serological survey for potential disease agents of free-ranging cervids in six selected national parks from germany.a total of 164 blood samples, collected from free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) in six german national parks (np) between 2000 and 2002, were assayed for antibodies against nine viral disease agents. antibodies were only detected against the alpha-herpesviruses; specifically, bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) (22 of 157, 14%), cervid herpesvirus-1 (17 of 157, 10.8%), and caprine herpesvirus-1 (11 of 159, 6.9%). titers ranged from 4 to 10 ...200617255452
non-toxic pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a expressing the fmdv vp1 g-h loop for mucosal vaccination of swine against foot and mouth disease virus.synthetic peptides derived from the g-h loop of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein vp1 are relatively poor at recapitulating the native conformation present in the virus, and thus are often poor immunogens. we hypothesized that a candidate mucosal vaccine against fmdv could be developed using the non-toxic pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a (ntpe) to deliver the g-h loop in its native conformation. an added benefit of this approach is the potential for ntpe to serve as an effe ...200717276557
temporal and spatial distributions of foot-and-mouth disease under three different strategies of control and eradication in colombia (1982-2003).outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) from january 1982 through december 2003 were used to examine variations in serotype- and species-specific risk for three control programmes in colombia: (1982-1983) vaccination, using an aluminium hydroxide, saponin adjuvant, required but not enforced; (1984-1996) vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, required but not enforced; and (1997-2003) enforced vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, restricted animal movement enforced, ...200717285248
characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in turkey during 1996-2004.two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype o strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and asia1 strains were only rarely identified. the data presented are concordant with the conclusion that serotype a strains are repeatedly introduced to turkey from the east and circulate only transiently in farming communities, while type o strains persist ...200717294092
the potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease.we investigated the potential role of feral pigs and wild deer as fmd reservoirs with a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model, using spatially referenced data from southern texas, usa. an uncontrolled fmd outbreak initiated in feral pigs and in wild deer might infect up to 698 (90% prediction interval 181, 1387) and 1557 (823, 2118) cattle and affect an area of 166 km(2) (53, 306) and 455 km(2) (301, 588), respectively. the predicted spread of fmd virus infection was in ...200717316848
identification of a major antibody binding epitope in the non-structural protein 3d of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle and the development of a monoclonal antibody with diagnostic applications.detection of fmdv non-structural protein 3d antibodies has been used as a complementary method for sero-epidemiological studies as an indirect indicator of fmdv infection. in order to develop a sensitive celisa to detect fmdv antibodies, immune dominant epitopes in fmdv-3d protein were identified by peptide array analysis. monoclonal antibodies were then raised to a selected epitope and used in celisa. ninety two peptides corresponding to the complete amino acid sequence of fmdv-3d were synthesi ...200717320098
thermostable variants are not generally represented in foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies.a severe limitation to fully realize the dramatic potential for adaptation of rna virus quasispecies may occur if mutations in vast regions of the sequence space of virus genomes lead to significant decreases in biological fitness. in this study the detection and selection by heat of thermostable variants from different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) populations were attempted, in order to explore whether fmdv may generally accept a substantial increase in thermostability without compromisi ...200717325358
production and application of recombinant antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3abc.the stamping out of animals to control a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreak results in enormous livestock losses. the implementation of vaccination strategies can reduce these losses; however it complicates the process of establishing freedom from disease following an outbreak. the availability of quality diagnostic tests to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial to prove freedom from disease and allow for the resumption of trade in livestock products. all current fo ...200717328909
development of an epitope-blocking-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate between animals infected with and vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease epitope-blocking elisa (eb-elisa) was developed to distinguish animals infected with foot-and-mouth-disease (fmdv) from those immunized with commercial vaccines. the assay used monoclonal antibodies to target the 3b core repeat motif (qkplk) and purified recombinant 3ab proteins from the major b cell line epitopes of fmdv. sera from uninfected and regularly vaccinated cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep (raised in fmdv free areas) were screened to evaluate the specificity of the eb-elisa. the spec ...200717336400
[retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in west africa from 1970 to 2003].a retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in seven west african countries was conducted for the period 1970 to 2003. the study included three cattle-exporting sahel countries (burkina-faso, mali and niger) and four cattle-importing coastal countries (benin, côte d'lvoire, ghana and togo). foot and mouth disease has been enzootic in these countries since 1990/1991. four of the seven serotypes are regularly notified (o, a, sat 1 and sat 2). in the seven countries as a whole, 198 biological s ...200617361767
