of the virus. as deputy director and director he was responsible for programmes on fundamental investigations of foot-and- ...200718543463
fred brown: 31 january 1925 - 20 february 2004.fred brown was a major figure in british and international virology during most of the latter half of the twentieth century. he brought to the subject a rigorous and critical attitude acquired during his early training in chemistry. in addition, he was passionately interested in the practical application of his work and that of others to the prevention and alleviation of disease. he always believed that his research would make a significant contribution to the welfare of agricultural livestock. ...200718543464
foot and mouth disease in the borana pastoral system, southern ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.participatory epidemiology (pe) was used on the borana plateau of southern ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic fmd, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical fmd at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of fmd ...200818551776
identifying a few foot-and-mouth disease virus signature nucleotide strings for computational genotyping.serotypes of the foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) were generally determined by biological experiments. the computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success.200818554404
hexokinase activity as marker to assess time of harvest of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk21 cl13 cell cultures.hexokinase (b.c. activity as a marker enzyme during fmd viral infection has been observed spectrophotometrically in a system coupled with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, in supernatants of bhk(21)cl(13) suspension as well as anchored cell culture at a minimum of 10(4) infective virus particles/ml. specific activity increased with virus concentration in culture supernatants and abruptly decreased with a fall in virus titer, as has been noted by tcid/50,146 s concentration, and enzyme- ...198618555368
generation and characterization of an npro-disrupted marker bovine viral diarrhea virus derived from a bac vitro studies showed that n(pro) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) interferes with cellular antiviral defense. to understand the role of n(pro) protein in successful viral invasion of the host and establishment of the lifetime persistence, an infectious n(pro)-disrupted virus with a noncytopathic (ncp) background is desired. in this study, an n(pro)-disrupted cdna, pbsd1-n(pro)/egfp2a, was constructed based on an infectious full-length bac cdna clone of ncp bvdv strain sd1, pbsd1. ...200818555541
evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the sat serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in south africa. vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (as) adjuvanted vaccines containing the south african territories (sat) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlli ...200818575060
evaluation of fta cards as a laboratory and field sampling device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotyping by rt-pcr and real-time rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for serodiagnosis pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where there is maximum temperature fluctuation. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valuable epidemiological data. the present study evaluated ...200818584888
variation in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a associated with epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks in the 2001 epizootic in argentina.a mixed binomial bayesian regression model was used to quantify the relation between nucleotide differences in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreaks from which the viruses were obtained between january and december 2001 in argentina. an increase in the probability of different nucleotides between isolates was associated with a longer time between isolation dates, a greater distance between isolation locations, an increa ...200818599847
therapeutic application of rna interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. routine vaccination may not be effective for early protection in an outbreak situation. small interfering rna (sirna) can be used in a rapid and effective antiviral approach. however, sirna has limitations when used in disease prevention, such as a short duration of action. in this study, we have demonstrated that treatment with sirna after fmd virus (fmdv) infection has an antivira ...200818601955
immunochemical studies of foot-and-mouth disease. iii. acridine orange staining of agar gel precipitin reactions.agar gel diffusion precipitin reactions obtained with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens were examined by an acridine orange staining procedure. after treatment with 0.01% acridine orange, precipitin bands produced by the virus particles (140 s antigen) fluoresced flame red when examined under ultraviolet light and with 0.001% to 0.0001% acridine orange, a yellow green. treatment with rnase prior to staining inhibited the reaction, whereas, treatment with dnase did not. this was in accord wit ...196818614127
heparan sulfate-binding foot-and-mouth disease virus enters cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. virus, which is virulent for susceptible animals, infects cells via four members of the alpha(v) subclass of cellular integrins. in contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some fmdv serotypes results in the loss of viral virulence in the animal, accompanied by the loss of virus' ability to use integrins as receptors. these avirulent viral variants acquire positively charge ...200818614639
minority report: hidden memory genomes in hiv-1 quasispecies and possible clinical implications.the rna viruses replicate as complex distributions of closely related genomes termed viral quasispecies. the behavior of the evolving quasispecies and its response to selective pressures such as antiviral treatment is influenced by the ensemble of mutants that compose the viral population. one such influence is the presence of minority subpopulations in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies. biologically relevant mutants have long been known to be present as minority components of replicating ...200818615120
