TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
fred brown: 31 january 1925 - 20 february 2004.fred brown was a major figure in british and international virology during most of the latter half of the twentieth century. he brought to the subject a rigorous and critical attitude acquired during his early training in chemistry. in addition, he was passionately interested in the practical application of his work and that of others to the prevention and alleviation of disease. he always believed that his research would make a significant contribution to the welfare of agricultural livestock. ...200718543464
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding porcine alphav subunit for fmdv receptor].receptors play a crucial role in determining the pathogenesis and tissue tropism of virus. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been showed to use four integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 as receptors to initiate infection. in this study, the porcine integrin alphav gene was cloned by rt-pcr from the lung tissue of healed pig infected experimently with fmdv, and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with the av gene of other animals. the 3141bp c ...200718268814
uncertainty of measurement for competitive and indirect elisas.a method for the estimation of the uncertainty of measurements for gaussian outcomes of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described using competitive and indirect foot and mouth disease (fmd) elisas. assay repeatability was determined by random effects analysis of variance, and the normality of the residuals was checked. the standard errors of the individual predicted values were transformed into confidence intervals around the corresponding observed values and further transformed int ...200718293613
study of the genetic heterogeneity of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-saharan africa with specific focus on east africa.the epidemiology of serotype sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-saharan africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1d gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to east africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. the genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between east, southern and south-western africa. one lineage was unique to west africa. ...200718453238
epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern vietnam, 2005.during 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in ho chi minh city, vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. all enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. an enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (hev71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus a16. of the identified hev71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were c ...200718217559
genetic diversity of enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of hand, foot and mouth disease in the 1997, 2000 and 2005 outbreaks, peninsular malaysia.all known field isolates of enterovirus 71 (ev71) can be divided into three distinct genogroups (a, b, c) and 10 subgenogroups (a, b1-5, c1-4) based on vp1 gene sequences. we examined vp1 gene sequences of 10, 12 and 11 ev71 strains isolated in peninsular malaysia during the outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in 1997, 2000 and 2005 respectively. four ev71 strains isolated in the hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak of 2006 in sarawak (malaysian borneo) were included to describe their gen ...200719108398
unravelling selection shifts among foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes.fmdv virus has been increasingly recognised as the most economically severe animal virus with a remarkable degree of antigenic diversity. using an integrative evolutionary and computational approach we have compelling evidence for heterogeneity in the selection forces shaping the evolution of the seven different fmdv serotypes. our results show that positive darwinian selection has governed the evolution of the major antigenic regions of serotypes a, asia1, o, sat1 and sat2, but not c or sat3. c ...200719455214
comparison of sat-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from east africa between 1971 and 2000 with viruses from the rest of sub-saharan africa.foot-and-mouth disease serotype sat-1 seems to be endemic in many sub-saharan african countries. phylogenetic analysis using the 1d gene of 51 sat-1 isolates from east, west and southern africa indicated the presence of at least 6 lineages and 11 genotypes with linkages between various geographical regions of the subcontinent. differences were observed between countries in east africa, the main focus of this study, with individual countries suffering outbreaks from isolates belonging to various ...200717187294
characterisation of a sat-1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive african buffalo (syncerus caffer): clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the sat types of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. these long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. during an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the kruger national park (knp), an outbreak of sat-1 occurred and was further investigated. the clinical signs were rec ...200717194552
removal of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity in salted natural casings by minor adaptation of standardized industrial procedures.intestines are used for the production of natural casings as edible sausage containers. derived from animals (pigs and sheep) experimentally infected with fmdv (initial dosage 10(7.3) pfu/ml, strain o(1kaufbeuren)), these natural casings were treated with sodium chloride or a phosphate salts/sodium chloride mixture and the residual fmdv titres measured. after storage at about 20 degrees c, no remaining infectivity was found after either treatment, whereas casings stored at 4 degrees c still cont ...200717196281
stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein vp1 fused with cholera toxin b subunit in the potato (solanum tuberosum).the expression vector, pbi121ctbvp1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 gene and the cholera toxin b subunit (ctb) gene was constructed by fused pcr and transferred into potato (solanum tuberosum l.) by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. the transgenic plantlets were identified by pcr, southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quant ...200717208421
identification of neutralizing linear epitopes from the vp1 capsid protein of enterovirus 71 using synthetic peptides.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) and has been associated with severe neurological diseases resulting in high mortalities. currently, there is no vaccine available and treatment is limited to palliative care. in this study, antisera were raised in mice against 95 overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the vp1 capsid protein of ev71. two peptides, sp55 and sp70, containing amino acid 163-177 and 208-222 of vp1, respectively, are capable of e ...200717222936
