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esterase d enhances type i interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the enzymatic activities of esterase d (esd) are involved in many human diseases. however, no antiviral property of esd has been described to date. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. in this study, we showed that fmdv infection triggered esd expression. overexpression of esd significantly suppressed fmdv replication and knockdown of esd expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of esd. furthermore, we found tha ...201627267271
effect of the nucleotides surrounding the start codon on the translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.as for the alternative augs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), nucleotide bias of the context flanking the aug(2nd) could be used as a strong signal to initiate translation. to determine the role of the specific nucleotide context, dicistronic reporter constructs were engineered to contain different versions of nucleotide context linking between internal ribosome entry site (ires) and downstream gene. the results indicate that under fmdv ires-dependent mechanism, the nucleotide contexts fla ...201627265464
retraction notice to “sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o of ethiopian isolates” [res. vet. sci. volume 96, issue 3, june 2014, pages 558–566]. 201627263135
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201627260141
aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus asia-1 under experimental conditions.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. transmission of fmdv by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. understanding the potential for aerosol s ...201627259825
the critical role of vp1 in forming the necessary cavities for receptor-mediated entry of fmdv to the host cell.the antigenic inconsistency of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very broad, such that a vaccine made from one isolate will not offer protection against infection with other isolates from the same serotype. viral particles (vps) or surface exposed capsid proteins, vp1-vp3, of fmdv determine both the antigenicity of the virus and its receptor-mediated entry into the host cell. therefore, modifications of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. here we show putati ...201627249937
the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs.the greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. however, accumulated evidence from fmd outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of fmd pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vacc ...201627243028
construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/jpn/2010 isolated in japan in 2010.a full-length infectious cdna clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan was constructed and designated psvl-f02. transfection of cos-7 or ibrs-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. the recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. pigs were experimentally infected with ...201627234555
partial deletion of stem-loop 2 in the 3' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus identifies a region that is dispensable for virus replication.the 3' untranslated region (3' utr) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome plays an essential role in virus replication, but the properties of the 3' utr are not completely defined. in order to determine the role of different regions of the 3' utr in fmdv replication, we conducted site-directed mutagenesis of the 3' utr of fmdv serotype o ind r2/1975 using a cdna clone. through independent serial deletions in various regions of the 3' utr, we demonstrated that deletion of nucleotides ...201627233801
serological and molecular detection of senecavirus a associated with an outbreak of swine idiopathic vesicular disease and neonatal mortality.we performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (vd) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. initially, a usda foreign animal disease (fad) investigation confirmed the presence of senecavirus a (sva) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) ...201627225408
genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which fmdv can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. as sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribut ...201627217177
neonatal mortality, vesicular lesions and lameness associated with senecavirus a in a u.s. sow farm.a 300-sow farrow-to-finish swine operation in the united states experienced a sudden and severe increase in mortality in neonatal piglets with high morbidity followed by vesicular lesions on the snout and feet of adult females and males. affected live piglets were submitted for diagnostic investigation. samples tested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine delta coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, porcine rotavirus types a, b and c, transmis ...201627213868
novel 6xhis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity.here, we engineered two fmd viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the fmdv capsid. both 6xhis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. the 6xhis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by co(2+) affinity columns. electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xhis fmdvs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with ni(2+)-chelated nanolipo ...201627209448
both cis and trans activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3d polymerase are essential for viral rna replication.the picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense rna viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-rna interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral rna replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate ...201627194768
erratum to: the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines. 201627038829
ires-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cultured cells derived from fmdv-susceptible and -insusceptible animals.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) possess a positive sense, single stranded rna genome. internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element exists within its 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of the viral rna. translation of the viral rna is initiated by internal entry of the 40s ribosome within the ires element. this process is facilitated by cellular factors known as ires trans-acting factors (itafs). foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and ...201627036295