inclusion bodies: specificity in their aggregation process and amyloid-like structure.the accumulation of aggregated protein in the cell is associated with the pathology of many diseases and constitutes a major concern in protein production. intracellular aggregates have been traditionally regarded as nonspecific associations of misfolded polypeptides. this view is challenged by studies demonstrating that, in vitro, aggregation often involves specific interactions. however, little is known about the specificity of in vivo protein deposition. here, we investigate the degree of in ...200818619498
experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease among indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and from buffalo to cattle.indian buffalo and cattle were infected experimentally with a serotype o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus of buffalo origin. whereas intradermolingual inoculation of buffalo produced largely sub-clinical infection, inoculation in the dental pad produced vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. a buffalo infected via the dental pad transmitted infection to cattle and buffalo by direct contact with them for 24h. the contact-exposed buffalo developed (1) delayed-onset clinical signs, and (2) sh ...200818619607
epithelial distribution and replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in infected pigs.although the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been extensively investigated, relatively few studies have addressed the localization of fmd virus (fmdv) and in particular its replication in relation to the typical in-vivo sites of fmd lesions. in the present study, pigs were infected experimentally with fmdv serotype o ukg 34/2001 and tissue samples were collected from 1 to 4 days post-infection. samples were stored at -70 degrees c and frozen sections were prepared for in-situ hy ...200818620703
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
uv inactivation and model of uv inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals (e.g., cattle and swine) and causes severe economic loss for many countries. the resistance to uv irradiation of fmdv strains isolated from outbreaks in thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline at 25 degrees c. since the regression coefficients of linear regression were large and root mean square errors were small, uv inactivation could be appropriately summarized and fitt ...200818625534
herd reproduction ratio and time-space analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in peru in 2004.the herd reproductive ratio (rh) and spatio-temporal clustering were estimated in the 2004 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in peru. the epidemic lasted 39 days and involved 26 herds. movement of cattle was restricted, all susceptible species within a 25-km buffer zone were revaccinated, and infected animals with clinical signs of fmd were killed or destroyed to control and eradicate the disease. the rh declined from 5.3 on the second day of the epidemic to 1.31 on the 25th day. spatio-temp ...200818631231
the crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 rna-dependent rna polymerase in complex with its protein primer vpg confirms the existence of a second vpg binding site on picornaviridae polymerases.the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is a central piece in the replication machinery of rna viruses. in picornaviruses this essential rdrp activity also uridylates the vpg peptide, which then serves as a primer for rna synthesis. previous genetic, binding, and biochemical data have identified a vpg binding site on poliovirus rdrp and have shown that is was implicated in vpg uridylation. more recent structural studies have identified a topologically distinct site on the closely related foot-an ...200818632861
crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 3dpol highlights the functional importance of residue 5 in picornavirus polymerases.the crystal structure of the coxsackievirus b3 polymerase has been solved at 2.25-a resolution and is shown to be highly homologous to polymerases from poliovirus, rhinovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses. together, these structures highlight several conserved structural elements in picornaviral polymerases, including a proteolytic activation-dependent n-terminal structure that is essential for full activity. interestingly, a comparison of all of the picornaviral polymerase structures show ...200818632862
specific n-terminal protein labelling: use of fmdv 3c pro protease and native chemical ligation.we report an effective strategy for generating n-terminal cysteinyl proteins by proteolytic cleavage using the enzyme 3c pro, suitable for a wide range of applications via native chemical ligation.200818633492
multiplexed molecular assay for rapid exclusion of foot-and-mouth disease.a nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from fmdv infection in cattle, sheep and swine. the fmdv "look-alike" diagnostic assay panel contains 5 pcr and 12 reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) signatures for a total of 17 simultaneous pcr amplifications for 7 diseases plus ...200818634827
topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection.the molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and partition analysis of quasispecies (paq) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues.200818637173
kinetics of immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (type asia 1) in experimental cattle.humoral and mucosal (secretory antibody)immune response to fmdv type asia 1 in cattle was analyzed after vaccination and infection using virus neutralizing test (vnt). vaccination (1/16th the usual dose) failed to protect cattle from generalized clinical disease following experimental fmdv asia 1 infection. our results showed that infection induced higher and prolonged serum antibody titres indicating antigen mass is important for optimal immune response. experimental fmdv infection induced sign ...200918648998
induction of a protective antibody response to fmdv in mice following oral immunization with transgenic stylosanthes spp. as a feedstuff additive.the expression of antigens in transgenic plants has increasingly been used as an alternative to the classical methodologies for the development of experimental vaccines, and it remains one of the real challenges in this field to use transgenic plant-based vaccines effectively as feedstuff additives. we report herein the development of a new oral immunization system for foot and mouth disease with the structural protein vp1 of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) produced in transgenic stylosa ...200818651235
