evaluation of a novel proximity ligation assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a novel proximity ligation assay (pla) using a pan-serotype reactive monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in clinical samples collected from field cases of disease. the fmdv-specific pla was found to be 100 times more sensitive for virus detection than the commonly used antigen capture-elisa (agelisa). as few as five tcid50 were detected in individual assays, which was comparable with the analytical sensitivity of real-time rt-p ...200817897794
induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes.plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus x and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (bamv), that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environment ...200717900346
[foot and mouth disease is coming back]. 200717913049
assessment of the diagnostic potential of immuno-rca in 96-well elisa plates for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the need for fast and very early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has yielded different types of diagnostic tools over the past decades: whereas very sensitive techniques such as virus isolation (vi) and more recently also real-time rt-pcr can provide evidence for the presence of low virus quantities, vi requires additional confirmation of the nature of the virus strain and both techniques (currently) lack the ability for direct serotyping. the latter usually depends on ...200817913251
further evaluation of higher potency vaccines for early protection of cattle against fmdv direct contact challenge.the effect of administering higher payload fmd vaccines 10 days prior to severe direct contact challenge on protection from clinical disease and sub-clinical infection was investigated in cattle using two antigen payloads (single strength and 10-fold). regardless of antigen payload, vaccination was shown to significantly reduce the number of clinically infected animals, and significantly reduce virus excretion shortly after challenge, when compared with the unvaccinated group (p<0.05). although ...200717913309
use of a standardized bovine serum panel to evaluate a multiplexed nonstructural protein antibody assay for serological surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease.liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof of principle of a multiplexed nonstructural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals. the current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3a, 3b, and 3d and the recombinant protein signature 3abc in combination with four controls. to determine the diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a n ...200717913861
a one-step reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for simple and rapid detection of swine vesicular disease virus.this report describes the development of a one-step reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv). the assay detects the virus rapidly, within 30-60 min and the result is visualised either by gel-electrophoresis or by the naked eye through the addition of sybrgreen. a collection of 28 svdv isolates were tested positive, while heterologous viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis ...200817920701
reduction of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus load in nasal excretions, saliva and exhaled air of vaccinated pigs following direct contact future, a policy of "vaccinate-to-live" may be included in the repertoire of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control measures and in support of this approach, we have investigated the hypothesis that vaccine-induced reduction in virus replication and excretion from pigs can be correlated to the severity of clinical signs of fmd by measuring excretion of virus in natural secretions and aerosols. the other aims of this study were to verify the existence of sub-clinical infection in vaccinated pigs ...200717920730
cytokine mrna responses in bovine epithelia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. the factors which regulate the pathogenesis and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are poorly understood. mrna levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (il)-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and the antiviral cytokines interferon (ifn)-alpha, beta and gamma in microdissected epithelium from cattle acutely infected with fmdv o ukg 3 ...200917920964
protective immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus by vaccination with a dna vaccine expressing virus-like display antigenic protein on the surface of virus-like particles (vlps) presents a potentially powerful strategy for vaccine development. we genetically engineered the major capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) into the predominant epitope c of hbv core gene to yield a chimeric core-vp1 vlp. the vlp was successfully expressed in hela cells transfected with core-vp1 dna construct. compared with a regular vp1 dna construct, immunization with core-vp1 dna induced significant ...200717931113
essential role of antigen-presenting cell-derived baff for antibody responses.antigen-presenting cells (apc) are directly involved in survival, growth and differentiation of naive b cells and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination. less is known about the contribution of apc to memory b cell responses. we employed an in vitro model to investigate the secondary humoral response against foot-and-mouth disease virus, with cells from a natural host of the virus - the pig. this response is t cell-dependent. under conditions of limited t cell help, defined as a low t-to-b ...200717935087
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. in contrast, fmd in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. in order to investigate the pathogenesis of fmd in lambs, two groups, aged 10-14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg. one group of lambs (n=8) was inoculated with fmdv in the coronary band, while the other (n=4) was infec ...200817942248
