TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
a bayesian evaluation of six diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease for vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.the sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) to discriminate between sero-converted (for non-structural fmd virus proteins) and non-sero-converted cattle were evaluated for vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. since none of the tests could be considered as a proper reference test and for about half of the tested sera the true status (sero-converted or not for non-structural proteins, i.e. presence of antibodies) of the animals was unknown, a bayesian analysi ...200818455817
the effects of il-6 and tnf-alpha as molecular adjuvants on immune responses to fmdv and maturation of dendritic cells by dna vaccination.various approaches have been developed to improve efficacy of dna vaccination, such as the use of plasmid expressing cytokine as a molecular adjuvant. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either il-6 or tnf-alpha as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation with either molecular adjuvant induced a higher ratio of igg2a/igg1, higher levels o ...200818462845
interleukin-15 enhance dna vaccine elicited mucosal and systemic immunity against foot and mouth disease virus.aerosol transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is believed to be an important route of infection. induction of mucosal response is thought to be effective way against such infection. various approaches have been developed including the use of molecules adjuvant and polymers delivery for the mucosal delivery of dna vaccine. in this study, using low molecular weight chitosan as a delivery vehicle, we investigated whether co-administration intranasally of the fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1 ...200818462848
[construction and eukaryotic expression of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of goat complement c3d and foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1].we constructed a recombinant plasmid encoding vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus fused to a molecular adjuvant, goat complement c3d gene. the goat c3d gene was cloned and three copies were tandem-linked with the linker (g4s)2 sequence. vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus was linked to three tandem repeats of c3d through the linker sequence and cloned into puc19 to obtain the recombinant plasmid puc19-vp1-c3d3. the vp1-c3d3 fusion gene was then subcloned into the eukaryot ...200818464602
[cloning and expression of 3c protease gene from foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cell].the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3cpro) is critical for viral pathogenesis, has vital roles in both processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication, and is a potential anti-viral drug target. in the study, 3c gene of fmdv from serotype asia i was obtained through polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and subcloned into baculovirus transfer vector pmelbac-b. the recombinant transfer plasmid and linearized baculovirus dna were co-transfected into sf9 insect cell, and ...200818479056
comparative study of experimental foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (bos indicus) and buffaloes (bubalis bubalus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. the present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fmd virus (fmdv) asia 1. a mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with fmdv. difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between ...200818491212
development and characterization of a bovine serum evaluation panel as a standard for immunoassays based on detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease viral non-capsid proteins.the widespread perception of the effectiveness of applying tests based on the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral non-capsid proteins (ncps) to assess virus circulation irrespective of vaccination triggered the demand for international standards to evaluate the comparative performance of the upcoming assays against the oie index test developed at the pan american foot-and-mouth disease center, paho/who. to this end, a panel was developed composed of 34 cattle sera ...200818499275
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle using homologous and heterologous challenge strains: precision of the "protection against podal generalisation" test.the level of protection conferred by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in primovaccinated animals primarily depends on the potency of the vaccine and the relatedness of the vaccine strain and circulating field isolate. the "gold standard" fmd vaccine potency test is the in vivo test performed in the target species. the objective of the study was to determine the precision of the in vivo "protection against podal generalisation" (ppg) fmd vaccine potency test in cattle using homologous (vacci ...200818499310
diagnostic specificity of a real-time rt-pcr in cattle for foot-and-mouth disease and swine for foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever based on non-invasive specimen collection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) are highly contagious and can cause great economic losses when introduced into disease-free regions. accurate estimates of diagnostic specificity (sp) are important when considering the implementation of surveillance for these agents. the purpose of this study was to estimate diagnostic sp of a real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr assay developed for detection of fmdv in cattle and domestic swine and csfv in domestic swine ...200818499360
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of fmd because of either incomplete inactivation of fmdv or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. thus, it is urgent to develop a novel fmdv vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.200818509464
immune responses of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine interferon alpha in mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, we constructed and characterized the immune responses and vaccine efficacy conferred by the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of fmdv and porcine interferon alpha as fusion protein (rad-pifnalpha-vp1). six groups of female balb/c mice each with 18 were inoculated subcutaneously twice 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses. the results show ...200818511133