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vitro and in vivo by small interfering using bioinformatics computer programs, all foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences in public-domain databases were analyzed. based on the results of homology analysis, 2 specific small interfering rna (sirna) targeting homogenous 3d and 2b1 regions of 7 serotypes of fmdv were prepared and 2 sirna-expression vectors, psi-fmd2 and psi-fmd3, were constructed. the sirna-expressing vectors were used to test the ability of sirnas to inhibit virus replication in baby hamster kidney (bh ...200818652701
enhanced mucosal immune response in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mucosal immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was examined in experimentally infected cattle by assaying antibodies by the virus-neutralizing test (vnt) and iga elisa in two secretory fluids, oesophageal pharyngeal fluid (opf) and oro-nasal fluid (onf). out of 17 animals infected by the intradermo-lingual route, 12 became persistently infected (carriers), as defined by positive antigen capture rt-pcr reactions for fmdv rna in opf samples collected at 28 days or l ...200818656268
engineering a single-chain fv antibody to alpha v beta 6 integrin using the specificity-determining loop of a foot-and-mouth disease virus.the alpha v beta 6 integrin is a promising target for cancer therapy. its expression is up-regulated de novo on many types of carcinoma where it may activate transforming growth factor-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta 3, interact with the specific extracellular matrix proteins and promote migration and invasion of tumor cells. the viral protein 1 (vp1) coat protein of the o(1) british field strain serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus is a high-affinity ligand for alpha v beta 6, and ...200818656482
molecular characterization of a dual inhibitory and mutagenic activity of 5-fluorouridine triphosphate on viral rna synthesis. implications for lethal mutagenesis.the basis for a dual inhibitory and mutagenic activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication has been investigated with purified viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (3d) in vitro. 5-fluorouridine triphosphate acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of vpg uridylylation, the initial step of viral replication. peptide analysis by mass spectrometry has identified a vpg fragment containing 5-fluorouridine monophosphate (fump) covalently attached to tyr3, the ...200818662697
techniques developed in china for foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis.over the past several decades, a series of new methods have been developed in china for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). these methods are theoretically consistent with office international des epizooties standards for fmd diagnosis and include: antigen-capture elisa and colloid-gold test strip for viral antigen typing, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) for detection of antibodies against o and asia 1 fmdv, and an indirect elisa for detection of antibodies against the non-structur ...200818666962
internal translation initiation on the foot-and-mouth disease virus ires is affected by ribosomal stalk conformation.a human cell line, in which expression of the ribosomal stalk proteins p1 and p2 has been suppressed by rnai technology, has been used to test how the loss of these proteins affects ires-dependent translation. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires-dependent translation from a bicistronic construct is about three fold higher in the p1/p2-depleted cells than in control cells in the presence of lb protease. by contrast, no effect on hepatitis c virus (hcv) ires translation was observed. these re ...200818675807
clinical and laboratory investigations of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in southern england in 2007.a case of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) on a cattle farm in normandy, surrey, was confirmed on friday august 3, 2007, the first case in the uk since 2001. the infection was detected nearby on a second farm on august 6. on september 12, fmd was confirmed on a farm approximately 20 km from normandy in egham, and this was followed by cases on five more farms in that area in the next three weeks. the majority of the infected farms consisted of multiple beef cattle holdings in semi-urban areas. in tot ...200818676997
comparison of the characters of the plaque-purified viruses from foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/ least two biotypes were observed at the 2nd passage stage after the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain. these 2 types of viruses differed from their plaque phenotypes and were distinguishable by using a monoclonal antibody (mab) 64g8 that was made for the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain. one of these 2 biotypes formed small plaque (sp) and with immuno staining showed a positive reaction to mab 64g8, while the other formed clear large plaque (lp) and did not react with m ...200818685235
differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a sau 22/92. five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. the inoculated sheep, which served as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of fmd and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. the presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for seve ...200918687160
susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3a or 3ab proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3a protein is involved in virulence and host range. a distinguishing feature of fmdv 3b among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral rna and required for optimal replication in cell culture. here, we have studied the involvement of the 3ab region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. bhk-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of fmdv 3a or 3a(b) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. ...200818694581
a novel bi-functional dna vaccine expressing vp1 protein and producing antisense rna targeted to 5'utr of foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce both rapid inhibitory effect and specific immune response in overcome the inability of a conventional vaccine against a virus to induce rapid protection against viral challenge, a novel strategy was performed to generate a novel bi-functional vector expressing antisense rna targeted to 5' untranslated regions (utr) and vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). fmdv 5'utr containing the viral rna replication start elements was inserted inversely into the pires vector to produce antisense rna, followed by insertion of fmdv vp1 gene to generate ...200818694793