enhancement of serological immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by a supplement made of extract of cochinchina momordica seeds.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination against fmd is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. this study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of momordica cochinchinensis (lour.) spreng. (ecms) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated fmdv antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ecms in oil-emulsified fmd vaccines for its immunopotentiation ...200717942610
in vivo footprint of a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site reveals differences in accessibility to specific rna structural elements.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements were described in picornaviruses as an essential region of the viral rna. understanding of ires function requires a detailed knowledge of each step involved in the internal initiation process, from rna folding and ires-protein interaction to ribosome recruitment. thus, deciphering ires accessibility to external agents due to rna structural features, as well as rna-protein protection within living cells, is of primary importance. in this study, two che ...200717947530
co-ordinate expression of glycine betaine synthesis genes linked by the fmdv 2a region in a single open reading frame in pichia pastoris.the genes encoding the two enzymes choline monooxygenase (cmo) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (badh) of glycine betaine synthesis in suaeda salsa were cloned and fused with the 2a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a single open reading frame. the fused genes were placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (aox1) promoter in ppic3b and transformed into p. pastoris gs115. the expression of the fused genes in p. pastoris and the ability of recombinant yeasts to tolerate environment ...200717955192
comparison of immune responses to different foot-and-mouth disease genetically engineered vaccines in guinea pigs.the p12a3c gene from fmdv (serotype o) encoding the capsid precursor protein, and the highly immunogenic gene fhg, which encodes multiple epitopes of fmdv capsid proteins, were inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors to compare different candidate genetically engineered vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a modified live pseudorabies virus (mlprv) was also used to deliver p12a3c. guinea pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with the candidate vaccines to compare the ability to elicit i ...200817963851
rapid and differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, and vesicular stomatitis by a new multiplex rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex rt-pcr assay has been developed and standardised for the simultaneous and differential detection of the most important vesicular viruses affecting livestock: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). the method uses three primer sets, each one specific for the corresponding virus, selected to detect of all serotypes of fmd and vs. the detection range was confirmed by examinat ...200817964668
[genome sequencing and analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus asia1/ynbs/58 strain].the full-length genomic sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia1/ynbs/58 strain was determined by rt-pcr and compared with other 17 reference strains. the results showed that the complete genome of asia1/ynbs/58 was 8164nt long including a 1061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3'utr. the homology analysis indicated that the utr regions and non-structural proteins were more conserved than the structural proteins in fmdv. vp1 exhibited ...200717969860
foot-and-mouth disease resurfaces in britain. 200717972385
airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: evaluation and optimisation of instrumentation and techniques.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted in a variety of ways, one of which is through virus exhaled into the air by infected livestock. it is clear that where there is close contact there will be a range of possible mechanisms for the transmission of disease from animal to animal, including the airborne route if simple barriers between livestock exist. in transmission of fmd over longer distances, airborne transmission represents a significant challenge to the veterinary services in that ...200917977760
immune responses of two recombinant adenoviruses expressing vp1 antigens of fmdv fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in the present report, we constructed and characterized the immune responses conferred by two recombinant adenoviruses expressing vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) or vp1 protein of fmdv fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (named rad-gmcsf-vpe and rad-gmcsf-vp1). seven groups of female ...200717980939
the nsp immune response of vaccinated animals after in-field exposure to fmdv.the aim was to examine the immune response (ir) to non-structural proteins (nsps), in order to assess the validity of the detection of antibodies to nsps as a means of diagnosing foot and mouth disease (fmd infection) infection when vaccinated populations are in close contact with clinically sick animals. the study was performed during fmd outbreaks in israel in january 2004; the ir was examined in vaccinated dairy and feedlot cattle herds under natural field exposure to fmdv, and in vaccinated ...200717981376
a highly sensitive and specific multiplex rt-pcr to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue and food samples.three sets of primers to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) using multiplex rt-pcr were designed based on several reference nucleotide sequences, and their reaction conditions were determined. by testing ten-fold serial dilutions of fmdv, the sensitivity of multiplex rt-pcr is 100 times higher than conventional rt-pcr. meanwhile, its specificity was confirmed compared with other related vesicular disease viruses. furthermore, 30 field samples from different animals were tested, and the r ...200817987350
[establishment of a colloid gold-immunochromatography assay for detection of type asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus].to establish a colloid gold-immunochromatography assay (gica) for detecting type asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200717988582