low-dose oral interferon modulates expression of inflammatory and autoimmune genes in cattle.while the safety and efficacy profiles of orally administered bovine interferon (ifn) alpha have been documented, the mechanism(s) that result in clinical benefits remain elusive. one approach to delineating the molecular pathways of ifn efficacy is through the use of gene expression profiling technologies. in this proof-of-concept study, different (0, 50, 200 and 800 units) oral doses of natural bovine ifn (type i) were tested in cattle to determine if oral ifn altered the expression of genes t ...201627032505
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a capsid coding (p1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (p1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a isolated in india was analysed. the exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the vp3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. the rate of evolution of the indian isolates at the capsid ...201627020544
comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against fmdv in pk15 cells pretreated with ifn-γ.interferon gamma (ifn-γ) can induce a host antiviral response to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vivo and in vitro. to elucidate the mechanism of ifn-γ anti fmdv infection in host cells, high-throughput rna sequencing was analyzed for systemic changes in gene expression profiles in pk15 cells infected by fmdv with or without ifn-γ pretreatment. more than 25 million reads, covering 1.2-1.5 gb, were analyzed from each experiment panel. fmdv challenge altered the transcription of genes invol ...201627018244
emergence of antigenic variants within serotype a fmdv in the middle east with antigenically critical amino acid substitutions.a new immunologically distinct strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a emerged in the middle east in 2003 that replaced the previously circulating strains (a-iran-96 and a-iran-99) in the region. this resulted in introduction of a new vaccine of this strain (a/tur/2006) in 2006. though this vaccine strain has been predominantly used to control fmd in the region, recent viruses isolated in 2012 and 2013 have shown antigenic drift and a poor match with it. in this study, we r ...201627016651
inability of fmdv replication in equine kidney epithelial cells is independent of integrin αvβ3 and αvβ6.integrins can function as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in epithelium. horses are believed to be insusceptible to this disease, but the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. to detect whether fmdv can use integrin to attach to equine epithelial, we compared the utilities of αvβ3 and αvβ6 between bovine and equine kidney epithelial cells (kecs). equine kecs showed almost equal efficiency to those of bovine. further, the integrin αv, β3, and β6 subunits from bovine and equin ...201627011223
application of the thermofluor pastry technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. current fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. fmdv exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. a lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control fmd ...201627002540
development of an isothermoal amplification-based assay for rapid visual detection of an orf virus.orf virus (orfv) is the causative agent of a severe infectious skin disease (also known as contagious ecthyma) in goats, sheep and other small ruminants. importantly, orfv also infect humans which causes a public health concern in the context of changing environment and increase in human populations. the rapid detection is critical in effective control of the disease and urgently needed.201626993468
bovine mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral rna.innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. myxovirus-resistant (mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line bpte-simx1, in which bovine mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with ifn alpha for 6 hr before fmdv infection. the copy numbers of the negative and ...201626982472
differential persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in african buffalo is related to virus virulence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. in particular, the three southern african territories (sat) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the african buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple sat serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. however, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. fmd in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study fmdv persisten ...201626962214
full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent b-cell epitope dendrimer peptide.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. we have reported (cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a b-cell epitope [vp1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a t-cell epitope [3a(21-35)] of fmdv [b4t(thi)] elicits potent b- and t-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type c fmdv challenge. herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copi ...201626956030
development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.we report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (trsv)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was inserted between the trsv movement protein (mp) and coat protein (cp) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the rna2-encoded viral polyprotein. gfp was released from the polyprotein via an n-terminal homologous mp- ...201626950504
the carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3a is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines.in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-endemic parts of the globe, control is mainly implemented by preventive vaccination with an inactivated purified vaccine. elisas detecting antibodies to the viral nonstructural proteins (nsp) distinguish fmd virus (fmdv)-infected animals in the vaccinated population (diva). however, residual nsps present in the vaccines are suspected to be a cause of occasional false positive results, and therefore, an epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy is considered ...201626935917
quantitative detection of the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o 146s antigen for vaccine production using a double-antibody sandwich elisa and nonlinear standard curves.the efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. at present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146s antigen, of fmd vaccines is sucrose density gradient (sdg) analysis. however, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. in contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity a ...201626930597