hidden virulence determinants in a viral quasispecies in vivo.the characterization of virulence determinants of pathogenic agents is of utmost relevance for the design of disease control strategies. so far, two classes of virulence determinants have been characterized for viral populations: those imprinted in the nucleotide sequence of some specific genomic regions and those that depend on the complexity of the viral population as such. here we provide evidence of a virulence determinant that depends neither on a genomic sequence nor on detectable differen ...200818715925
the evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus: impacts of recombination and selection.foot-and-mouth disease virus is an economically important animal virus that exhibits extensive genetic and antigenic heterogeneity. to examine the evolutionary forces that have influenced the population dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus, individual genes and the coding genomes for the eurasian (asia1, a, c, and o) serotypes were examined for phylogenetic relationships, recombination, genetic diversity and selection. our analyses demonstrate that paraphyletic relationships among serotypes ...200818718559
estimating the risk of exposure of british livestock to foot-and-mouth disease associated with the importation of ship and aircraft waste.a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate the frequency with which meat waste from ships or aircraft might expose british livestock to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and investigate the factors that might contribute to the risk. in the model, the total weight of waste introduced that was contaminated with fmd was estimated to be 26 kg per year, with 90 per cent certainty that it would be between 10 and 53 kg. as a result, it was estimated that there would be a ...200818723864
[purification and reactivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a, 3b and 2c expressed in e. coli].to purify and to detect reactivity of non-structural proteins 3a, 3b and 2c expressed in the escherichia coli.200818724495
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (mdbk) cells].in this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain oa/58 rnas were used as templates for rt-pcr. by the molecular cloning, the lab gene encoding leader protease called lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pbpstr1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pbpstr1-lab. at different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (mdbk) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 m ...200818724691
[cloning of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor beta1 subunit and antibody production to its ligand-binding domain].we produced beta1 gene which is about 2400 bp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) from bovine trachea, reclaimed and purified, then cloned the amplified fragment to pgem-t easy vector, confirmed by sequencing. the immune-dominant epitope of beta1 gene was chosen by computer analysis and then syncretized ligand-binding domain from 346 bp to 843 bp of ecytoplasm with six histidine, expressed lbd protein massly in e. coli bl21 (de3), and identified by sds-page. the fusion pr ...200818724711
foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3cpro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a member of the picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. we show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of fmdv-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate ...200818753210
probable route of infection for the second uk 2007 foot-and-mouth disease cluster. 200818757904
delivery of a foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid subunit antigen with nonstructural protein 2b improves protection of develop a more efficacious human adenovirus (ad5)-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subunit vaccine (ad5-a24) we have included coding regions for fmdv nonstructural proteins 2b and 2c. these proteins are involved in membrane re-arrangements resulting in the proliferation of cytoplasmic vesicles which serve as the sites of virus replication. cells infected with a vector containing full-length 2b (ad5-ci-a24-2b) had a significant increase in the number of cytoplasmic vesicles as comp ...200818762225
rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of fmdv field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in argentine facilities. additionally, a typing elisa using strain specific mabs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among fmdv strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. this assay was carried ...200918774662
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in south sudan: benefit-cost analysis and livelihoods impact.a benefit-cost analysis of vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was conducted in an area of south sudan, which due to chronic conflict, had been subject to large-scale humanitarian assistance for many years. the study used participatory epidemiology (pe) methods to estimate the prevalence and mortality of acute and chronic fmd in different age groups of cattle, and the reduction in milk off-take in cows affected by fmd. the benefit-cost of fmd vaccination was 11.5. losses due to the chro ...200818786073
dromedaries (camelus dromedarius) are of low susceptibility to inoculation with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the sheep developed typical fmd. the inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible signs of illness or vesicular lesions. however, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infect ...200818789453
serotype-specific differences in antigenic regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): a comprehensive statistical analysis.although vaccines are available for prophylaxis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), few cases of escape mutants have been reported. to develop serotype-specific fmdv vaccination strategies it is imperative to understand how host selection has influenced evolution of fmdv. this study identified several possible targets for serotype-specific fmdv vaccines using a novel statistical approach. pairs of closely related fmdv genomes identified in a phylogenetic analysis representing all seven serot ...200818790086