[development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of asiai type foot-and-mouth virus].to prepare the monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of type asiai foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and identify the characterization.200717988586
porcine interferon-gamma protects swine from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) fused with glutathione s-transferase (gst) was expressed in escherichia coli bl(21). twenty 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to four groups. pigs in groups 1-3 were pretreated with 30 mg, 20 mg, and 10 mg recombinant poifn-gamma (rpoifn-gamma), respectively. pigs in group 4 (control) were pretreated with gst expressed by the empty plasmid. at 48h postinoculation (hpi), all swine were challenged with fmdv (serotype o). pigs pretreated with 30 mg rpo ...200817996949
genetic characterisation of the recent foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a/irn/2005.according to the world reference laboratory for fmd, a new subtype of fmdv serotype a was detected in iran in 2005. this subtype was designated a/irn/2005, and rapidly spread throughout iran and moved westwards into saudi arabia and turkey where it was initially detected from august 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the spring of 2006. the same subtype reached jordan in 2007. as part of an ongoing project we have also detected this subtype in pakistan with the first positive ...200718001482
foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease virus elicit a protective response in guinea pigs.the expression of recombinant antigens in transgenic plants is increasingly used as an alternative method of producing experimental immunogens. in this report, we describe the production of transgenic tomato plants that express the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv). p1-2a3c was inserted into the plant binary vector, pbin438, and transformed into tomato plants using agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, gv3101. the presence of p1-2a3c was confirmed by ...200818006078
measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: preliminary evaluation of two portable air sampling devices.until now measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the field has not been attempted or been practical; measurements have been restricted to the laboratory and isolation units using instruments developed in the 1960s. however, with the development of air sampling devices for other biological purposes, there is now the possibility that this short-coming can be overcome and as a result earlier detection of virus may be possible in the future. two recently-introduced commercial ...200918023217
potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling rna viral infections of livestock.with intensification of trade, livestock are increasingly exposed to severe animal diseases caused by a range of rna viruses. recent prime examples include outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever and bluetongue. to minimise their impact, controlling the spread of virus is of utmost importance. good quality, reliable vaccines exist for some, although not all, of these diseases, but suffer from a set of drawbacks, not the least of which being the ti ...200818035428
cedivac-fmd can be used according to a marker vaccine this study, we investigated whether cedivac-fmd, an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), is suitable for use conjointly with a screening program intended to confirm freedom from disease in vaccinated herds based on evidence of virus replication in vaccinates. different sets of sera were tested using the ceditest fmdv-ns elisa for the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus. during a vaccine safety study, serum samples were collected from ...200818035508
non-structural protein 3a for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected and vaccinated animals in haryana (india).there are severe international trade restrictions on foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affected areas. because of endemic nature of fmd, india started fmd control programme (fmd-cp) using mass vaccination in selected states including haryana (year 2003). although no significant incidence of the disease was reported after launching fmd-cp in the state but in order to participate in international trade of animal and animal products, veterinary authorities have to prove that there is no fmd virus (fmdv) ...200718035976
foot-and-mouth disease virus forms a highly stable, edta-resistant complex with its principal receptor, integrin alphavbeta6: implications for infectiousness.the initial stage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is virus binding to cell surface integrins via the rgd motif in the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein. as for all ligand/integrin interactions, the initial contact between fmdv and its integrin receptors is cation dependent and hence inhibited by edta. we have investigated this binding process with rgd-containing peptides derived from the vp1 capsid protein of fmdv and discovered that, upon binding, some of these peptides form hi ...200818045932
[an efficient tool for the construction of multiple-cistronic vectors: fmdv 2a].recently, cancer therapy with mutiple genes has been attached with great attention. however, at present there is no efficient tool to construct multiple-cistrons. the large sizes and the imbalance in expression of most traditional tools, such as ribosome entry sites (ireses),greatly block their wide employment in the construction of multiple cistronic gene therapy vectors. the self-cleaving peptide 2a from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a very small size, and more importantly, high clea ...200718051849