comparative genomics of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from india sampled over the last two decades.this study deals with a comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of twenty-one serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) field viruses isolated over a period of two decades from india, two vaccine strains and seven exotic sequences. the indian viruses could be grouped in to three distinct lineages at the entire coding region, evolving independently probably under differential selection pressure as evident from the lineage-specific signatures identified. this comparison revealed 80% o ...200818511143
partial sequence analysis of vp1 of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.nucleotide sequence of 3' end of vp1 (1d region) was determined using rt-pcr amplified dna of 31 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 field isolates originating from 11 different geographically distinct states of india during the period 1987-2000. these field strains exhibited an average of 7.5% divergence among them and were found to be divergent from the indian vaccine strains asia-1 wbn 117/85, ind 8/79, and ind 63/72, by an average 5.9, 14.8, and 7.4% divergence, respectively. phy ...200818512139
emergency vaccination of sheep against foot-and-mouth disease: significance and detection of subsequent sub-clinical infection.this study has quantified the level of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication and shedding in vaccinated sheep and correlated this to the severity of clinical signs, the induction of antibodies against fmdv non-structural proteins (nsps) and the transmission of virus to in-contact vaccinated sentinel sheep. to mimic an emergency vaccination regime in the field, sheep were vaccinated with o(1) manisa vaccine and 4 or 10 days later were indirectly challenged with aerosols from o(1) ukg fm ...200818513836
production of monoclonal antibodies against whole virus particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o and a and their potential use in quantification of intact virus for vaccine manufacture.a double antibody sandwich elisa for quantification of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) whole virus particle was developed using two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and a. the antibody binding epitopes were characterized. the two mabs reacted with all of the tested fmdv strains. the use of these two mabs in the sandwich elisa will allow the quantification of fmd whole virus particles during vaccine manufacture.200818513841
enhanced immune response of dna vaccine (vp1-pcdna) adsorbed on cationic plg for foot and mouth disease in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major constraint to international trade in livestock and animal products. though conventional vaccine has shown to provide protection, it has several limitations, like short duration of immunity and poor cell mediated immune response compared to dna vaccines, which are known to induce both cell mediated as well as humoral responses. the present work envisages the production of dna vaccine construct with partial 1d gene (coding for vp1) of fmdv type 'a' and stu ...200818516668
passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. we aim to develop an immunotherapy that confers rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. for this purpose, we previously isolated llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) binding to fmdv or porcine immunoglobulin (pig). the pig binding vhhs can be genetically fused to other vhhs, resulting in so-called vhh2s. as compared to non-pig binding vhhs such v ...200818534789
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in infected pigs by rt-pcr four weeks after challenge. 200818540035
enhanced immunogenicity of multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with porcine interferon alpha in mice and protective efficacy in guinea pigs and swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 from vp1 protein of fmdv were selected as multiple-epitopes (vpe), and a recombinant adenovirus expressing the multiple-epitopes fused with porcine interferon alpha (rad-pifn alpha-vpe) was constructed. six groups of female balb/c mice (18 mice per group) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-we ...200818294705
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in fetal lambs: tissue tropism and cytokine response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. this study investigates the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ish) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. fmdv ribonucleic acid (rna) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally exp ...200818295784
residue l143 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase is a determinant of cleavage specificity.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader proteinase (l(pro)) self-processes inefficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site lysleulys*glyalagly (* indicates cleaved peptide bond) when the leucine at position p2 is replaced by phenylalanine. molecular modeling and energy minimization identified the l(pro) residue l143 as being responsible for this discrimination. the variant l(pro) l143a self-processed efficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site containing p2 phenylalanine, whereas the l143m ...200818305051
an mhc-restricted cd8+ t-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the cd8(+) t-cell immune response to fmdv remains unclear. this study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted cd8(+) t-cell responses to fmdv in vaccinated and in infected cattle. an in ...200818272757
genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from afghanistan in 2003-2005.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates collected from various geographic locations in afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete vp1 coding region. three serotypes of fmdv (types a, o, and asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in afghanistan during this period. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type a viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in iran ...200818278548
subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.the intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in ibrs-2 cells were analyzed. fluorescence to new svdv capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsrna. as in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of svdv capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2 ...200818279902
orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on t4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has not previously been reported. by using a t4 bacteriophage nanoparticle surface gene-protein display system (t4-s-gpds), we created a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entire capsid protein vaccine candidate. on the t4 phage surface soc site, a full length fmdv capsid precursor polyprotein (p1, 755 aa) and proteinase 3c (213 aa) derived from an infected pig of serotype o strain gd-10 (1999), were separately displayed on different t4 p ...200818289743