european pharmacopoeia foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle: between test variability and its the event of a foot-and-mouth (fmd) outbreak in a densely populated livestock area within the european community, emergency vaccination will most likely be employed. the objective of the present study was to support the european fmd control policy by evaluating the between test variability of the european accepted method for assessing the potency, a major determinant in vaccine choice, of an fmd vaccine batch. the test system suffers from low in vivo repeatability and reproducibility (67.6 an ...200717227691
consistent change in the b-c loop of vp2 observed in foot-and-mouth disease virus from persistently infected cattle: implications for association with persistence.the mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) persistence are poorly understood. it is thought the existence of viral quasispecies that encompass sub-populations with varying survival competencies and antigenicities may play some role in the maintenance of virus in persistently infected animals. by analyzing nucleotide sequences encoding the viral vp2 protein in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (probang) samples from cattle at different stages of infection, the significance of any amino acid ...200717241682
structure-function analysis of arg-gly-asp helix motifs in alpha v beta 6 integrin relating to the structural basis of ligand recognition by integrins are limited. here we describe the physical requirements for high affinity binding of ligands to alpha v beta6. by combining a series of structural analyses with functional testing, we show that 20-mer peptide ligands, derived from high affinity ligands of alpha v beta6 (foot-and-mouth-disease virus, latency associated peptide), have a common structure comprising an arg-gly-asp motif at the tip of a hairpin turn followed imm ...200717244604
mosaic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes.the results of a simple pairwise-scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination fragments, applied to genome data from 156 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) representing all seven serotypes, are reported. large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments were identified from all parts of the fmdv genome, with the exception of the capsid genes, within which such fragments are infrequent. as expected, intertypic fragment exchange is most common between geographica ...200717251567
quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination.sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. we therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with fmd virus strain o/net/2001 in groups of lambs. we used six groups of four lambs each, in which half of each group was inoculated and the other half was contact-exposed. to quantify the effectiveness of a single vaccination we also included six groups of four ...200717254674
inhibition of the secretory pathway by foot-and-mouth disease virus 2bc protein is reproduced by coexpression of 2b with 2c, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2c.infection of cells with picornaviruses can lead to a block in protein secretion. for poliovirus this is achieved by the 3a protein, and the consequent reduction in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i proteins may inhibit host immune responses in vivo. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), another picornavirus, can cause persistent infection of ruminants, suggesting it too may inhibit immune responses. endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...200717121791
passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. there is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. we aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs). twenty-four vhhs binding serotype o fmdv in vitro were isolated from immunized llamas by phage display and expressed in bakers yeast for further characterization. they recognized fou ...200717127019
immune responses generated by lactobacillus as a carrier in dna immunization against foot-and-mouth disease exploit lactobacillus acidophilus as a carrier in dna immunization against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid (prc/cmv2-vp1-rep. 8014) harboring prc/cmv2 vector, the fmdv vp1 gene, and a replication origin from lactobacillus plantarum atcc 8014 strain was constructed. to detect the vp1 protein, prc/cmv2-vp1-rep. 8014 was expressed in pk 15 cells and transfected into a l. acidophilus sw1 strain (l. acidophilus sfmd-1). to evaluate the immunization ...200717028078
structural and mutagenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease reveals the role of the beta-ribbon in proteolysis.the 3c protease (3c(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of a widespread and economically devastating disease of domestic livestock, is a potential target for antiviral drug design. we have determined the structure of a new crystal form of fmdv 3c(pro), a chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, which reveals features that are important for catalytic activity. in particular, we show that a surface loop which was disordered in previous structures adopts a beta-ribbon st ...200717065215
reporting of suspect cases of foot-and-mouth-disease during the 2001 epidemic in the uk, and the herd sensitivity and herd specificity of clinical diagnosis.we described the clinical diagnostic process utilized during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth-disease in the united kingdom (uk), and considered it as a series of diagnostic tests. premises were classified according to these diagnostic-test results and actual disease status, determined by the reference test, which in this case was one or more internationally accepted laboratory tests. the herd-level sensitivity (hse) and herd-level specificity (hsp) of the clinical diagnostic process were cal ...200717081639
immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine il-18 on foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and can cause a considerable socio-economic loss for affected countries. interleukin-18 (il-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important role in both the development of a functional immune system as well as the response of the organism to infection. in the present study, bovine il-18 (boil-18), foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 and vp1/boil-18 fusion genes were cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pas ...200717084491