tolerance to mutations in the foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin-binding rgd region is different in cultured cells and in vivo and depends on the capsid sequence context.engineered rnas carrying substitutions in the integrin receptor-binding arg-gly-asp (rgd) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were constructed (aa 141-147 of vp1 capsid protein) and their infectivity was assayed in cultured cells and suckling mice. the effect of these changes was studied in the capsid proteins of two fmdvs, c-s8c1, which enters cells through integrins, and 213hs(-), a derivative highly adapted to cell culture whose ability to infect cells using the glycosaminoglycan he ...200818796722
the plasmid constructs producing shrna corresponding to the conserved 3d polymerase of foot and mouth disease virus protects guinea pigs against challenge virus.rna interference (rnai) has been used as an effective antiviral strategy for its specific silencing of viral gene expression in mammalian cells. in this study, shrna targeting two regions of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) i.e. 3d and 5'utr which are very essential in virus replication were evaluated. the constructs were made using h7k rna polymerase iii promoter. we investigated in vivo inhibitory effect of shrna on fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and guinea pigs. the results showed that t ...200918810649
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle.the aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of pd50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, type of adjuvant, valency and type of virus culture on the dose-response curve. data from 297 potency tests of fmd vaccines, comprising 4004 vaccinated cattle, performed at the fmd vaccine production fac ...200818822336
expression of biologically active recombinant porcine interleukin-12 from escherichia coli.the control of viral infections is of critical importance to livestock industries worldwide and is highlighted by costly infection outbreaks, such as that seen with foot and mouth disease virus. to ameliorate the impact of increasing problems with viral infections, new vaccine and anti-viral strategies are required and a greater understanding of the anti-viral response is essential. furthermore, in pigs, evidence is still being gathered on the components of a defined anti-viral immune response. ...200818823664
bovine viral diarrhea virus is a suitable viral vector for stable expression of heterologous gene when inserted in between n(pro) and c genes.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a group of small enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-oriented rna genome of approximately 12.3 kb. bvdv genome directs the production of a viral polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved to release the mature viral proteins. to explore the potential of using bvdv as viral vector for stable expression of heterologous genes, egfp2a was inserted in between n(pro) and c genes of a noncytopathic type-i bvdv strain sd1. egfp2a was designed with egfp ...200818824056
determinants of rna-dependent rna polymerase (in)fidelity revealed by kinetic analysis of the polymerase encoded by a foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.a mutant poliovirus (pv) encoding a change in its polymerase (3dpol) at a site remote from the catalytic center (g64s) confers reduced sensitivity to ribavirin and forms a restricted quasispecies, because g64s 3dpol is a high-fidelity enzyme. a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutant that encodes a change in the polymerase catalytic site (m296i) exhibits reduced sensitivity to ribavirin without restricting the viral quasispecies. in order to resolve this apparent paradox, we have established ...200818829745
engineering viable foot-and-mouth disease viruses with increased thermostability as a step in the development of improved vaccines.we have rationally engineered foot-and-mouth disease virus to increase its stability against thermal dissociation into subunits without disrupting the many biological functions needed for its infectivity. amino acid side chains located near the capsid intersubunit interfaces and either predicted or found to be dispensable for infectivity were replaced by others that could establish new disulfide bonds or electrostatic interactions between subunits. two engineered viruses were normally infectious ...200818829763
updating of the correlation between lpelisa titers and protection from virus challenge for the assessment of the potency of polyvalent aphtovirus vaccines in argentina.routine vaccination campaigns are carried out in argentina twice a year, involving more than 100 million doses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine. although the challenge test in cattle has not been totally replaced for the assessment of fmd vaccine potency, argentine animal health authorities have used an indirect alternative method based on specific correlation studies of protection against podal generalization (ppg) tests performed in cattle with a validated liquid phase blocking elisa (l ...200818835312
specificity of non-structural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a target population in new determine the diagnostic specificities of two commercial screening elisa, the bommeli/idexx chekit fmd 3abc indirect elisa (elisa-1) and the ceditest fmdv ns blocking elisa (elisa-2), for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle, sheep and pigs in new zealand, and to compare them with other published studies. to consider the implications for fmd surveillance of using two elisa in series, a consideration arising from the absence of a gold standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) in new zealand.200818836503
immune evasion during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of swine.summary: the interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. in acute viral infections, this balance involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induction of clinical disease in cloven hoofed animals exposed to infection. viral shedding is extensive before the equally rapid resolution of acute disease. this positive strand rna viru ...200818837777
[preparation and characterization of the polyclonal antibody against pig integrin beta6 subunit lbd as fmdv receptor].to induce the expression of fmdv receptor integrin beta6 subunit ligand-binding domain in e.coli and prepare the rabbit polyclonal antibody against it.200818845083