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against fmd virus type asia-1 and determination of antigenic variations in the field strains.twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against an indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 wbn 117/85. the mabs were tested for their ability to bind to whole virus particle, trypsin-treated 146s (tt-146s) virus particle, sub-viral (12s and disrupted virus) antigens by elisa and to neutralize virus infectivity in cell culture. extensive characterization of mabs revealed the existence of three different groups based on the binding of non-overlappi ...200818291535
foot and mouth disease in the borana pastoral system, southern ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.participatory epidemiology (pe) was used on the borana plateau of southern ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic fmd, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical fmd at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of fmd ...200818551776
identifying a few foot-and-mouth disease virus signature nucleotide strings for computational genotyping.serotypes of the foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) were generally determined by biological experiments. the computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success.200818554404
generation and characterization of an npro-disrupted marker bovine viral diarrhea virus derived from a bac vitro studies showed that n(pro) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) interferes with cellular antiviral defense. to understand the role of n(pro) protein in successful viral invasion of the host and establishment of the lifetime persistence, an infectious n(pro)-disrupted virus with a noncytopathic (ncp) background is desired. in this study, an n(pro)-disrupted cdna, pbsd1-n(pro)/egfp2a, was constructed based on an infectious full-length bac cdna clone of ncp bvdv strain sd1, pbsd1. ...200818555541
evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the sat serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in south africa. vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (as) adjuvanted vaccines containing the south african territories (sat) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlli ...200818575060
evaluation of fta cards as a laboratory and field sampling device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotyping by rt-pcr and real-time rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for serodiagnosis pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where there is maximum temperature fluctuation. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valuable epidemiological data. the present study evaluated ...200818584888
variation in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a associated with epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks in the 2001 epizootic in argentina.a mixed binomial bayesian regression model was used to quantify the relation between nucleotide differences in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreaks from which the viruses were obtained between january and december 2001 in argentina. an increase in the probability of different nucleotides between isolates was associated with a longer time between isolation dates, a greater distance between isolation locations, an increa ...200818599847
therapeutic application of rna interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. routine vaccination may not be effective for early protection in an outbreak situation. small interfering rna (sirna) can be used in a rapid and effective antiviral approach. however, sirna has limitations when used in disease prevention, such as a short duration of action. in this study, we have demonstrated that treatment with sirna after fmd virus (fmdv) infection has an antivira ...200818601955
heparan sulfate-binding foot-and-mouth disease virus enters cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. virus, which is virulent for susceptible animals, infects cells via four members of the alpha(v) subclass of cellular integrins. in contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some fmdv serotypes results in the loss of viral virulence in the animal, accompanied by the loss of virus' ability to use integrins as receptors. these avirulent viral variants acquire positively charge ...200818614639
minority report: hidden memory genomes in hiv-1 quasispecies and possible clinical implications.the rna viruses replicate as complex distributions of closely related genomes termed viral quasispecies. the behavior of the evolving quasispecies and its response to selective pressures such as antiviral treatment is influenced by the ensemble of mutants that compose the viral population. one such influence is the presence of minority subpopulations in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies. biologically relevant mutants have long been known to be present as minority components of replicating ...200818615120
inclusion bodies: specificity in their aggregation process and amyloid-like structure.the accumulation of aggregated protein in the cell is associated with the pathology of many diseases and constitutes a major concern in protein production. intracellular aggregates have been traditionally regarded as nonspecific associations of misfolded polypeptides. this view is challenged by studies demonstrating that, in vitro, aggregation often involves specific interactions. however, little is known about the specificity of in vivo protein deposition. here, we investigate the degree of in ...200818619498
experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease among indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and from buffalo to cattle.indian buffalo and cattle were infected experimentally with a serotype o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus of buffalo origin. whereas intradermolingual inoculation of buffalo produced largely sub-clinical infection, inoculation in the dental pad produced vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. a buffalo infected via the dental pad transmitted infection to cattle and buffalo by direct contact with them for 24h. the contact-exposed buffalo developed (1) delayed-onset clinical signs, and (2) sh ...200818619607