localization of functional polypeptides in bacterial inclusion bodies.bacterial inclusion bodies, while showing intriguing amyloid-like features, such as a beta-sheet-based intermolecular organization, binding to amyloid-tropic dyes, and origin in a sequence-selective deposition process, hold an important amount of native-like secondary structure and significant amounts of functional polypeptides. the aggregation mechanics supporting the occurrence of both misfolded and properly folded protein is controversial. single polypeptide chains might contain both misfolde ...200717085715
production and characterization of two serotype independent monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced from mice immunized with either fmdv serotype a, subunit (12s) or fmdv serotype o, whole virus (140s). both mabs (f1412sa and f21140so) recognized all seven serotypes of fmdv in a double antibody sandwich (das) elisa, suggesting that the binding epitopes of the two mabs are conserved between serotypes. these mabs are igg1 isotype and contain kappa light chains. in order to define the mab binding epitopes, the reac ...200717109972
comparison of sensitivity and specificity in three commercial foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein elisa kits with swine sera in taiwan.three commercialized elisa kits for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus were compared, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, challenged and naturally infected pigs. the kinetics of the antibody response to nsps was compared on sequential serum samples in swine from challenge studies and outbreaks. the results showed that elisa a (ubi) and elisa b (cedi) had better sensitivity than that of the 3abc recombinant protein-based elisa c (chekit). the peak f ...200717112687
genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates recovered from persistently infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates, serotype o, recovered serially over a 1-year period from persistently infected buffalos was assessed. the persistent state was established experimentally with plaque-purified fmdv, strain o(1)campos, in five buffalos (bubalus bubalis). viral isolates collected from esophageal-pharyngeal (ep) fluids for up to 71 weeks after infection were analyzed at different times by nucleotide sequencing and t(1) rnase oligonucleotide fingerpri ...200717113729
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: recent structural and functional insights into an antiviral target.the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3c(pro)) is critical for viral pathogenesis, having vital roles in both the processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication. although recent structural and functional studies have revealed new insights into the mechanism and function of the enzyme, key questions remain that must be addressed before the potential of fmdv 3c(pro) as an antiviral drug target can be realised.200716979372
induction of immature dendritic cell apoptosis by foot and mouth disease virus is an integrin receptor mediated event before viral infection.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been demonstrated to infect dendritic cells (dc) and reduced its ability to stimulate host immune responses. this study aimed to determine whether non-replicating fmdv could induce apoptosis of the host immune cells. in this study, we have demonstrated that bone morrow derived dendritic cells (bmdcs) were induced to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which was determined by the annexin-v staining, dna fragmentation, and tunel staining methods, a ...200717427949
pocket factors are unlikely to play a major role in the life cycle of human rhinovirus.human rhinovirus 14 (hrv14) is a member of the rhinovirus genus, which belongs to the picornavirus family, which includes clinically and economically important members, such as poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and endomyocarditis virus. capsid stability plays an important role in the viral infection process, in that it needs to be stable enough to move from cell to cell and yet be able to release its genetic material upon the appropriate environmental cues from the host cell. it has bee ...200717428846
molecular basis for a lack of correlation between viral fitness and cell killing capacity.the relationship between parasite fitness and virulence has been the object of experimental and theoretical studies often with conflicting conclusions. here, we provide direct experimental evidence that viral fitness and virulence, both measured in the same biological environment provided by host cells in culture, can be two unrelated traits. a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus acquired high fitness and virulence (cell killing capacity) upon large population passages in cell cultu ...200717432933
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying porcine interferon-gamma and its expression in porcine kidney cells (pk-15)].porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) of chinese local brand, meishan porcine, was cloned and inserted into retroviral vector plxsn (neo r) . using lipofectamine, this recombinant plasmid was transfected into retroviral packing cell line, pa317 cells. these transfected cells were selected by dmem containing 400microg/ml g418 for one week. rna was extracted from the supernatant of these selected pa317 cells and the poifn-gamma gene could be amplified by rt-pcr. pocine kidney cells and pk-15 cell ...200717436641
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection induces proteolytic cleavage of ptb, eif3a,b, and pabp rna-binding proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection induces major changes in the host cell including the shutoff of cellular protein synthesis. here, protein extracts from fmdv-infected cells have been used to monitor changes in the profile of rna-binding factors interacting with regulatory regions of the viral rna. relevant differences have been detected in the pattern of interaction with proteins prepared from either infected or uninfected cells with rna probes encompassing the internal ribosome ent ...200717445855
immune responses of pigs to commercialized emulsion fmd vaccines and live virus challenge.the immune response to structural and non-structural proteins (nsps) was studied on sequential serum samples in swine from o/taiwan/97 fmdv challenge studies, outbreaks and after vaccination. the results showed that pigs vaccinated with a commercial vaccine prior to or after infection maintained high neutralizing antibody titers with gradual decline from peak titers over the duration of this study. however, neutralizing antibody titers in non-vaccinated pigs only reached moderate levels 2-4 week ...200717445957
characterization of a cyanobacterial rnase p ribozyme recognition motif in the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals a unique structural element.translation initiation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements is dependent on the structural organization of the ires region. picornavirus ires are organized in structural domains, in which the terminal stem-loops participate in functional rna-protein interactions. however, the mechanistic role performed by the central domain during internal initiation has not been elucidated yet. here we show that the foot-and-mouth-disease virus ires contains a structural motif that serves in v ...200717449727