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 1f10) shown to be pan-reactive to fmdv strains of each serotype by elisa. the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia (304 positive and 1003 negative samples) from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1965 and 2008 and negative samples collected from healt ...200918848845
deceptive imprinting and immune refocusing in vaccine design.a large number of the world's most widespread and problematic pathogens evade host immune responses by inducing strain-specific immunity to immunodominant epitopes with high mutation rates capable of altering antigenic profiles. the immune system appears to be decoyed into reacting to these immunodominant epitopes that offer little cross protection between serotypes or subtypes. for example, during hiv-1 infection, the immune system reacts strongly to the v1, v2, and/or v3 loops of the surface e ...200818852005
[not available]. 194818882494
strains of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease recovered from outbreaks in mexico. 194818889782
strains of virus of foot-and-mouth disease recovered from outbreaks in mexico; identification. 194818889783
strains of virus of foot-and-mouth disease recovered from outbreaks in mexico; pathogenicity and invasiveness. 194818889784
strains of virus of foot-and-mouth disease recovered from outbreaks in mexico; complement fixation tests. 194818889785
strains of virus of foot-and-mouth disease recovered from outbreaks in mexico; serum neutralization tests. 194818889786
foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows.transmission of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus by infected animals may already occur before clinical signs are evident. quantitative data for fmd transmission rates during this so-called high-risk period are currently lacking and would provide useful information to develop surveillance systems in which the number of new outbreaks is an outcome variable. in order to address this, we used experimental data to quantify transmission in cattle, swine and sheep during the non-clinical phase of the ...200918929417
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposure.the goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. a novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early replication sites. virus distribution after aerosol inoculation was compared at 24h post inoculation with simple nasal instillation. aerosol inoculation of fmdv consistently resulted in virus detection b ...201018930417
riboproteomic analysis of polypeptides interacting with the internal ribosome-entry site element of foot-and-mouth disease viral rna.initiation of translation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements depends upon the structural organization of this mrna region. besides translation initiation factors (eifs), auxiliary proteins can also affect ires activity. with the aim to identify proteins interacting with two unrelated iress present in the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and hepatitis c virus (hcv) we have used a proteomic approach. this procedure allowed the identification of 21 rna-binding prote ...200818937254
foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. these problems are the fmdv "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. here we show by laser capture microdis ...200818941503
the tale of a modern animal plague: tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus.despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. while the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutio ...200818945462
[establishment of bhk-21 cell lines stably expressing fmdv 3dpol gene by retroviral-mediated gene transfer technique].the aim of the study is to establish in vitro cell line with stable and effective 3dpol gene expression, so as to study the biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ) 3dpol and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) gene engineering vaccine.200818972644
ginseng stem-leaf saponins (gsls) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (gsls) as well as the synergistic effect between gsls and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. in experiment a, icr mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmdv antigen with or without gsls (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. highest fmdv-specific igg level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mi ...200918973783
evidence of recombination in a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vp1 revealed that a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 identified in mongolia in 2005 was related to chinese and russian strains isolated during the same year. in this study, these strains were defined as east asian strains having a common geographical origin, and the complete genomic sequence of the mongolian strain (as1/mog/05) was determined and compared to other strains of serotype asia 1. as1/mog/05 showed 1 ...200918977402
infectious bursal disease subviral particles displaying the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic antigen delivery system based on subviral particles formed by the self-assembly of the capsid protein of infectious bursal disease virus and carrying foreign peptides at the top of the projection domain was investigated. we report here the effective insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunodominant epitope in one of the four external loops of the subviral particles. out of the two loops tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 12 amino acids without disrupting the subviral ...200918983883
[analysis of the antigenicity of the expression product of fusion antigen epitope genes of fmdv].from the different recombinants of fmdv antigen epitope, the highest antigenicity one was selected, and that provided research foundation for making researches on fmd plant-based vaccines which could effectively induce cell immune response and be characterized by high eurytopicity.200818992188
shifts in the selection-drift balance drive the evolution and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting wild and domesticated animals. despite the economic burden of the disease and all efforts to eradicate it, fmd outbreaks continue to emerge unexpectedly in developed and developing countries. correlation of the mutational dynamics of the virus with its epidemiology remains unexplored. analysis of 103 complete genomes representing the seven serotypes shows the important role that selection plays in ...200919004952
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