a quantitative assessment of the risks from illegally imported meat contaminated with foot and mouth disease virus to great britain.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered by many as the most important animal disease in the world. fmd is highly contagious and outbreaks incur significant costs as affected countries are severely limited in their ability to trade. a number of trade commodities may be contaminated with fmd virus (fmdv) including animal products, for example, meat. as a member of the european union, great britain (gb) has put in place a number of regulations to prevent the importation of pathogens in imported ...200717362409
molecular relationships between type asia 1 new strain from china and type o panasia strains of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the complete genome of asia 1/hnk/cha/05 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sequenced, which was isolated from chinese hongkong in 2005. it is 8187 nt long in size and contains 5'-utr, polyprotein region, and 3'-utr. polyprotein region can be divided into four parts of l, p1, p2 and p3. in this report, these six parts of the whole genome of the strain were compared with 12 reference strains using dnastar and simplot softwares. the comparison of p1 confirmed that asia 1/hnk/cha/05 ...200717380372
enhanced immunogenicity of modified hepatitis b virus core particle fused with multiepitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.hepatitis b virus core (hbc) particles, self-assemble into capsid particles and are extremely immunogenic, hold promise as an immune-enhancing vaccine carrier for heterologous antigens. however, formation of virus-like particles (vlp) can be restricted by size and structure of heterlogous antigens. in the study, we investigated formation of vlp by modified hbc fused with specified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) multiepitopes and evaluated their immune effects. firstly, three hbc display vec ...200717386022
characterization of recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus pentamer-like structures expressed by baculovirus and their use as diagnostic antigens in a blocking elisa.non-infectious recombinant pentamer-like structures of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed by baculovirus, and the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the proteins were analyzed in a blocking elisa for the detection of fmdv antibodies. the recombinant pentamer-like structures were produced in insect (sf9) cells that were inoculated with recombinant baculoviruses that expressed, simultaneously, the genes for the p1 and 3c proteins of fmdv from individual promoters. the fmdv pent ...200717386963
seroprevalence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in free-ranging european bison from the biaƂowieza primeval forest (poland).blood was collected from bison that were selected between 1991 and 2001 for poor body condition, cachexia, lameness and balanoposthitis. sera were tested for antibodies to bovine herpes virus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3), brucella abortus, chlamydophila abortus, coxiella burnetti, and leptospira interrogans. the results of serological tests showed a prevalence of low titers of a serological reaction to ...200717388020
efficient multicistronic expression of a transgene in human embryonic stem cells.the applicability of human embryonic stem cells (hescs) will be greatly enhanced by techniques that permit efficient genetic modification with multiple transgenes. we report here on single-promoter-driven foot-and-mouth disease virus segment 2a-mediated multicistronic expression of a transgene in hescs. efficient multicistronic expression of the transgene was permitted by 2a-mediated separation with almost the same amounts of encoded proteins in hesc. in addition, the multicistronic protein expr ...200717395772
implementation of a one-step real-time rt-pcr protocol for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth automated one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) protocol was optimised and evaluated for the routine diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). parallel testing of rna samples (n=257) indicated that this assay has a diagnostic sensitivity at least equivalent to the automated two-step rrt-pcr protocol previously used for the laboratory detection of fmd virus (fmdv). this more rapid and economical one-step protocol will play a key role in contingency plann ...200717397937
genotype differentiating rt-pcr and sandwich elisa: handy tools in epidemiological investigation of foot and mouth disease.years of molecular epidemiological surveillance has revealed co-circulation of two antigenically divergent genotypes of foot and mouth disease virus serotype a in india. genotype differentiating rt-pcr and sandwich elisa were developed as fast, cost-effective and user-friendly alternatives to 1d region based phylogeny for detection and differentiation of genotype vi and vii. the rt-pcr assay targeting 1d region was found to be more sensitive and authentic in distinguishing genotypes than sandwic ...200717400298
toward a multiplexed serotyping immunoassay for foot-and-mouth disease virus.initial results demonstrating the feasibility of a multiplexed liquid array immunoassay for foot-and-mouth disease viral antigen detection and simultaneous serotype differentiation are presented. serotype-specific antibodies from rabbit and guinea pig hyperimmunesera were isolated and prepared for use in a multiplexed, bead-based assay. the performance of all of the available antibodies as both capture and detector reagents was evaluated in the multiplexed system to establish a combination exhib ...200717402613