microarray-based molecular detection of foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease viruses, using padlock probes.the world organization for animal health (office international des epizooties, oie) includes the diseases caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), as "diseases notifiable to the oie". foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have severe economical as well as social effects and cannot be differentiated from the diseases caused by the other two viruses on the basis of clinical symptoms. efficient laboratory techniques ...200717451815
foot-and-mouth disease virus crosses the placenta and causes death in fetal lambs.eighteen pregnant sheep, six at 45 days gestation and twelve at 75 days gestation, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg 34/2001. two sheep from each gestational group were killed at 2, 4, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). three sheep, pregnant for 75 days at infection, were killed at 17 and 18 dpi. real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and virus isolation (vi) were used to detect viral rna and infectious virus, respectively, in fetal tis ...200717459409
performance of a foot-and-mouth disease virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with amplification controls between three real-time instruments.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the picornavirus family, possessing an 8-kb single-stranded rna genome of positive polarity. it is highly contagious among several livestock species and can lead to severe economic consequences, as evidenced by the uk outbreak in 2001. the usage of real-time polymerase chain reaction has facilitated rapid detection of fmdv. several real-time pcr instruments are available with various capabilities, such as portability and high sample volume a ...200717459827
enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by a combination of type i and ii porcine interferons.previously, we showed that type i interferon (alpha/beta interferon [ifn-alpha/beta]) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture, and swine inoculated with 10(9) pfu of human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine ifn-alpha (ad5-pifn-alpha) were protected when challenged 1 day later. in this study, we found that type ii pifn (pifn-gamma) also has antiviral activity against fmdv in cell culture and that, in combination with pifn-alpha, it has a synergistic antiviral ...200717459931
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a and o isolated in argentina during the 2000-2002 epizootic.during 2000-2002 a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epizootic affected argentina and spread across the country resulting in more than 2500 outbreaks. in order to study the evolution of the fmd viruses (fmdv) and help with disease control measures, a genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis was performed of 43 field isolates representative of the epizootic. the nucleotide sequence of the vp1-coding region was determined for the viruses and used in this study. two serotype a lineages, a/arg/ ...200717475419
insights into rna virus mutant spectrum and lethal mutagenesis events: replicative interference and complementation by multiple point mutants.rna virus behavior can be influenced by interactions among viral genomes and their expression products within the mutant spectra of replicating viral quasispecies. here, we report the extent of interference of specific capsid and polymerase mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on replication of wild-type (wt) rna. the capsid and polymerase mutants chosen for this analysis had been characterized biochemically and structurally. upon co-electroporation of bhk-21 cells with wt rna and a te ...200717481660
evaluation of laboratory tests for sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in zimbabwe.during a field study in zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical fmd had not been observed in the sixth herd. a trivalent vaccine (south african territories [sat] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or afte ...200717496271
immunization of dna vaccine encoding c3d-vp1 fusion enhanced protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus.because foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) remains a great problem to many livestock of agricultural importance, safe, effective vaccines are in great need. dna vaccine would be a promising candidate but the design remains to be optimized. vp1 gene of fmdv strain o/es/2001 was linked to three copies of either porcine or murine c3d or four copies of a 28-aa fragment of murine c3d containing the cr2 receptor binding domain (m28). the resultant plasmids encoding c3d/m28-vp1 fusion or only vp1 as c ...200717497212
chimeric tymovirus-like particles displaying foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein epitopes and its use for detection of fmdv-nsp antibodies.expression of physalis mottle tymovirus (phmv) coat protein (cp) in escherichia coli (e. coli) was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that are nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. aminoacid substitutions were made at the n-terminus of wild-type phmv cp with single or tandem repeats of infection related b-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsps) 3b1, 3b2, 3ab, 3d and 3abd of lengths 48, 66, 49, 51 and 55, respectively to produce ...200717499404
improvement of a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by supplement of quil model animal experiment a, icr mice were immunized with ovalbumin (ova) adjuvanted with quil a or mineral oil or their combination (quil a+oil). in model animal experiment b, icr mice were immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens or with a commercially available oil adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine (type o) alone or mixed with quil a. after that, serum samples were collected to analyze specific igg and igg subclasses igg1, igg2a, igg2b, and igg3. in experimen ...200717509735
structural analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: a viable target for antiviral drugs?foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a major global agricultural problem that is difficult to control with existing vaccines. structural analyses of the viral 3c protease not only have provided fresh insights into the catalytic mechanism of an unusual class of chymotrypsin-like cysteine proteases, but also are generating valuable information to drive the quest for effective antiviral therapies.200717511659
molecular typing of a new foot-and-mouth disease virus in egypt. 200717513836