epithelial distribution and replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in infected pigs.although the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been extensively investigated, relatively few studies have addressed the localization of fmd virus (fmdv) and in particular its replication in relation to the typical in-vivo sites of fmd lesions. in the present study, pigs were infected experimentally with fmdv serotype o ukg 34/2001 and tissue samples were collected from 1 to 4 days post-infection. samples were stored at -70 degrees c and frozen sections were prepared for in-situ hy ...200818620703
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in south sudan: benefit-cost analysis and livelihoods impact.a benefit-cost analysis of vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was conducted in an area of south sudan, which due to chronic conflict, had been subject to large-scale humanitarian assistance for many years. the study used participatory epidemiology (pe) methods to estimate the prevalence and mortality of acute and chronic fmd in different age groups of cattle, and the reduction in milk off-take in cows affected by fmd. the benefit-cost of fmd vaccination was 11.5. losses due to the chro ...200818786073
dromedaries (camelus dromedarius) are of low susceptibility to inoculation with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the sheep developed typical fmd. the inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible signs of illness or vesicular lesions. however, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infect ...200818789453
serotype-specific differences in antigenic regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): a comprehensive statistical analysis.although vaccines are available for prophylaxis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), few cases of escape mutants have been reported. to develop serotype-specific fmdv vaccination strategies it is imperative to understand how host selection has influenced evolution of fmdv. this study identified several possible targets for serotype-specific fmdv vaccines using a novel statistical approach. pairs of closely related fmdv genomes identified in a phylogenetic analysis representing all seven serot ...200818790086
tolerance to mutations in the foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin-binding rgd region is different in cultured cells and in vivo and depends on the capsid sequence context.engineered rnas carrying substitutions in the integrin receptor-binding arg-gly-asp (rgd) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were constructed (aa 141-147 of vp1 capsid protein) and their infectivity was assayed in cultured cells and suckling mice. the effect of these changes was studied in the capsid proteins of two fmdvs, c-s8c1, which enters cells through integrins, and 213hs(-), a derivative highly adapted to cell culture whose ability to infect cells using the glycosaminoglycan he ...200818796722
susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3a or 3ab proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3a protein is involved in virulence and host range. a distinguishing feature of fmdv 3b among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral rna and required for optimal replication in cell culture. here, we have studied the involvement of the 3ab region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. bhk-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of fmdv 3a or 3a(b) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. ...200818694581
a novel bi-functional dna vaccine expressing vp1 protein and producing antisense rna targeted to 5'utr of foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce both rapid inhibitory effect and specific immune response in overcome the inability of a conventional vaccine against a virus to induce rapid protection against viral challenge, a novel strategy was performed to generate a novel bi-functional vector expressing antisense rna targeted to 5' untranslated regions (utr) and vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). fmdv 5'utr containing the viral rna replication start elements was inserted inversely into the pires vector to produce antisense rna, followed by insertion of fmdv vp1 gene to generate ...200818694793
hidden virulence determinants in a viral quasispecies in vivo.the characterization of virulence determinants of pathogenic agents is of utmost relevance for the design of disease control strategies. so far, two classes of virulence determinants have been characterized for viral populations: those imprinted in the nucleotide sequence of some specific genomic regions and those that depend on the complexity of the viral population as such. here we provide evidence of a virulence determinant that depends neither on a genomic sequence nor on detectable differen ...200818715925
the evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus: impacts of recombination and selection.foot-and-mouth disease virus is an economically important animal virus that exhibits extensive genetic and antigenic heterogeneity. to examine the evolutionary forces that have influenced the population dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus, individual genes and the coding genomes for the eurasian (asia1, a, c, and o) serotypes were examined for phylogenetic relationships, recombination, genetic diversity and selection. our analyses demonstrate that paraphyletic relationships among serotypes ...200818718559
estimating the risk of exposure of british livestock to foot-and-mouth disease associated with the importation of ship and aircraft waste.a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate the frequency with which meat waste from ships or aircraft might expose british livestock to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and investigate the factors that might contribute to the risk. in the model, the total weight of waste introduced that was contaminated with fmd was estimated to be 26 kg per year, with 90 per cent certainty that it would be between 10 and 53 kg. as a result, it was estimated that there would be a ...200818723864
[purification and reactivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a, 3b and 2c expressed in e. coli].to purify and to detect reactivity of non-structural proteins 3a, 3b and 2c expressed in the escherichia coli.200818724495
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (mdbk) cells].in this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain oa/58 rnas were used as templates for rt-pcr. by the molecular cloning, the lab gene encoding leader protease called lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pbpstr1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pbpstr1-lab. at different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (mdbk) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 m ...200818724691