expression and purification of virus like particles (vlps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease, which causes severe economic loss to livestock. virus like particles (vlps) produced by recombinant dna technology are gaining importance because of their immunogenic properties and safety in developing a new vaccine for fmd. in the present study, a practical and economically feasible approach of expression, purification and characterization of vlps of fmdv in eri silkworm (samia cynthia ricini) larvae was described. although thr ...201626925448
pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: impact of the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) and route of inoculation.a companion study reported jumonji-c domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is involved in an integrin- and hs-independent pathway of fmdv infection in cho cells. jmjd6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type a24-fmdv (a24-wt) or mutant fmdv (jmjd6-fmdv) carrying e95k/s96l and rgd to kge mutations in vp1. additionally, pathogenesis of mutant jmjd6-fmdv was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (iel) inoculation. interes ...201626914509
foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp3 degrades janus kinase 1 to inhibit ifn-γ signal transduction pathways.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to replicate efficiently in vivo, fmdv has evolved methods to circumvent host antiviral defense mechanisms, including those induced by interferons (ifns). previous research has focused on the effect of fmdv l(pro) and 3c(pro) on type i ifns. in this study, fmdv vp3 was found to inhibit type ii ifn signaling pathways. the overexpression of fmdv vp3 inhibited ...201626901336
role of jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes four integrins (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8) as its primary cell receptor. during cell culture propagation, fmdv frequently adapts to use heparan sulfate (hs), and rarely utilizes an unidentified third receptor. capsid mutations acquired by a soluble integrin resistant fmdv cause (i) adaptation to cho-677 cells (ii) increased affinity to membrane-bound jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) (iii) induced jmjd6 re-localization from the cell surfa ...201626896934
role of a single amino acid substitution of vp3 h142d for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at ph value below 6.5. after the uptake of fmdv by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of fmdv genome inside endosomes. nevertheless, dissociation of fmdv particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated fmd vaccine less effective. to improve the acid stability of inactivated fmd vaccine during the manufacturing proces ...201626873406
novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea, july-august 2014.despite nation-wide immunization with o, a, and asia 1 type vaccines in republic of korea, foot-and-mouth disease type o occurred again in july 2014 after three years and three months. this virus was a mya-98 strain of the southeast asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in east asia in 2014. this was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3a/3b1 region and low pathogenic property.201626866028
immunogenicity of a recombinant sendai virus expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, sev was used as a vector to express capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using reverse genetics. the rescue recombinant sev (rsev-p1) can efficiently propagate and express p1 protein by western blot and ifa analysis. to evaluate the immunogenicity of rsev-p1, balb/c mice were divided into several groups and immunized intramuscularly with various doses of rsev-p1, rsev-egfp, pbs and commercial fmd vaccine, respectively, and then challenged wit ...201626850558
transmission of foot and mouth disease at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park, south africa: can the risk be mitigated?in southern africa, the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is the natural reservoir of foot and mouth disease (fmd). contacts between this species and cattle are responsible for most of the fmd outbreaks in cattle at the edge of protected areas, which generate huge economic losses. during the late 1980's and 90's, the erection of veterinary cordon fences and the regular vaccination of cattle exposed to buffalo contact at the interface of the kruger national park (knp), proved to be efficient to c ...201626848115
correction: transgenic shrna pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection. 201626840180
the vp3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the ifn-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease is a frequently occurring disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by infection with the foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv). fmdv circumvents the type-i ifn response by expressing proteins that antagonize cellular innate immunity, such as leader protease and 3c protease. we identified the fmdv structural protein vp3 as a negative regulator of the virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. expression of fmdv vp3 inhibited the sendai virus-triggered activation of ifn regulator ...201626813975
effects of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus on reproductive performance of beef cows.this study compared reproductive performance of cows vaccinated against the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus before timed ai or during early pregnancy (exp. 1), as well as rectal temperature (rt) and plasma concentrations of the acute-phase protein haptoglobin in cattle vaccinated or not against the fmd virus (exp. 2). cattle utilized in exp. 1 and 2 originated from herds with no historical occurrences of fmd and that received vaccination against the fmd virus biannually. in exp. 1, 604 lactat ...201626812345
effect of storage conditions on subpopulations of peripheral blood t lymphocytes isolated from naïve cattle and cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry is important in infectious disease research. in animal experiments and other longitudinal studies, the processing, prompt staining, and analysis of fresh samples is a logistical challenge and daily assay variation can confound data interpretation.201626802284
complete genome sequence of a serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus from an outbreak in saudi arabia during 2015.the complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) type a virus isolated from cattle in saudi arabia in 2015 is described here. this virus belongs to an fmd virus lineage named genotype vii, which is normally endemic on the indian subcontinent.201626798100