sequential structures provide insights into the fidelity of rna replication.rna virus replication is an error-prone event caused by the low fidelity of viral rna-dependent rna polymerases. replication fidelity can be decreased further by the use of mutagenic ribonucleoside analogs to a point where viral genetic information can no longer be maintained. for foot-and-mouth disease virus, the antiviral analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil have been shown to be mutagenic, contributing to virus extinction through lethal mutagenesis. here, we report the x-ray structure of four ...200717517631
guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.we report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. adaptive amino acid replacements (i(248)-->t in 2c, q(44)-->r in 3a, and l(147)-->p in vp1), selected upon serial passages of a type c fmdv isolated from swine (biological clone c-s8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swin ...200717522230
identification of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitope with immunodominant characteristics in cattle with mhc serotype identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the entire polyprotein sequence of the virus, 442 overlapping pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation assays using lymphocytes from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv. four months post-infection cells from all investigated animals (n = 4) responded by proliferation and interferon-gamma production to a peptide located on the structural protein 1d (vp1), amino acid residues 66-80. major histocompatibility ...200717540158
enhanced protective efficacy and reduced viral load of foot-and-mouth disease dna vaccine with co-stimulatory molecules as the molecular improve efficacy of dna vaccination, various approaches have been developed, including the use of plasmid expressing co-stimulatory molecules as molecular adjuvants. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either 4-1bbl or ox40l as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses and protective efficacies. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation of either molecular adjuvant induced a hig ...200717540462
heterologous expression of fmdv immunodominant epitopes and hsp70 in p. pastoris and the subsequent immune response in mice.mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein70 (hsp70) is a major antigen with both chaperone and cytokine functions. it has been used as an adjuvant to induce or potentiate humoral and cellular immunity, both in the form of a mixture with peptide antigens, and as a fusion protein. we have evaluated the effects of hsp70 on foot and mouth virus (fmdv) subunit vaccines. fmdv vp1, and a synthetic multi-epitope fmdv (eg), and vp1-hsp70 and eg-hsp70 fusion proteins were all heterologously expressed ...200717548173
alpha interferon is a powerful adjuvant for a recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, and an effective stimulus of in vivo immune response.the adjuvant effect of porcine interferon-alpha (poifn-alpha) was examined in swine vaccinated with a recombinant fmd protein vaccine named igg-fmdv, which contains the swine igg single heavy chain constant region and an immunogenic peptide of serotype o fmdv. the poifn-alpha gene was cloned into pcdna3 vector and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into cationic liposomes by a dehydration and rehydration procedure to use as an adjuvant, injected together with low-dose igg-fmdv. this proced ...200717555848
comparisons of the complete genomes of two chinese isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease type asia 1 virus.china reported the first outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia 1 in chinese hong kong in march, 2005. subsequently, this type of the virus was reported from mainland of china in april 2005. up to september of 2006, it was detected in more than 15 areas of china. in this paper, the complete genomes of two chinese isolates, asia 1/hnk/cha/05 and asia 1/js/cha/05, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were sequenced and compared with some chinese sequences and reference sequences ...200717557134
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication using strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a positive-sense, single stranded rna virus and its replication involves the synthesis of a negative strand intermediate. in the present study, a strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr assay was developed for analysis of fmdv replication. strand-specific detection of viral positive and negative strand rna was achieved using a high reverse transcription (rt) temperature (62 degrees c) and a tagged rt primer. in both the positive and negative strand assays, the ...200717561277
the early protective thymus-independent antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease virus is mediated by splenic cd9+ b lymphocytes.infection of mice with cytopathic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a rapid and specific thymus-independent (ti) neutralizing antibody response that promptly clears the virus. herein, it is shown that fmdv-infected dendritic cells (dcs) directly stimulate splenic innate-like cd9(+) b lymphocytes to rapidly (3 days) produce neutralizing anti-fmdv immunoglobulin m antibodies without t-lymphocyte collaboration. in contrast, neither follicular (cd9(-)) b lymphocytes from the spleen nor b l ...200717567692
[secreted expression of nonstructural protein gene 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sf9 cells and activity analysis].entire 3abc sequence of fmdv containing a 6 x his tag coding sequence at the n-terminal was obtained through pcr amplification using a pair of specific primers, subcloned into shuttle plasmid of pmelbac-b with a melittin secretion signal sequence and finally constructed recombinant plasmid of pmel-3abc. after co-transfected the recombinant plasmid and linearized bac-n-blue dna into sf9 insect cell under intermediary agent of the cellfectin, the result showed that we have already acquired recombi ...200717578009
thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (htst) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees c/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees c with holding times of 2 to 3 s. it was the intent of this study to determine whether htst pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial ope ...200717582103
differential factor requirement to assemble translation initiation complexes at the alternative start codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna contains two in-frame aug codons separated by 84 nt that direct translation initiation of the viral polyprotein. the mechanism of initiation at the ires-proximal aug codon (aug1) has been previously analyzed, whereas no data on factor requirements for aug2 have been reported. here, using the method of 48s translation initiation complex reconstitution, we show that eif1 is indispensable in forming the 48s initiation complex at aug2. in contrast, it redu ...200717592045