[eukaryonization of t7 rna polymerase prokaryotic expression system and development of its couple expression system].to make transcription of the target gene be driven by t7 rna polymerase (t7 rnap) in the eukaryotic cells, and the transcripts be cap-independent translated. firstly, the t7 rnap was introduced into eukaryotic cells by two methods: (1) the bhk-21 cells were contransfected by the plasmid expressing t7 rnap and piers-egfp-et vector; (2) by transfection of the cell line stably expressing t7 rnap. the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element from fmdv was cloned into the downstream of the t7 prom ...200718051880
[establishment of indirect elisa diagnose based on the vp1 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pigs].the complete gene encoding the structural protein of fmdv(vp1) was subcloned into expression vector pproex-ht, resulting in the fusion expression plasmid pproexht-vp1. after transformed into e. coli bl21(de3) and induced by iptg, the fusion protein was expressed in high level. western blot was performed to confirm that the expressed fusion protein could specifically react with antiserum against fmdv. based on the fusion protein further purified, a novel indirect elisa (vp1-elisa) was developed t ...200718051883
application of modelling to determine the absence of foot-and-mouth disease in the face of a suspected use disease modelling to inform a response team about the number of animals per herd/flock to be examined, and the start date and duration of clinical surveillance required to be confident that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was not present on an island in new zealand with a population of approximately 1,600 cattle, 10,000 sheep and a small number of pigs, goats and alpacas.200718059646
[molecular cloning and characteristics of cdna encoding pig beta6 subunit for fmdv receptor].in order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from rna of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in genbank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. genebank association number of the beta6 gene is ef432729. pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids co ...200718064756
persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture revisited: implications for contingency in evolution.if we could rewind the tape of evolution and play it again, would it turn out to be similar to or different from what we know? obviously, this key question can only be addressed by fragmentary experimental approaches. twenty-two years ago, we described the establishment of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a system that displayed as its major biological feature a coevolution of the cells and the resident virus in the course of persistence. now we report ...200818089747
fighting foot-and-mouth disease in mexico: popular protest against diplomatic decisions. 200118095399
a comparison of different methods of inoculating guinea-pigs with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. 194918119131
irradiation of foot and mouth disease virus with ultra-violet rays. 194918120377
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in meat and offal. 194818129316
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1, responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china.this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strain asia-1 china/2005, which is responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china. the result showed that this strain is not host restricted, and could not only cause fmd in cattle and sheep but also in pigs by either inoculation or direct contact.200818155114
repeated bottleneck transfers can lead to non-cytocidal forms of a cytopathic virus: implications for viral extinction.several biological subclones of a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been subjected to many plaque-to-plaque (serial bottleneck) transfers in cell culture. at transfer 190 to 409, clones underwent a transition towards a non-cytolytic (nc) phenotype in which the virus was unable to produce plaques, representing at least a 140-fold reduction in specific infectivity relative to the parental biological clone. nc clones, however, were competent in rna replication and establi ...200818158159
optimization strategy for plasmid dnas containing multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by cis-expression with optimize previous candidate dna vaccine, a cis-expression plasmid dna encoding two genes, human il-2 and multiple-epitopes genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed with internal ribosome entry site (ires) from encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and intramuscularly inoculated into mice at 1-week interval. specific antibodies in serum and cytokines (il-2, il-4 and ifn-gamma) from splenocytes were detected by indirect elisa. splenocytes proliferation rate was determined by a s ...200818191307
expression of heterologous genes in oncolytic adenoviruses using picornaviral 2a sequences that trigger ribosome skipping.insertion of picornaviral 2a sequences into mrnas causes ribosomes to skip formation of a peptide bond at the junction of the 2a and downstream sequences, leading to the production of two proteins from a single open reading frame. adenoviral protein ix is a minor capsid protein that has been used to display foreign peptides on the surface of the capsid. we have used 2a sequences from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1) to express protein ix (pix) and green f ...200818198369
dynamics of picornavirus rna replication within infected cells.replication of many picornaviruses is inhibited by low concentrations of guanidine. guanidine-resistant mutants are readily isolated and the mutations map to the coding region for the 2c protein. using in vitro replication assays it has been determined previously that guanidine blocks the initiation of negative-strand synthesis. we have now examined the dynamics of rna replication, measured by quantitative rt-pcr, within cells infected with either swine vesicular disease virus (an enterovirus) o ...200818198379
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinovirus 2 (brv2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family picornaviridae. a nearly full-length cdna of the brv2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. brv2 possesses a putative leader proteinase, a small 2a protein and a poly(c) tract, which are characteristic of aphthoviruses. alignment of brv-2 and fmdv polyproteins showed that 41% of amino acids were identical within the p1 region. furthermo ...200818201745