[cloning of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor beta1 subunit and antibody production to its ligand-binding domain].we produced beta1 gene which is about 2400 bp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) from bovine trachea, reclaimed and purified, then cloned the amplified fragment to pgem-t easy vector, confirmed by sequencing. the immune-dominant epitope of beta1 gene was chosen by computer analysis and then syncretized ligand-binding domain from 346 bp to 843 bp of ecytoplasm with six histidine, expressed lbd protein massly in e. coli bl21 (de3), and identified by sds-page. the fusion pr ...200818724711
foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3cpro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a member of the picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. we show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of fmdv-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate ...200818753210
probable route of infection for the second uk 2007 foot-and-mouth disease cluster. 200818757904
delivery of a foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid subunit antigen with nonstructural protein 2b improves protection of develop a more efficacious human adenovirus (ad5)-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subunit vaccine (ad5-a24) we have included coding regions for fmdv nonstructural proteins 2b and 2c. these proteins are involved in membrane re-arrangements resulting in the proliferation of cytoplasmic vesicles which serve as the sites of virus replication. cells infected with a vector containing full-length 2b (ad5-ci-a24-2b) had a significant increase in the number of cytoplasmic vesicles as comp ...200818762225
uv inactivation and model of uv inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals (e.g., cattle and swine) and causes severe economic loss for many countries. the resistance to uv irradiation of fmdv strains isolated from outbreaks in thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline at 25 degrees c. since the regression coefficients of linear regression were large and root mean square errors were small, uv inactivation could be appropriately summarized and fitt ...200818625534
herd reproduction ratio and time-space analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in peru in 2004.the herd reproductive ratio (rh) and spatio-temporal clustering were estimated in the 2004 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in peru. the epidemic lasted 39 days and involved 26 herds. movement of cattle was restricted, all susceptible species within a 25-km buffer zone were revaccinated, and infected animals with clinical signs of fmd were killed or destroyed to control and eradicate the disease. the rh declined from 5.3 on the second day of the epidemic to 1.31 on the 25th day. spatio-temp ...200818631231
the crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 rna-dependent rna polymerase in complex with its protein primer vpg confirms the existence of a second vpg binding site on picornaviridae polymerases.the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is a central piece in the replication machinery of rna viruses. in picornaviruses this essential rdrp activity also uridylates the vpg peptide, which then serves as a primer for rna synthesis. previous genetic, binding, and biochemical data have identified a vpg binding site on poliovirus rdrp and have shown that is was implicated in vpg uridylation. more recent structural studies have identified a topologically distinct site on the closely related foot-an ...200818632861
crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 3dpol highlights the functional importance of residue 5 in picornavirus polymerases.the crystal structure of the coxsackievirus b3 polymerase has been solved at 2.25-a resolution and is shown to be highly homologous to polymerases from poliovirus, rhinovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses. together, these structures highlight several conserved structural elements in picornaviral polymerases, including a proteolytic activation-dependent n-terminal structure that is essential for full activity. interestingly, a comparison of all of the picornaviral polymerase structures show ...200818632862
specific n-terminal protein labelling: use of fmdv 3c pro protease and native chemical ligation.we report an effective strategy for generating n-terminal cysteinyl proteins by proteolytic cleavage using the enzyme 3c pro, suitable for a wide range of applications via native chemical ligation.200818633492
multiplexed molecular assay for rapid exclusion of foot-and-mouth disease.a nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from fmdv infection in cattle, sheep and swine. the fmdv "look-alike" diagnostic assay panel contains 5 pcr and 12 reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) signatures for a total of 17 simultaneous pcr amplifications for 7 diseases plus ...200818634827
topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection.the molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and partition analysis of quasispecies (paq) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues.200818637173
induction of a protective antibody response to fmdv in mice following oral immunization with transgenic stylosanthes spp. as a feedstuff additive.the expression of antigens in transgenic plants has increasingly been used as an alternative to the classical methodologies for the development of experimental vaccines, and it remains one of the real challenges in this field to use transgenic plant-based vaccines effectively as feedstuff additives. we report herein the development of a new oral immunization system for foot and mouth disease with the structural protein vp1 of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) produced in transgenic stylosa ...200818651235
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vitro and in vivo by small interfering using bioinformatics computer programs, all foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences in public-domain databases were analyzed. based on the results of homology analysis, 2 specific small interfering rna (sirna) targeting homogenous 3d and 2b1 regions of 7 serotypes of fmdv were prepared and 2 sirna-expression vectors, psi-fmd2 and psi-fmd3, were constructed. the sirna-expressing vectors were used to test the ability of sirnas to inhibit virus replication in baby hamster kidney (bh ...200818652701