development and validation of a 3abc indirect elisa for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected from vaccinated animals.non-structural protein (nsp) 3abc antibody is considered to be the most reliable indicator of present or past infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vaccinated animals. an indirect elisa was established, using purified his-tagged 3abc fusion protein as antigen, for detection of the antibody response to fmdv nsp 3abc in different animal species. the method was validated by simultaneous detection of the early antibody responses to nsp and structural protein (sp) in fmdv asia 1 infec ...200717601688
bacterial magnetic particles (bmps)-pei as a novel and efficient non-viral gene delivery system.non-viral methods of gene delivery, especially using polyethylenimine (pei), have been widely used in gene therapy or dna vaccination. however, the pei system has its own drawbacks, which limits its applications.200717605136
immunogenicity of plasmids encoding p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine this paper, two recombinant plasmids (pvir-p12ail18-3c and pvir-p12a-3c) containing foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 and using/or not swine il18 as a genetic adjuvant were constructed, and evaluated for their ability to induce humoral and cellular responses in mice and swine. in addition, the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. mice and swine were given booster vaccination twice and once, respectively, an ...200717606304
complete nucleotide sequence of a chinese serotype asia1 vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the full-length nucleotide sequence of the chinese vaccine strain asia1/ynbs/58 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was determined. the results showed that the complete genome of ynbs/58 is 8,164 nucleotides (nt) in length including a 1,061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6,990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3' utr. genome sequences of asia1/ynbs/58 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the homology analysis indicated that non-structural proteins are more conserved than st ...200717619135
a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.pseudorabies (pr), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. the gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. in this study, a recombinant prv, which could co-express protein precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of ppv, was constructed using prv tk(-)/ge(-)/lacz(+) mutant as the vector. after homologous recombination and plaque purifi ...200717628752
foot-and-mouth disease - quantification and size distribution of airborne particles emitted by healthy and infected pigs.there is strong evidence to suggest that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted by airborne virus up to many kilometres from a virus source. atmospheric dispersion models are often used to predict where this disease might spread. this study investigated whether fmd virus (fmdv) aerosol has specific characteristics which need to be taken into consideration in these models. the characteristics and infectiousness of particles emitted by 12 pigs have been studied pre- and post-infection wit ...200716904353
plus- and minus-stranded foot-and-mouth disease virus rna quantified simultaneously using a novel real-time rt-pcr.even though tagged rt-pcr and rtth rt-pcr have been developed to improve strand-specific detection of rna virus, these assays are not quantitative. in this study, a novel real-time rt-pcr assay, which combines the benefits of both the tagged and rtth rt-pcr has been developed to quantify the strand-specific rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the tagged-primers plus a taqman probe located within the highly conserved viral 3d region were used. the in vitro synthesized minus-and plus-stran ...200716927127
the effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows.the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) transmission. to estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated and one group of non-vaccinated dairy cows (ten animals per group). half of both groups were intranasally inoculated, with fmdv field isolate o/net2001, and housed with the other half of the group (co ...200716949184
foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/ukg/2001) is poorly transmitted between sheep by the airborne route.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by the airborne route and therefore atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict where the virus might spread during a disease outbreak. airborne transmission between sheep of the fmdv strain involved in the outbreak in europe in 2001 (o/ukg/2001) was studied experimentally. recipient animals were exposed to two donor sheep excreting virus for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 24 h. although fmdv was detected in air samples collected during challenge ...200817629524
[virulence comparison of genetic engineering virus containing different length poly(c) tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus].study the association of the length of poly(c) tract with virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus.200819274849
foot and mouth disease in the lao people's democratic republic: ii. seroprevalence estimates, using structured surveillance and surveys of examination of the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus was conducted in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) from 1996 to 2005, using structured surveillance and abattoir-based studies. under structured surveillance, seropositivity ranged from 65.7% (vientiane capital, 1996) to 3% (houaphan, 2005) for cattle and buffalo; and from 2.8% (vientiane capital, 1998) to 0% in separate studies of pigs. in each study, species composition was significantly associated with ser ...200819284052
protection of guinea pigs and swine by a recombinant adenovirus expressing o serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus whole capsid and 3c protease.two recombinant adenoviruses were constructed expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and 3c/3cd proteins in replicative deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector. guinea pigs vaccinated with 1-3 x 10(8)tcid(50) ad-p12x3c recombinant adenovirus were completely protected against 10,000gid(50) homologous virulent fmdv challenge 25 days post vaccination (dpv). ad-p12x3cd vaccinated guinea pigs were only partially protected. swine were vaccinated once with 1x10(9)tcid(50) ad-p12x3c hybr ...200819178894
[expression of recombinant vp1 protein of enterovirus 71 and development of serological assay for detection of ev71 infection].to obtain a recombinant purified enterovirus 71 vpi protein and establishment of an early, rapid and accurate serological elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for detection of ev71 infection.200819544656