functional analysis of picornavirus 2b proteins: effects on calcium homeostasis and intracellular protein trafficking.the family picornaviridae consists of a large group of plus-strand rna viruses that share a similar genome organization. the nomenclature of the picornavirus proteins is based on their position in the viral rna genome but does not necessarily imply a conserved function of proteins of different genera. the enterovirus 2b protein is a small hydrophobic protein that, upon individual expression, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and the golgi complex, reduces er and golgi complex ca(2+) ...200818216106
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern vietnam, 2005.during 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in ho chi minh city, vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. all enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. an enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (hev71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus a16. of the identified hev71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were c ...200718217559
cultivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in explanted epithelial tissue of the bovine rumen. 194918229005
integrating genetic and epidemiological data to determine transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus.estimating detailed transmission trees that reflect the relationships between infected individuals or populations during a disease outbreak often provides valuable insights into both the nature of disease transmission and the overall dynamics of the underlying epidemiological process. these trees may be based on epidemiological data that relate to the timing of infection and infectiousness, or genetic data that show the genetic relatedness of pathogens isolated from infected individuals. genetic ...200818230598
construction and immune response characterization of a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid precursor protein (p1) and a multiepitope peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most contagious and devastating disease of livestock. our previous studies demonstrated that tk(-)/gg(-)/p1(+), a recombinant expressing the fmdv capsid precursor protein (p1) based on attenuated pseudorabies virus (prv) tk(-)/gg(-), could be used as a recombinant vaccine to protect pigs against both pseudorabies and fmd. however, because the p1 expression cassette is inserted into the gg locus of the genome of prv tk(-)/gg(-), this bivalent vaccine cannot be ...200818246420
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in egypt.we describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in egypt. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent fmd virus isolates from east africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the middle east.200718258017
[the effectiveness of vaccination to prevent foot and mouth disease in several species]. 200818260556
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding porcine alphav subunit for fmdv receptor].receptors play a crucial role in determining the pathogenesis and tissue tropism of virus. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been showed to use four integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 as receptors to initiate infection. in this study, the porcine integrin alphav gene was cloned by rt-pcr from the lung tissue of healed pig infected experimently with fmdv, and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with the av gene of other animals. the 3141bp c ...200718268814
an mhc-restricted cd8+ t-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the cd8(+) t-cell immune response to fmdv remains unclear. this study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted cd8(+) t-cell responses to fmdv in vaccinated and in infected cattle. an in ...200818272757
genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from afghanistan in 2003-2005.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates collected from various geographic locations in afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete vp1 coding region. three serotypes of fmdv (types a, o, and asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in afghanistan during this period. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type a viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in iran ...200818278548
subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.the intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in ibrs-2 cells were analyzed. fluorescence to new svdv capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsrna. as in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of svdv capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2 ...200818279902
orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on t4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has not previously been reported. by using a t4 bacteriophage nanoparticle surface gene-protein display system (t4-s-gpds), we created a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entire capsid protein vaccine candidate. on the t4 phage surface soc site, a full length fmdv capsid precursor polyprotein (p1, 755 aa) and proteinase 3c (213 aa) derived from an infected pig of serotype o strain gd-10 (1999), were separately displayed on different t4 p ...200818289743
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against fmd virus type asia-1 and determination of antigenic variations in the field strains.twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against an indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 wbn 117/85. the mabs were tested for their ability to bind to whole virus particle, trypsin-treated 146s (tt-146s) virus particle, sub-viral (12s and disrupted virus) antigens by elisa and to neutralize virus infectivity in cell culture. extensive characterization of mabs revealed the existence of three different groups based on the binding of non-overlappi ...200818291535