the vp1 s154d mutation of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances viral replication and pathogenicity.one of the proteins encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the vp1 protein, a capsid protein, plays an important role in integrin receptor attachment and humoral immunity-mediated host responses. the integrin receptor recognition motif and an important antigenic epitope exist within the g-h loop, which is comprised of amino acids 134-160 of the vp1 protein. fmdv strain, asia1/hn/cha/06, isolated from a pig, was passaged four times in suckling mice and sequenced. sequencing analyses ...201626792712
novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype o vp1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype o is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype o vlps in the low ph insect hemolymph. therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (vlp)-based candidate vaccine for serotype o fmdv was develope ...201626790940
swine trim21 restricts fmdv infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.the tripartite motif protein 21 (trim21) is a ubiquitously expressed e3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. trim21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (adin) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. in this study, swine trim21 (strim21) was cloned and its role in adin was investigated. the expression of strim21 is induced by type i interferon in pk-15 cells. strim21 restricts fmdv infect ...201626777733
ires mediated expression of viral 3c protease for enhancing the yield of fmdv empty capsids using baculovirus system.for expression of fmdv empty capsids, high protease activity associated with 3c co-expressed with p1 polyprotein has been reported to adversely affect the yields of capsids. limiting the levels of 3cpro relative to p1-2a polypeptide is thus critical to enhance the yields. in this study, fmdv internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequence which serves as an alternative to the cap-dependent translation initiation mechanism, was used for controlled translation of 3c protease. baculovirus expressing b ...201626775685
foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. the predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. however, there are many limitations. for instance, cultivation of virulent fmd virus (fmdv) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. vaccines may sometimes contain traces of fmd viral non-structural proteins (nsps), therefore, interfering with the nsp-based ...201626760264
productive entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus via macropinocytosis independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, sirna interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. we also found that the internalization of fmdv induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinoso ...201626757826
unrecognized circulation of sat 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around queen elizabeth national park in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda in spite of the control measures used. various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of fmd viruses (fmdv) in uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for fmdv. to better understand the epidemiology of fmd at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around queen eliza ...201626739166
evaluation of infectivity, virulence and transmission of fdmv field strains of serotypes o and a isolated in 2010 from outbreaks in the republic of korea.since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have been described in several previously fmd-free asian nations, including the republic of korea (south korea). one outbreak with fmd virus (fdmv) serotype a and two with serotype o occurred in south korea in 2010/2011. the causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in south east asia, far east and east asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. most fmdv strains infect ruminan ...201626735130
pharmacological characterization of the αvβ6 integrin binding and internalization kinetics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus derived peptide a20fmdv2.a20fmdv2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (rgd)-binding integrin. it has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. in a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3h]a20fmdv2), its high affinity (k(d): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at leas ...201626734728
the rescue and evaluation of flag and his epitope-tagged asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the vp1 g-h loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains the primary antigenic site, as well as an arg-gly-asp (rgd) binding motif for the αv-integrin family of cell surface receptors. we anticipated that introducing a foreign epitope tag sequence downstream of the rgd motif would be tolerated by the viral capsid and would not destroy the antigenic site of fmdv. in this study, we have designed, generated, and characterized two recombinant fmdvs with a flag tag or histidine (his) inse ...201626732485
thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.the risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. this study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. if extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for fmdv-endemic countries. t ...201628332656
vp1 sequencing protocol for foot and mouth disease virus molecular epidemiology.nucleotide sequences of field strains of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) contribute to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of viral lineages that circulate in different regions of the world. this paper outlines a practical reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing strategy that can be used to generate rna sequences encoding the vp1 (1d) region of fmdv. the protocol contains a panel of pcr and sequencing primers that can be selected to characterise ...201628332654
the impact of importation of live ruminants on the epizootiology of foot and mouth disease in saudi arabia.approximately five million live ruminants are imported annually into saudi arabia. the majority of these animals are imported shortly before the pilgrimage season from sudan and the horn of africa, where foot and mouth disease (fmd) is known to be enzootic. this study was designed to investigate the impact of the importation of these live ruminants on the epizootiology of fmd in saudi arabia. the authors carried out antibody testing on a total of 480 sheep and 233 cattle from the sacrificial liv ...201628332652
multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a24 subunit vaccine in cattle using homologous challenge.the safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (adta24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. adta24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. no detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. at 7 days p ...201626707216
complete genome sequence of pig-originated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from bangladesh.in this article, we document the first pig-isolated complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in bangladesh. the complete viral genome revealed a potential serotypic recombination at the 5' untranslated region (utr). conventional amino acid deletion was lacking in 3a region, and antigenic heterogeneity to circulatory type o existed within the vp1 region.201627789636
coordinated protein co-expression in plants by harnessing the synergy between an intein and a viral 2a peptide.a novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. an ssp dnae mini-intein variant engineered for hyper-n-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an 'intf2a' self-excising fusion protein domain. this intf2a domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (pois) fro ...201627879048
generation of mabs to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and application in a competitive elisa for serodiagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically devastating disease that severely limits international trade of animals. of the seven fmd virus (fmdv) serotypes, serotype a is one of the most widespread cross the world. currently antibodies to fmdv are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (vnt) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the vnt is laborious, time-consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures, while elisa has the advantage of using inactivated a ...201627894355
evolutionary phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o and a circulating in vietnam.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. the virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals in vietnam. the vp1 coding gene of 80 fmdv samples (66 samples of the serotype o and 14 samples of the serotype a) collected from endemic outbreaks during 2006-2014 were analyzed to investigate their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available fmdvs globally.201627894299
foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. during recent fmd outbreaks in india, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst fmd-affected and asymptomatic cows. the current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of fmdv from infected cows to fetuses. for this purpose, fetal t ...201627977708
challenges of generating and maintaining protective vaccine-induced immune responses for foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. recent incursions of exotic fmd virus lineages into several east asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulati ...201627965966
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs.understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. in the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-n ...201627917386
foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. in countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of fmd seriously impact food security and development. in highly industrialized developed nations, fmd endemics cause economic a ...201628040311
foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles as integrin-based drug delivery system achieve targeting anti-tumor efficacy.the surface of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-like particles (vlps) contains a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif. natural fmdv specifically attaches to overexpressed integrin receptors in several cancer cells. the fmdv vlps produced in escherichia coli were used for the first time as a delivery system of anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (dox). the dox-loaded vlps exhibited a distinct release profile in different physiological conditions. the effects of fmdv-vlps-dox on cellula ...201627993721
large-scale production of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype asia1) vlp vaccine in escherichia coli and protection potency evaluation in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling fmd. compared to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines, the format of fmdv virus-like particles (vlps) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative.201627371162
alkaline hydrolysis to remove potentially infectious viral rna contaminants from dna.diagnostics and research of high-consequence animal disease agents is often limited to laboratories with a high level of biosecurity that restrict the transport of biological material. often, sharing of dna with external partners is needed to support diagnostics, forensics, or research. even in the absence of virus, rna from positive-sense single stranded rna (+ssrna) viruses that may contaminate otherwise purified dna preparations continues to pose a threat due to its potential to be infectious ...201627260412
diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3a to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus (fmdv) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of fmd-infected animals in the vaccinated population. nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to nsps, the likelihood of screening or confirming the fmd infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple nsps is considered for diagnosis. in order to develop and evaluate an additional nsp-based ...201626995490
development of high-affinity single chain fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by the fmd virus (fmdv) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. for rapid fmd diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against fmdv is needed. here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against fmdv by facs-based high throughput screening of a random library. with the fitc-conjugated vp1 epitope of fmdv and high-speed facs sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scfv) library in which antibody variants are display ...201626827774
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201628118140