screwworms, cochliomyia hominivorax, reared for mass release do not carry and spread foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus.experiments were done to determine if transporting live screwworms cochliomyia hominivorax coquerel (diptera: calliphoridae) for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in mexico and panama, may introduce these exotic diseases into these countries. are screwworms capable of harboring and spreading foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) when they are grown in virus- ...200820302530
development of dna aptamers to a foot-and-mouth disease peptide for competitive fret-based detection.we sought to develop a novel competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret)-aptamer-based strategy for detection of foot-and-mouth (fmd) disease within minutes. a 14-amino-acid peptide from the vp1 structural protein, which is conserved among 16 strains of o-serotype fmd virus, was synthesized and labeled with black hole quencher-2 (bhq-2) dye. polyclonal fmd dna aptamers were labeled with alexa fluor 546-14-dutp by polymerase chain reaction and allowed to bind the bhq-2-peptide conju ...200819137093
[screening and stability of madin-darby bovine kidney cell strain co-expressing the capsid precursor protein p1-2a gene and the protease 3c gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus].to screen the madin-darby bovine kidney [co1] cell strains for stable expression of capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv [co2]).200819149169
[preparation of monoclonal antibodies against vp2 protein of asia i type foot-and-mouth disease virus and establishment of a competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies].monoclonal antibodies against fmdv vp2 protein were prepared and a competitive elisa based on the monoclonal antibodies and vp2 protein was established. balb/c mice were immunized with escherichia coli expressed fusion protein. the splenocytes from immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells sp2/0. the hybridism cells were screened by indirect elisa and limited dilution method. two hybndoma cell iines secreting mabs against asia i type foot-and-mouth disease were obtained. the titer and relativ ...200819160854
temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).ten male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes o and a were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype a, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by vnt for both serotypes.200819074789
processing of multimer fmd virus vp1-2a protein expressed in e. coli into monomers.expressions of several genes in bacteria were carried out by independent promoter. however, in case of eukaryotes ribosome skipping and introduction of ires are employed as alternative to multiple translation initiation. foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a peptide has been widely used for co-expression of multiple genes in eukaryotic, plant and mammalian systems. the 18 amino acid 2a peptide of fmdv facilitates efficient co-translational dissociation of the polyprotein into discrete protein p ...200819090346
pi3k-akt signaling and viral infection.pi3k-akt pathway is an important mechanism through which viral infection influences various cell functions. activating pi3k-akt signaling is a strategy employed by viruses to slow down apoptosis and prolong viral replication in both acute and persistent infection. it is also probable that prevention of cell death facilitates virus-induced carcinogenesis. accumulating evidence suggests that the activity of pi3k or akt is critical for survival of a few viruses. adenovirus relies on pi3k-mediated o ...200819097333
diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in brazil.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of fmd. as these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed.200819117507
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using a western blotting assay based on baculovirus-expressed nonstructural proteins 2c and 3d.baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c and 3d were used as the antigens in a western blotting assay. this assay allowed for differentiation of fmdv-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs. serial studies were performed using sera collected from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs. positive reactions were found in the sera derived from the experimentally infected pigs. there was, however, no positive reaction in the vaccinated pigs. these results su ...200819122405
serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus by antigen capture-elisa using monoclonal antibodies and chicken igy.laboratory detection of specific foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is routinely carried out by elisa and rt-pcr. identification and serotyping of fmdv by elisa requires polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits and guinea pigs. the polyclonal antibodies have certain disadvantages such as batch to batch variation, inconsistent yields of antibodies and limited quantity of serum obtained from individual animals. this paper describes a method wherein monoclonal antibodies and chicken igy were used i ...200819123312
molecular characterization of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in limpopo province, south africa.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. the virus is a single-stranded rna virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. in southern africa the south african territories (sat) 1-3 serotypes of fmd virus are maintained by large numbers of african buffaloes (syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. during february 2001, an ...200819294983
deceptive imprinting and immune refocusing in vaccine design.a large number of the world's most widespread and problematic pathogens evade host immune responses by inducing strain-specific immunity to immunodominant epitopes with high mutation rates capable of altering antigenic profiles. the immune system appears to be decoyed into reacting to these immunodominant epitopes that offer little cross protection between serotypes or subtypes. for example, during hiv-1 infection, the immune system reacts strongly to the v1, v2, and/or v3 loops of the surface e ...200818852005
enhancing effects of the chemical adjuvant levamisole on the dna vaccine pvir-p12a-il18-3c.dna-based vaccination is an attractive alternative for overcoming the disadvantages of inactivated virus vaccines; however, dna vaccines alone often generate only weak immune responses. in this study, the efficacy of lms as a chemical adjuvant on a dna vaccine (pvir-p12a-il18-3c) encoding the p1-2a and 3c genes of the fmdv and swine il-18, which provides protection against fmdv challenge, was tested. all test pigs were administered booster vaccinations 28 days after the initial inoculation, and ...200819039952
foot and mouth's achilles' heel? 200819060865