uncertainty of measurement for competitive and indirect elisas.a method for the estimation of the uncertainty of measurements for gaussian outcomes of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described using competitive and indirect foot and mouth disease (fmd) elisas. assay repeatability was determined by random effects analysis of variance, and the normality of the residuals was checked. the standard errors of the individual predicted values were transformed into confidence intervals around the corresponding observed values and further transformed int ...200718293613
enhanced immunogenicity of multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with porcine interferon alpha in mice and protective efficacy in guinea pigs and swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 from vp1 protein of fmdv were selected as multiple-epitopes (vpe), and a recombinant adenovirus expressing the multiple-epitopes fused with porcine interferon alpha (rad-pifn alpha-vpe) was constructed. six groups of female balb/c mice (18 mice per group) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-we ...200818294705
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna duration in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.quantitative analysis of the duration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna in tissues was carried out in pigs experimentally infected with fmdv o ukg 34/2001 and o skr 1/2000. the results showed that the viral rna was still detectable in cervical lymph nodes, mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils collected from both inoculated and contact pigs at 28 days post infection. there was no detectable viral rna in the soft palate or pharynx, which are thought to be tissue sites for viral persistence ...200918294878
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in fetal lambs: tissue tropism and cytokine response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. this study investigates the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ish) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. fmdv ribonucleic acid (rna) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally exp ...200818295784
residue l143 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase is a determinant of cleavage specificity.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader proteinase (l(pro)) self-processes inefficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site lysleulys*glyalagly (* indicates cleaved peptide bond) when the leucine at position p2 is replaced by phenylalanine. molecular modeling and energy minimization identified the l(pro) residue l143 as being responsible for this discrimination. the variant l(pro) l143a self-processed efficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site containing p2 phenylalanine, whereas the l143m ...200818305051
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared this study, infrared thermography (irt) was assessed as a means of detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cattle before and after the development of clinical signs. preliminary irt imaging demonstrated that foot temperatures increased in fmdv-infected animals. the maximum foot temperatures of healthy (n=53), directly inoculated (di) (n=12), contact (ct) (n=6), and vaccine trial (vt) (n=21) cattle were measured over the course of fmd infection. a cut-off value was established a ...200918308596
high potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease a series of three homologous and eight heterologous challenge experiments, it was shown that high potency vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a can induce protection even against heterologous challenge infection with viruses that give low r-values with the vaccine strains. the challenge virus specific neutralizing antibody response on the day of challenge (21 days post vaccination) generally correlated with protection.200818313814
dramatic improvement in fmd dna vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein overcome the low and slow development of humoral antibody often observed with dna vaccines we applied a prime-boost strategy. when fmd dna vaccine p1-2a3c3d and pgm-csf primed pigs were boosted with inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen and recombinant 3d (without adjuvant) an average 36-fold increase in the fmdv antibody response was observed compared to conventional vaccination, that included a log(10) virus neutralising titre increase. most remarkably, a significant level ...200818321615
prospects for rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in the field using reverse transcriptase-pcr. 200818326844
modelling foot-and-mouth disease: a comparison between the uk and denmark.whilst the uk 2001 fmd (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the uk can be translated to other scenarios. here we consider how the model framework used to capture the uk epidemic can be applied to a hypothetical fmd outbreak in denmark. whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the uk epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the danish livestock lands ...200818328581
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. if proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. here, we determine if g-h loop chimera fmdv vaccines can: (i) protect c ...200818342409
sequence analysis of the protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/hk/2001.the nucleotide sequence of the protein-coding region of foot-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) strain o/hk/2001 was determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs that were registered in genbank. the protein-coding region was 6966 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 2322 amino acid residues. comparison of the nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other isolates indicated that o/hk/2001 belonged to the cathay topotype. a genomic coding region nucleot ...200818343054
in situ protein folding and activation in bacterial inclusion bodies.recent observations indicate that bacterial inclusion bodies formed in absence of the main chaperone dnak result largely enriched in functional, properly folded recombinant proteins. unfortunately, the molecular basis of this intriguing fact, with obvious biotechnological interest, remains unsolved. we have explored here two non-excluding physiological mechanisms that could account for this observation, namely selective removal of inactive polypeptides from inclusion bodies or in situ functional ...200818351678