equine rhinitis a virus mutants with altered acid resistance unveil a key role of vp3 and intrasubunit interactions in the control of the ph stability of the aphthovirus capsid.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype aphthovirus. erav has recently gained interest as an fmdv alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. as described for fmdv, current data support that acidic ph inside cellular endosomes triggers erav uncoating. in order to provide further insights into ...201627535044
complexities in isolation and purification of multiple viruses from mixed viral infections: viral interference, persistence and exclusion.successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. in this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mixed infection in goats. rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (cpe) of the virus was observed in cocultured vero/bhk-21 cells at 6th blind passage (bp). pprv, but not fmdv could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. viral rna (mixture) transfection in bhk-21 cells produc ...201627227480
development of a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans.a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus (sycmv) was constructed for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans. the in vitro transcript with a 5' cap analog m7gpppg from an sycmv full-length infectious vector driven by a t7 promoter infected soybeans (psycmvt7-full). the symptoms observed in the soybeans infected with either the sap from sycmv-infected leaves or psycmvt7-full were indistinguishable, suggesting that the vector exhibits equivalent biological a ...201626569351
foot-and-mouth disease virus viroporin 2b antagonizes rig-i-mediated antiviral effects by inhibition of its protein expression.the role of retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells remains unknown. here, we showed that rig-i inhibits fmdv replication in host cells. fmdv infection increased the transcription of rig-i, while it decreased rig-i protein expression. a detailed analysis revealed that fmdv leader proteinase (l(pro)), as well as 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) and 2b protein, decreased rig-i protein expression. l(pro) and 3c(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave v ...201627707918
rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.a novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time rt-rpa) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv). the sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of rpa was 70 copies of hp-prrsv rna/reaction. the real-time rt-rpa highly specific amplified hp-prrsv with no cross-reaction with classic prrsv, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus ...201627534870
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (ppv real-time rpa assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (ppv rpa lfd assay) were developed targeting ppv ns1 gene. the detection limit of ppv real-time rpa assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °c, while the rpa lfd assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than ...201627593155
a promising trigene recombinant human adenovirus vaccine against classical swine fever virus.classical swine fever (csf) vaccine based on hadv-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. both classical swine fever virus (csfv) e0 glycoprotein and e2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against csf. interleukin-2 (il2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in csf vaccine research. in this study, coexpression of the csfv e0, e2, and il2 genes by hadv-5 (radv-e0-e2-il2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. three ex ...201626918463
molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants in iran.a molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in iran. samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 mouflon (ovis orientalis), 22 wild goat (capra aegagrus), nine indian gazelle (gazella bennettii) and eight goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa) during the national survey for wildlife diseases in iran. serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody test ...201627997620
a transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric bamboo mosaic virus particles.we describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. we generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (vp1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antigens accumulated to high levels in bdt38 and bdt19 transgenic cell lines co-ex ...201625879277
modification of the internal ribosome entry site element impairs the growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in porcine-derived cells.the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires) that facilitates translation initiation of the viral orf in a 5' (m7gpppn) cap-independent manner. ires elements are responsible for the virulence phenotypes of several enteroviruses. here, we constructed a chimeric virus in which the ires of fmdv was completely replaced with that of bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) in an infectious clone of serotype o fmdv. the resulting ires- ...201626795299
detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in brazil.vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of fmd. we report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle wit ...201627154321
reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid identification of eastern and western strains of bluetongue virus in india.bluetongue virus (btv) infects all ruminants, including cattle, goats and camelids, causing bluetongue disease (bt) that is often severe in naïve deer and sheep. reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (rt-lamp) assays were developed to detect eastern or western topotype of btv strains circulating in india. each assay uses four primers recognizing six distinct sequences of btv genome-segment 1 (seg-1). the eastern (e)rt-lamp and western (w)rt-lamp assay detected btv rna in a ...201627054888
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in jilin province china.the aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in jilin province, china, using the assay. a lamp assay targeting a highly conserved region of the f1l gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (cev). three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of jilin province, china, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the lamp assay. the results showed that the s ...201626346652