riboproteomic analysis of polypeptides interacting with the internal ribosome-entry site element of foot-and-mouth disease viral rna.initiation of translation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements depends upon the structural organization of this mrna region. besides translation initiation factors (eifs), auxiliary proteins can also affect ires activity. with the aim to identify proteins interacting with two unrelated iress present in the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and hepatitis c virus (hcv) we have used a proteomic approach. this procedure allowed the identification of 21 rna-binding prote ...200818937254
foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. these problems are the fmdv "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. here we show by laser capture microdis ...200818941503
the tale of a modern animal plague: tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus.despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. while the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutio ...200818945462
[establishment of bhk-21 cell lines stably expressing fmdv 3dpol gene by retroviral-mediated gene transfer technique].the aim of the study is to establish in vitro cell line with stable and effective 3dpol gene expression, so as to study the biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv ) 3dpol and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) gene engineering vaccine.200818972644
[analysis of the antigenicity of the expression product of fusion antigen epitope genes of fmdv].from the different recombinants of fmdv antigen epitope, the highest antigenicity one was selected, and that provided research foundation for making researches on fmd plant-based vaccines which could effectively induce cell immune response and be characterized by high eurytopicity.200818992188
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle.the aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of pd50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, type of adjuvant, valency and type of virus culture on the dose-response curve. data from 297 potency tests of fmd vaccines, comprising 4004 vaccinated cattle, performed at the fmd vaccine production fac ...200818822336
expression of biologically active recombinant porcine interleukin-12 from escherichia coli.the control of viral infections is of critical importance to livestock industries worldwide and is highlighted by costly infection outbreaks, such as that seen with foot and mouth disease virus. to ameliorate the impact of increasing problems with viral infections, new vaccine and anti-viral strategies are required and a greater understanding of the anti-viral response is essential. furthermore, in pigs, evidence is still being gathered on the components of a defined anti-viral immune response. ...200818823664
bovine viral diarrhea virus is a suitable viral vector for stable expression of heterologous gene when inserted in between n(pro) and c genes.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a group of small enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-oriented rna genome of approximately 12.3 kb. bvdv genome directs the production of a viral polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved to release the mature viral proteins. to explore the potential of using bvdv as viral vector for stable expression of heterologous genes, egfp2a was inserted in between n(pro) and c genes of a noncytopathic type-i bvdv strain sd1. egfp2a was designed with egfp ...200818824056
determinants of rna-dependent rna polymerase (in)fidelity revealed by kinetic analysis of the polymerase encoded by a foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.a mutant poliovirus (pv) encoding a change in its polymerase (3dpol) at a site remote from the catalytic center (g64s) confers reduced sensitivity to ribavirin and forms a restricted quasispecies, because g64s 3dpol is a high-fidelity enzyme. a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutant that encodes a change in the polymerase catalytic site (m296i) exhibits reduced sensitivity to ribavirin without restricting the viral quasispecies. in order to resolve this apparent paradox, we have established ...200818829745
engineering viable foot-and-mouth disease viruses with increased thermostability as a step in the development of improved vaccines.we have rationally engineered foot-and-mouth disease virus to increase its stability against thermal dissociation into subunits without disrupting the many biological functions needed for its infectivity. amino acid side chains located near the capsid intersubunit interfaces and either predicted or found to be dispensable for infectivity were replaced by others that could establish new disulfide bonds or electrostatic interactions between subunits. two engineered viruses were normally infectious ...200818829763
updating of the correlation between lpelisa titers and protection from virus challenge for the assessment of the potency of polyvalent aphtovirus vaccines in argentina.routine vaccination campaigns are carried out in argentina twice a year, involving more than 100 million doses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine. although the challenge test in cattle has not been totally replaced for the assessment of fmd vaccine potency, argentine animal health authorities have used an indirect alternative method based on specific correlation studies of protection against podal generalization (ppg) tests performed in cattle with a validated liquid phase blocking elisa (l ...200818835312
specificity of non-structural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a target population in new determine the diagnostic specificities of two commercial screening elisa, the bommeli/idexx chekit fmd 3abc indirect elisa (elisa-1) and the ceditest fmdv ns blocking elisa (elisa-2), for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle, sheep and pigs in new zealand, and to compare them with other published studies. to consider the implications for fmd surveillance of using two elisa in series, a consideration arising from the absence of a gold standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) in new zealand.200818836503
immune evasion during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of swine.summary: the interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. in acute viral infections, this balance involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induction of clinical disease in cloven hoofed animals exposed to infection. viral shedding is extensive before the equally rapid resolution of acute disease. this positive strand rna viru ...200818837777
[preparation and characterization of the polyclonal antibody against pig integrin beta6 subunit lbd as fmdv receptor].to induce the expression of fmdv receptor integrin beta6 subunit ligand-binding domain in e.coli and prepare the rabbit polyclonal antibody against it.200818845083
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