interferon-alpha production by swine dendritic cells is inhibited during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (ifns). we have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (dcs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong type i ifn (ifn-alpha and ifn-beta) response, indicating that dcs may play a critical role in the innate response to the virus. in vivo, fmdv induces lymphopenia and reduced t-cell proliferative responses to mitogen, v ...200818355124
accuracy of models for the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic.since 2001 models of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease, supported by the data from the uk epidemic, have been expounded as some of the best examples of problem-driven epidemic models. these claims are generally based on a comparison between model results and epidemic data at fairly coarse spatio-temporal resolution. here, we focus on a comparison between model and data at the individual farm level, assessing the potential of the model to predict the infectious status of farms in both the shor ...200818364313
pathogenic characteristics of the korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pigs and cattle.experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the o/skr/as/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain o/skr/as/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. in addition, fmdv was isolated from, and fmdv genomic rna was detected in, blood, serum, nasa ...200818384806
serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for this study we estimate the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in wildlife from eastern and central africa. sera were sourced from between 1994 and 2002 from a rinderpest surveillance program. our study compared a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cedi test) with a virus neutralization test. the study shows that there is only a low seroprevalence of fmdv in sampled nonbuffalo species. the seroprevalence in the cape buffalo was high for sat2, lower for ...200818385460
chemical and biomimetic total syntheses of natural and engineered mcoti cyclotides.the naturally-occurring cyclic cystine-knot microprotein trypsin inhibitors mcoti-i and mcoti-ii have been synthesised using both thia-zip native chemical ligation and a biomimetic strategy featuring chemoenzymatic cyclisation by an immobilised protease. engineered analogues have been produced containing a range of substitutions at the p1 position that redirect specificity towards alternative protease targets whilst retaining excellent to moderate affinity. furthermore, we report an mcoti analog ...200818385853
[gene cloning of ligand binding domain of porcine beta3 as fmdv receptor and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].to clone and express the ligand binding domain (lbd) cdna of porcine integrin beta3 as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) receptor and prepare its polyclonal antibody.200818394343
assessment of suitability of two serotype a candidate vaccine strains for inclusion in fmd vaccine in india.the recent type a foot and mouth disease virus field isolates recovered in india are shown to be antigenically quite divergent from the in-use vaccine strain (ind 17/82), warranting the selection of a suitable vaccine strain which can cover this diversity in antigenic spectrum. in earlier studies employing neutralization test with anti-146s rabbit sera raised against eight candidate vaccine strains, ind 81/00 and ind 40/00 belonging to genotype vii were found to offer the best antigenic coverage ...200818394827
foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrations in products of animal origin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals which can have devastating economic consequences. maintaining an fmd-free status is a priority for non-endemic countries, which restrict importation of animals and animal products from countries in which the disease is present or sporadic, thus presenting a considerable barrier to international trade. this review examines the concentration of fmd virus in animal tissues during the viraemic stage of disease and i ...200818397496
incursions of foot-and-mouth disease virus into europe between 1985 and 2006.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the biggest threats to animal health in european countries. in the last 22 years (1985-2006), fmd has occurred 37 times in 14 european countries. serotype o was most frequently involved in these outbreaks followed by a, c and asia 1. sometimes, epidemics were very limited and at other times, they were the cause of devastating economic losses. in most cases (22/37), the origin of the outbreaks could not be determined. for some of these outbreaks, however, ro ...200818397506
the importance of quality assurance/quality control of diagnostics to increase the confidence in global foot-and-mouth disease control.the last decade international trade in animals and animal products was liberated and confidence in this global trade can increase only if appropriate control measures are applied. as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics will play an essential role in this respect, the food and agriculture organization european commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (eufmd) co-ordinates, in collaboration with the european commission, several programmes to increase the quality of fmd diagnostics. ...200818397507
fmd vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in european disease control policy.most foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the oie manual and, for europe, in the european pharmacopoeia, and for the eu member states in compliance with directive 2001/82/ec of the european parliament and of the council of 6 november 2001 on the community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by directive 2004/28/ec. most of the r ...200818397508