enhanced mucosal immune response in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mucosal immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was examined in experimentally infected cattle by assaying antibodies by the virus-neutralizing test (vnt) and iga elisa in two secretory fluids, oesophageal pharyngeal fluid (opf) and oro-nasal fluid (onf). out of 17 animals infected by the intradermo-lingual route, 12 became persistently infected (carriers), as defined by positive antigen capture rt-pcr reactions for fmdv rna in opf samples collected at 28 days or l ...200818656268
engineering a single-chain fv antibody to alpha v beta 6 integrin using the specificity-determining loop of a foot-and-mouth disease virus.the alpha v beta 6 integrin is a promising target for cancer therapy. its expression is up-regulated de novo on many types of carcinoma where it may activate transforming growth factor-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta 3, interact with the specific extracellular matrix proteins and promote migration and invasion of tumor cells. the viral protein 1 (vp1) coat protein of the o(1) british field strain serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus is a high-affinity ligand for alpha v beta 6, and ...200818656482
molecular characterization of a dual inhibitory and mutagenic activity of 5-fluorouridine triphosphate on viral rna synthesis. implications for lethal mutagenesis.the basis for a dual inhibitory and mutagenic activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna replication has been investigated with purified viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (3d) in vitro. 5-fluorouridine triphosphate acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of vpg uridylylation, the initial step of viral replication. peptide analysis by mass spectrometry has identified a vpg fragment containing 5-fluorouridine monophosphate (fump) covalently attached to tyr3, the ...200818662697
techniques developed in china for foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis.over the past several decades, a series of new methods have been developed in china for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). these methods are theoretically consistent with office international des epizooties standards for fmd diagnosis and include: antigen-capture elisa and colloid-gold test strip for viral antigen typing, liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) for detection of antibodies against o and asia 1 fmdv, and an indirect elisa for detection of antibodies against the non-structur ...200818666962
internal translation initiation on the foot-and-mouth disease virus ires is affected by ribosomal stalk conformation.a human cell line, in which expression of the ribosomal stalk proteins p1 and p2 has been suppressed by rnai technology, has been used to test how the loss of these proteins affects ires-dependent translation. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires-dependent translation from a bicistronic construct is about three fold higher in the p1/p2-depleted cells than in control cells in the presence of lb protease. by contrast, no effect on hepatitis c virus (hcv) ires translation was observed. these re ...200818675807
clinical and laboratory investigations of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in southern england in 2007.a case of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) on a cattle farm in normandy, surrey, was confirmed on friday august 3, 2007, the first case in the uk since 2001. the infection was detected nearby on a second farm on august 6. on september 12, fmd was confirmed on a farm approximately 20 km from normandy in egham, and this was followed by cases on five more farms in that area in the next three weeks. the majority of the infected farms consisted of multiple beef cattle holdings in semi-urban areas. in tot ...200818676997
comparison of the characters of the plaque-purified viruses from foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/ least two biotypes were observed at the 2nd passage stage after the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain. these 2 types of viruses differed from their plaque phenotypes and were distinguishable by using a monoclonal antibody (mab) 64g8 that was made for the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain. one of these 2 biotypes formed small plaque (sp) and with immuno staining showed a positive reaction to mab 64g8, while the other formed clear large plaque (lp) and did not react with m ...200818685235
persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture revisited: implications for contingency in evolution.if we could rewind the tape of evolution and play it again, would it turn out to be similar to or different from what we know? obviously, this key question can only be addressed by fragmentary experimental approaches. twenty-two years ago, we described the establishment of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a system that displayed as its major biological feature a coevolution of the cells and the resident virus in the course of persistence. now we report ...200818089747
foot-and-mouth disease virus forms a highly stable, edta-resistant complex with its principal receptor, integrin alphavbeta6: implications for infectiousness.the initial stage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is virus binding to cell surface integrins via the rgd motif in the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein. as for all ligand/integrin interactions, the initial contact between fmdv and its integrin receptors is cation dependent and hence inhibited by edta. we have investigated this binding process with rgd-containing peptides derived from the vp1 capsid protein of fmdv and discovered that, upon binding, some of these peptides form hi ...200818045932
potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling rna viral infections of livestock.with intensification of trade, livestock are increasingly exposed to severe animal diseases caused by a range of rna viruses. recent prime examples include outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever and bluetongue. to minimise their impact, controlling the spread of virus is of utmost importance. good quality, reliable vaccines exist for some, although not all, of these diseases, but suffer from a set of drawbacks, not the least of which being the ti ...200818035428
cedivac-fmd can be used according to a marker vaccine this study, we investigated whether cedivac-fmd, an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), is suitable for use conjointly with a screening program intended to confirm freedom from disease in vaccinated herds based on evidence of virus replication in vaccinates. different sets of sera were tested using the ceditest fmdv-ns elisa for the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus. during a vaccine safety study, serum samples were collected from ...200818035508
foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease virus elicit a protective response in guinea pigs.the expression of recombinant antigens in transgenic plants is increasingly used as an alternative method of producing experimental immunogens. in this report, we describe the production of transgenic tomato plants that express the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv). p1-2a3c was inserted into the plant binary vector, pbin438, and transformed into tomato plants using agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, gv3101. the presence of p1-2a3c was confirmed by ...200818006078
porcine interferon-gamma protects swine from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) fused with glutathione s-transferase (gst) was expressed in escherichia coli bl(21). twenty 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to four groups. pigs in groups 1-3 were pretreated with 30 mg, 20 mg, and 10 mg recombinant poifn-gamma (rpoifn-gamma), respectively. pigs in group 4 (control) were pretreated with gst expressed by the empty plasmid. at 48h postinoculation (hpi), all swine were challenged with fmdv (serotype o). pigs pretreated with 30 mg rpo ...200817996949
a highly sensitive and specific multiplex rt-pcr to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue and food samples.three sets of primers to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) using multiplex rt-pcr were designed based on several reference nucleotide sequences, and their reaction conditions were determined. by testing ten-fold serial dilutions of fmdv, the sensitivity of multiplex rt-pcr is 100 times higher than conventional rt-pcr. meanwhile, its specificity was confirmed compared with other related vesicular disease viruses. furthermore, 30 field samples from different animals were tested, and the r ...200817987350
[the effectiveness of vaccination to prevent foot and mouth disease in several species]. 200818260556
integrating genetic and epidemiological data to determine transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus.estimating detailed transmission trees that reflect the relationships between infected individuals or populations during a disease outbreak often provides valuable insights into both the nature of disease transmission and the overall dynamics of the underlying epidemiological process. these trees may be based on epidemiological data that relate to the timing of infection and infectiousness, or genetic data that show the genetic relatedness of pathogens isolated from infected individuals. genetic ...200818230598
construction and immune response characterization of a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid precursor protein (p1) and a multiepitope peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most contagious and devastating disease of livestock. our previous studies demonstrated that tk(-)/gg(-)/p1(+), a recombinant expressing the fmdv capsid precursor protein (p1) based on attenuated pseudorabies virus (prv) tk(-)/gg(-), could be used as a recombinant vaccine to protect pigs against both pseudorabies and fmd. however, because the p1 expression cassette is inserted into the gg locus of the genome of prv tk(-)/gg(-), this bivalent vaccine cannot be ...200818246420
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1, responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china.this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strain asia-1 china/2005, which is responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china. the result showed that this strain is not host restricted, and could not only cause fmd in cattle and sheep but also in pigs by either inoculation or direct contact.200818155114
repeated bottleneck transfers can lead to non-cytocidal forms of a cytopathic virus: implications for viral extinction.several biological subclones of a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been subjected to many plaque-to-plaque (serial bottleneck) transfers in cell culture. at transfer 190 to 409, clones underwent a transition towards a non-cytolytic (nc) phenotype in which the virus was unable to produce plaques, representing at least a 140-fold reduction in specific infectivity relative to the parental biological clone. nc clones, however, were competent in rna replication and establi ...200818158159
optimization strategy for plasmid dnas containing multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by cis-expression with optimize previous candidate dna vaccine, a cis-expression plasmid dna encoding two genes, human il-2 and multiple-epitopes genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed with internal ribosome entry site (ires) from encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and intramuscularly inoculated into mice at 1-week interval. specific antibodies in serum and cytokines (il-2, il-4 and ifn-gamma) from splenocytes were detected by indirect elisa. splenocytes proliferation rate was determined by a s ...200818191307
expression of heterologous genes in oncolytic adenoviruses using picornaviral 2a sequences that trigger ribosome skipping.insertion of picornaviral 2a sequences into mrnas causes ribosomes to skip formation of a peptide bond at the junction of the 2a and downstream sequences, leading to the production of two proteins from a single open reading frame. adenoviral protein ix is a minor capsid protein that has been used to display foreign peptides on the surface of the capsid. we have used 2a sequences from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1) to express protein ix (pix) and green f ...200818198369
dynamics of picornavirus rna replication within infected cells.replication of many picornaviruses is inhibited by low concentrations of guanidine. guanidine-resistant mutants are readily isolated and the mutations map to the coding region for the 2c protein. using in vitro replication assays it has been determined previously that guanidine blocks the initiation of negative-strand synthesis. we have now examined the dynamics of rna replication, measured by quantitative rt-pcr, within cells infected with either swine vesicular disease virus (an enterovirus) o ...200818198379
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinovirus 2 (brv2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family picornaviridae. a nearly full-length cdna of the brv2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. brv2 possesses a putative leader proteinase, a small 2a protein and a poly(c) tract, which are characteristic of aphthoviruses. alignment of brv-2 and fmdv polyproteins showed that 41% of amino acids were identical within the p1 region. furthermo ...200818201745