combined dna vaccination against three animal viruses elicits decreased immunogenicity of a single plasmid in order to investigate whether combined dna vaccines are an ideal way to combine antigens in a single vaccine formulation, we immunized mice with three plasmids (pvsg, pvgd and pve2), respectively, encoding the antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), pseudorabies virus (prv) and classic swine fever virus (csfv), either alone or in a combined vaccine regimen. we also investigated the immune responses induced by a series of mixtures in which three plasmids were mixed in pairs. then we fur ...200717420075
proceedings - embryo transfer in the canadian cattle industry status of disease transmission studies and thier relationship to the international movement of bovine embryos.the current, generally accepted approach to formulating health requirements for the international movement of embryos is to base them on the health status of the male and female donor animals. the alternative approach of basing them on the health status of the embryos themselves has been blocked by the lack of scientific information about the potential of the early embryo to transmit agents of infectious disease. consequently, most research into infectious disease transmission by embryos has had ...198617422615
induction of immature dendritic cell apoptosis by foot and mouth disease virus is an integrin receptor mediated event before viral infection.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been demonstrated to infect dendritic cells (dc) and reduced its ability to stimulate host immune responses. this study aimed to determine whether non-replicating fmdv could induce apoptosis of the host immune cells. in this study, we have demonstrated that bone morrow derived dendritic cells (bmdcs) were induced to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which was determined by the annexin-v staining, dna fragmentation, and tunel staining methods, a ...200717427949
pocket factors are unlikely to play a major role in the life cycle of human rhinovirus.human rhinovirus 14 (hrv14) is a member of the rhinovirus genus, which belongs to the picornavirus family, which includes clinically and economically important members, such as poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and endomyocarditis virus. capsid stability plays an important role in the viral infection process, in that it needs to be stable enough to move from cell to cell and yet be able to release its genetic material upon the appropriate environmental cues from the host cell. it has bee ...200717428846
molecular basis for a lack of correlation between viral fitness and cell killing capacity.the relationship between parasite fitness and virulence has been the object of experimental and theoretical studies often with conflicting conclusions. here, we provide direct experimental evidence that viral fitness and virulence, both measured in the same biological environment provided by host cells in culture, can be two unrelated traits. a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus acquired high fitness and virulence (cell killing capacity) upon large population passages in cell cultu ...200717432933
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying porcine interferon-gamma and its expression in porcine kidney cells (pk-15)].porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) of chinese local brand, meishan porcine, was cloned and inserted into retroviral vector plxsn (neo r) . using lipofectamine, this recombinant plasmid was transfected into retroviral packing cell line, pa317 cells. these transfected cells were selected by dmem containing 400microg/ml g418 for one week. rna was extracted from the supernatant of these selected pa317 cells and the poifn-gamma gene could be amplified by rt-pcr. pocine kidney cells and pk-15 cell ...200717436641
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection induces proteolytic cleavage of ptb, eif3a,b, and pabp rna-binding proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection induces major changes in the host cell including the shutoff of cellular protein synthesis. here, protein extracts from fmdv-infected cells have been used to monitor changes in the profile of rna-binding factors interacting with regulatory regions of the viral rna. relevant differences have been detected in the pattern of interaction with proteins prepared from either infected or uninfected cells with rna probes encompassing the internal ribosome ent ...200717445855
immune responses of pigs to commercialized emulsion fmd vaccines and live virus challenge.the immune response to structural and non-structural proteins (nsps) was studied on sequential serum samples in swine from o/taiwan/97 fmdv challenge studies, outbreaks and after vaccination. the results showed that pigs vaccinated with a commercial vaccine prior to or after infection maintained high neutralizing antibody titers with gradual decline from peak titers over the duration of this study. however, neutralizing antibody titers in non-vaccinated pigs only reached moderate levels 2-4 week ...200717445957
characterization of a cyanobacterial rnase p ribozyme recognition motif in the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals a unique structural element.translation initiation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements is dependent on the structural organization of the ires region. picornavirus ires are organized in structural domains, in which the terminal stem-loops participate in functional rna-protein interactions. however, the mechanistic role performed by the central domain during internal initiation has not been elucidated yet. here we show that the foot-and-mouth-disease virus ires contains a structural motif that serves in v ...200717449727
microarray-based molecular detection of foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease viruses, using padlock probes.the world organization for animal health (office international des epizooties, oie) includes the diseases caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), as "diseases notifiable to the oie". foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have severe economical as well as social effects and cannot be differentiated from the diseases caused by the other two viruses on the basis of clinical symptoms. efficient laboratory techniques ...200717451815