epidemiological patterns of foot-and-mouth disease worldwide.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a clinical syndrome in animals due to fmd virus that exists in seven serotypes, whereby recovery from one sero-type does not confer immunity against the other six. so when considering intervention strategies in endemic settings, it is important to take account of the characteristics of the different serotypes in different ecological systems. fmd serotypes are not uniformly distributed in the regions of the world where the disease still occurs. for example, the cum ...200818397509
evading the host immune response: how foot-and-mouth disease virus has become an effective pathogen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this review, we discuss the mechanisms fmdv has evolved to counteract the host innate and adaptive immune responses and the role of viral proteins in this process. the viral leader proteinase, l pro, limits the host innate response by inhibiting the induction of interferon beta (ifn beta) mrna and blocking host cell translation. a second viral proteinase, 3c pro, may affect host cell trans ...200818400012
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the united kingdom in 2007.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. identifying sources of fmd outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols). here, we show that the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in august 2007 were caused by a derivative of fmdv o(1) bfs 1860, a virus strain h ...200818421380
quantitative risk assessment of foot-and-mouth disease introduction into spain via importation of live animals.spain has been a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-free country since 1986. however, the fmd epidemics that recently affected several european union (eu) member countries demonstrated that the continent is still at high risk for fmd virus (fmdv) introduction, and that the potential consequences of those epidemics are socially and financially devastating. this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the risk of fmdv introduction into spain. results suggest that provinces in north-eastern spain are ...200818430478
induction of protective immunity in swine by immunization with live attenuated recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing the capsid precursor encoding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes morbidity to livestock and serious economic consequences to its associated industry and therefore it is necessary to develop a safe and efficient vaccine to prevent or control this disease. a recombinant live attenuated virus vaccine, designated prv-p1, was generated by insertion of an expression cassette containing cmv promoter, fmdv p1 gene and sv 40 poly-a into the gg gene region of a live attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine strain (tk-/gg-/lacz+). to det ...200818436351
influence of the mutant spectrum in viral evolution: focused selection of antigenic variants in a reconstructed viral quasispecies.rna viruses replicate as complex mutant distributions termed viral quasispecies. despite this, studies on virus populations subjected to positive selection have generally been performed and analyzed as if the viral population consisted of a defined genomic nucleotide sequence; such a simplification may not reflect accurately the molecular events underlying the selection process. in the present study, we have reconstructed a foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies with multiple, low-frequency, ...200818436553
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. recent fmd outbreaks in europe and taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. to aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent fmdv antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved c ...200818440078
epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in landhi dairy colony, pakistan, the world largest buffalo colony.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and causes huge economic losses. this work focus on the landhi dairy colony (ldc), located in the suburbs of karachi. ldc is the largest buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). each month from april 2006 to april 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage ...200818445264
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus using peptides conjugated to nano-beads.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major problem as current vaccines do not allow easy differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. furthermore, large scale production of inactivated virus poses significant risks. to address this we investigated the feasibility of using inert nano-beads that target antigen to dendritic cells (dcs) to induce immune responses against fmdv-specific synthetic peptides in sheep. our results demonstrate that while single peptides ...200818448209
enhanced mucosal immunoglobulin a response and solid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge induced by a novel dendrimeric peptide.the successful use of a dendrimeric peptide to protect pigs against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which causes the most devastating animal disease worldwide, is described. animals were immunized intramuscularly with a peptide containing one copy of a fmdv t-cell epitope and branching out into four copies of a b-cell epitope. the four immunized pigs did not develop significant clinical signs upon fmdv challenge, neither systemic nor mucosal fmdv replication, nor was its tran ...200818448530
dendritic cell internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: influence of heparan sulfate binding on virus uptake and induction of the immune response.dendritic cells (dc), which are essential for inducing and regulating immune defenses and responses, represent the critical target for vaccines against pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although it is clear that fmdv enters epithelial cells via integrins, little is known about fmdv interaction with dc. accordingly, dc internalization of fmdv antigen was analyzed by comparing vaccine virus dominated by heparan sulfate (hs)-binding variants with fmdv lacking hs-binding capacit ...200818448534
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