functional analysis of picornavirus 2b proteins: effects on calcium homeostasis and intracellular protein trafficking.the family picornaviridae consists of a large group of plus-strand rna viruses that share a similar genome organization. the nomenclature of the picornavirus proteins is based on their position in the viral rna genome but does not necessarily imply a conserved function of proteins of different genera. the enterovirus 2b protein is a small hydrophobic protein that, upon individual expression, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and the golgi complex, reduces er and golgi complex ca(2+) ...200818216106
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
high potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease a series of three homologous and eight heterologous challenge experiments, it was shown that high potency vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a can induce protection even against heterologous challenge infection with viruses that give low r-values with the vaccine strains. the challenge virus specific neutralizing antibody response on the day of challenge (21 days post vaccination) generally correlated with protection.200818313814
dramatic improvement in fmd dna vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein overcome the low and slow development of humoral antibody often observed with dna vaccines we applied a prime-boost strategy. when fmd dna vaccine p1-2a3c3d and pgm-csf primed pigs were boosted with inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen and recombinant 3d (without adjuvant) an average 36-fold increase in the fmdv antibody response was observed compared to conventional vaccination, that included a log(10) virus neutralising titre increase. most remarkably, a significant level ...200818321615
prospects for rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in the field using reverse transcriptase-pcr. 200818326844
modelling foot-and-mouth disease: a comparison between the uk and denmark.whilst the uk 2001 fmd (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the uk can be translated to other scenarios. here we consider how the model framework used to capture the uk epidemic can be applied to a hypothetical fmd outbreak in denmark. whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the uk epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the danish livestock lands ...200818328581
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. if proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. here, we determine if g-h loop chimera fmdv vaccines can: (i) protect c ...200818342409
sequence analysis of the protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/hk/2001.the nucleotide sequence of the protein-coding region of foot-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) strain o/hk/2001 was determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs that were registered in genbank. the protein-coding region was 6966 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 2322 amino acid residues. comparison of the nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other isolates indicated that o/hk/2001 belonged to the cathay topotype. a genomic coding region nucleot ...200818343054
in situ protein folding and activation in bacterial inclusion bodies.recent observations indicate that bacterial inclusion bodies formed in absence of the main chaperone dnak result largely enriched in functional, properly folded recombinant proteins. unfortunately, the molecular basis of this intriguing fact, with obvious biotechnological interest, remains unsolved. we have explored here two non-excluding physiological mechanisms that could account for this observation, namely selective removal of inactive polypeptides from inclusion bodies or in situ functional ...200818351678
interferon-alpha production by swine dendritic cells is inhibited during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (ifns). we have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (dcs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong type i ifn (ifn-alpha and ifn-beta) response, indicating that dcs may play a critical role in the innate response to the virus. in vivo, fmdv induces lymphopenia and reduced t-cell proliferative responses to mitogen, v ...200818355124
accuracy of models for the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic.since 2001 models of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease, supported by the data from the uk epidemic, have been expounded as some of the best examples of problem-driven epidemic models. these claims are generally based on a comparison between model results and epidemic data at fairly coarse spatio-temporal resolution. here, we focus on a comparison between model and data at the individual farm level, assessing the potential of the model to predict the infectious status of farms in both the shor ...200818364313
pathogenic characteristics of the korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pigs and cattle.experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the o/skr/as/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain o/skr/as/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. in addition, fmdv was isolated from, and fmdv genomic rna was detected in, blood, serum, nasa ...200818384806
serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for this study we estimate the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in wildlife from eastern and central africa. sera were sourced from between 1994 and 2002 from a rinderpest surveillance program. our study compared a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cedi test) with a virus neutralization test. the study shows that there is only a low seroprevalence of fmdv in sampled nonbuffalo species. the seroprevalence in the cape buffalo was high for sat2, lower for ...200818385460
chemical and biomimetic total syntheses of natural and engineered mcoti cyclotides.the naturally-occurring cyclic cystine-knot microprotein trypsin inhibitors mcoti-i and mcoti-ii have been synthesised using both thia-zip native chemical ligation and a biomimetic strategy featuring chemoenzymatic cyclisation by an immobilised protease. engineered analogues have been produced containing a range of substitutions at the p1 position that redirect specificity towards alternative protease targets whilst retaining excellent to moderate affinity. furthermore, we report an mcoti analog ...200818385853
[gene cloning of ligand binding domain of porcine beta3 as fmdv receptor and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].to clone and express the ligand binding domain (lbd) cdna of porcine integrin beta3 as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) receptor and prepare its polyclonal antibody.200818394343
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