foot-and-mouth disease virus crosses the placenta and causes death in fetal lambs.eighteen pregnant sheep, six at 45 days gestation and twelve at 75 days gestation, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg 34/2001. two sheep from each gestational group were killed at 2, 4, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). three sheep, pregnant for 75 days at infection, were killed at 17 and 18 dpi. real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and virus isolation (vi) were used to detect viral rna and infectious virus, respectively, in fetal tis ...200717459409
performance of a foot-and-mouth disease virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with amplification controls between three real-time instruments.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the picornavirus family, possessing an 8-kb single-stranded rna genome of positive polarity. it is highly contagious among several livestock species and can lead to severe economic consequences, as evidenced by the uk outbreak in 2001. the usage of real-time polymerase chain reaction has facilitated rapid detection of fmdv. several real-time pcr instruments are available with various capabilities, such as portability and high sample volume a ...200717459827
enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by a combination of type i and ii porcine interferons.previously, we showed that type i interferon (alpha/beta interferon [ifn-alpha/beta]) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture, and swine inoculated with 10(9) pfu of human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine ifn-alpha (ad5-pifn-alpha) were protected when challenged 1 day later. in this study, we found that type ii pifn (pifn-gamma) also has antiviral activity against fmdv in cell culture and that, in combination with pifn-alpha, it has a synergistic antiviral ...200717459931
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a and o isolated in argentina during the 2000-2002 epizootic.during 2000-2002 a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epizootic affected argentina and spread across the country resulting in more than 2500 outbreaks. in order to study the evolution of the fmd viruses (fmdv) and help with disease control measures, a genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis was performed of 43 field isolates representative of the epizootic. the nucleotide sequence of the vp1-coding region was determined for the viruses and used in this study. two serotype a lineages, a/arg/ ...200717475419
insights into rna virus mutant spectrum and lethal mutagenesis events: replicative interference and complementation by multiple point mutants.rna virus behavior can be influenced by interactions among viral genomes and their expression products within the mutant spectra of replicating viral quasispecies. here, we report the extent of interference of specific capsid and polymerase mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on replication of wild-type (wt) rna. the capsid and polymerase mutants chosen for this analysis had been characterized biochemically and structurally. upon co-electroporation of bhk-21 cells with wt rna and a te ...200717481660
evaluation of laboratory tests for sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in zimbabwe.during a field study in zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical fmd had not been observed in the sixth herd. a trivalent vaccine (south african territories [sat] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or afte ...200717496271
immunization of dna vaccine encoding c3d-vp1 fusion enhanced protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus.because foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) remains a great problem to many livestock of agricultural importance, safe, effective vaccines are in great need. dna vaccine would be a promising candidate but the design remains to be optimized. vp1 gene of fmdv strain o/es/2001 was linked to three copies of either porcine or murine c3d or four copies of a 28-aa fragment of murine c3d containing the cr2 receptor binding domain (m28). the resultant plasmids encoding c3d/m28-vp1 fusion or only vp1 as c ...200717497212
chimeric tymovirus-like particles displaying foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein epitopes and its use for detection of fmdv-nsp antibodies.expression of physalis mottle tymovirus (phmv) coat protein (cp) in escherichia coli (e. coli) was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that are nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. aminoacid substitutions were made at the n-terminus of wild-type phmv cp with single or tandem repeats of infection related b-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsps) 3b1, 3b2, 3ab, 3d and 3abd of lengths 48, 66, 49, 51 and 55, respectively to produce ...200717499404
improvement of a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by supplement of quil model animal experiment a, icr mice were immunized with ovalbumin (ova) adjuvanted with quil a or mineral oil or their combination (quil a+oil). in model animal experiment b, icr mice were immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens or with a commercially available oil adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine (type o) alone or mixed with quil a. after that, serum samples were collected to analyze specific igg and igg subclasses igg1, igg2a, igg2b, and igg3. in experimen ...200717509735
structural analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: a viable target for antiviral drugs?foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a major global agricultural problem that is difficult to control with existing vaccines. structural analyses of the viral 3c protease not only have provided fresh insights into the catalytic mechanism of an unusual class of chymotrypsin-like cysteine proteases, but also are generating valuable information to drive the quest for effective antiviral therapies.200717511659