a universal next-generation sequencing protocol to generate noninfectious barcoded cdna libraries from high-containment rna viruses.several biosafety level 3 and/or 4 (bsl-3/4) pathogens are high-consequence, single-stranded rna viruses, and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. moreover, many of these viruses are select agents (sas), and their genomes are also considered sas. for this reason, cdnas and/or their derivatives must be tested to ensure the absence of infectious virus and/or viral rna before transfer out of the bsl-3/4 and/or sa laboratory. this tremendously limits the capacity to ...201627822536
a prime-boost vaccination strategy in cattle to prevent foot-and-mouth disease using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. they are made using chemically inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. here, we have expressed the fmdv capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) of strain o1 manisa alone or with the fmdv 3c protease (3cpro) u ...201627294397
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. dendritic cells (dc) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. therefore, investigating their role during fmdv infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. in this study, fol ...201627008425
foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of fmd, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. the pathophysiology of fmdv has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. here, the fmdv non-structural protein 3a was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. overexpression of the fmdv 3a inhibited sendai virus-triggered activation of irf3 and the expressions of rig-i/mda5. transient transfection and co-im ...201626883855
live attenuated vaccine based on duck enteritis virus against duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3.as causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis a virus type 1 (dhav-1) and type 3 (dhav-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. however, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rc-kce-2vp1) containing both vp1 from dhav-1 (vp1/dhav-1) and vp1 from dhav-3 (vp1/dhav-3) between ul27 and ul26. a self-cleaving 2a-element of fmdv was inserted between the tw ...201627777571
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
detection of african swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.african swine fever (asf), classical swine fever (csf), and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. pigs infected with asf and csf viruses (asfv and csfv) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability ...201525776540
evaluation of a fiber-modified adenovirus vector vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of fmd virus (fmdv). ad5 containing serotype a24 capsid sequences (ad5.a24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against fmd in livestock species. however, ad5-vectored fmdv serotype o1 campos vaccine (ad5.o1c.2b) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. it has been reported tha ...201526607309
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
synthetic rnas mimicking structural domains in the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome elicit a broad innate immune response in porcine cells triggered by rig-i and tlr activation.the innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. we have previously described, the ability of small in vitro rna transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome (ncrnas), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. these synthetic non-infec ...201526193305
encephalomyocarditis virus 3c protease relieves traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) inhibitory effect on traf6-mediated nf-κb signaling through cleavage of tank.traf family member-associated nf-κb activator (tank) is a negative regulator of canonical nf-κb signaling in the toll-like receptor- and b-cell receptor-mediated signaling pathways. however, functions of tank in viral infection-mediated nf-κb activation remain unclear. here, we reported that tank was cleaved by encephalomyocarditis virus 3c at the 197 and 291 glutamine residues, which depends on its cysteine protease activity. in addition, encephalomyocarditis virus 3c impaired the ability of ta ...201526363073
robust real-time reverse transcription-pcr for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing carryover contamination.during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr) is the most commonly used diagnostic method to detect viral rna. however, while this assay is often conducted during the outbreak period, there is an inevitable risk of carryover contamination. this study shows that the carryover contamination can be prevented by the use of target-specific restriction endonuclease in that assay.201526560537
feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations.within the last decade virus-like particles (vlps) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. to test the feasibility of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) particles as a scaffold for epitope presentation and identify sites for epitope fusion or insertion that would not interfere with virus-like-particle formation, chimeric ccmv coat protein (cp) gene constructs were engi ...201526311254
structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (ra27l) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus.buffalopox virus (bpxv), an indian variant of vaccinia virus (vacv), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. a27l is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (opvs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the a27l gene of bpxv-vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature a27l (21s to e110) and c-terminal truncated a27l-lzd (21s to n84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia ...201526319070
plant-produced viral bovine vaccines: what happened during the last 10 years?vaccination has proved to be an efficient strategy to deal with viral infections in both human and animal species. however, protection of cattle against viral infections is still a major concern in veterinary science. during the last two decades, the development of efficient plant-based expression strategies for recombinant proteins prompted the application of this methodology for veterinary vaccine purposes. the main goals of viral bovine vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of cattle ...201526250843
simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time rt-pcr.multiplexed real-time pcr (qpcr) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. here, reverse transcription qpcr (rt-qpcr) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and bluetongue virus (btv) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. additionally, a background sc ...201525746154
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