molecular typing of a new foot-and-mouth disease virus in egypt. 200717513836
sequential structures provide insights into the fidelity of rna replication.rna virus replication is an error-prone event caused by the low fidelity of viral rna-dependent rna polymerases. replication fidelity can be decreased further by the use of mutagenic ribonucleoside analogs to a point where viral genetic information can no longer be maintained. for foot-and-mouth disease virus, the antiviral analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil have been shown to be mutagenic, contributing to virus extinction through lethal mutagenesis. here, we report the x-ray structure of four ...200717517631
guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.we report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. adaptive amino acid replacements (i(248)-->t in 2c, q(44)-->r in 3a, and l(147)-->p in vp1), selected upon serial passages of a type c fmdv isolated from swine (biological clone c-s8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swin ...200717522230
identification of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitope with immunodominant characteristics in cattle with mhc serotype identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the entire polyprotein sequence of the virus, 442 overlapping pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation assays using lymphocytes from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv. four months post-infection cells from all investigated animals (n = 4) responded by proliferation and interferon-gamma production to a peptide located on the structural protein 1d (vp1), amino acid residues 66-80. major histocompatibility ...200717540158
enhanced protective efficacy and reduced viral load of foot-and-mouth disease dna vaccine with co-stimulatory molecules as the molecular improve efficacy of dna vaccination, various approaches have been developed, including the use of plasmid expressing co-stimulatory molecules as molecular adjuvants. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either 4-1bbl or ox40l as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses and protective efficacies. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation of either molecular adjuvant induced a hig ...200717540462
heterologous expression of fmdv immunodominant epitopes and hsp70 in p. pastoris and the subsequent immune response in mice.mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein70 (hsp70) is a major antigen with both chaperone and cytokine functions. it has been used as an adjuvant to induce or potentiate humoral and cellular immunity, both in the form of a mixture with peptide antigens, and as a fusion protein. we have evaluated the effects of hsp70 on foot and mouth virus (fmdv) subunit vaccines. fmdv vp1, and a synthetic multi-epitope fmdv (eg), and vp1-hsp70 and eg-hsp70 fusion proteins were all heterologously expressed ...200717548173
alpha interferon is a powerful adjuvant for a recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, and an effective stimulus of in vivo immune response.the adjuvant effect of porcine interferon-alpha (poifn-alpha) was examined in swine vaccinated with a recombinant fmd protein vaccine named igg-fmdv, which contains the swine igg single heavy chain constant region and an immunogenic peptide of serotype o fmdv. the poifn-alpha gene was cloned into pcdna3 vector and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into cationic liposomes by a dehydration and rehydration procedure to use as an adjuvant, injected together with low-dose igg-fmdv. this proced ...200717555848
comparisons of the complete genomes of two chinese isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease type asia 1 virus.china reported the first outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia 1 in chinese hong kong in march, 2005. subsequently, this type of the virus was reported from mainland of china in april 2005. up to september of 2006, it was detected in more than 15 areas of china. in this paper, the complete genomes of two chinese isolates, asia 1/hnk/cha/05 and asia 1/js/cha/05, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were sequenced and compared with some chinese sequences and reference sequences ...200717557134
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication using strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a positive-sense, single stranded rna virus and its replication involves the synthesis of a negative strand intermediate. in the present study, a strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr assay was developed for analysis of fmdv replication. strand-specific detection of viral positive and negative strand rna was achieved using a high reverse transcription (rt) temperature (62 degrees c) and a tagged rt primer. in both the positive and negative strand assays, the ...200717561277
the early protective thymus-independent antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease virus is mediated by splenic cd9+ b lymphocytes.infection of mice with cytopathic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a rapid and specific thymus-independent (ti) neutralizing antibody response that promptly clears the virus. herein, it is shown that fmdv-infected dendritic cells (dcs) directly stimulate splenic innate-like cd9(+) b lymphocytes to rapidly (3 days) produce neutralizing anti-fmdv immunoglobulin m antibodies without t-lymphocyte collaboration. in contrast, neither follicular (cd9(-)) b lymphocytes from the spleen nor b l ...200717567692
[secreted expression of nonstructural protein gene 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sf9 cells and activity analysis].entire 3abc sequence of fmdv containing a 6 x his tag coding sequence at the n-terminal was obtained through pcr amplification using a pair of specific primers, subcloned into shuttle plasmid of pmelbac-b with a melittin secretion signal sequence and finally constructed recombinant plasmid of pmel-3abc. after co-transfected the recombinant plasmid and linearized bac-n-blue dna into sf9 insect cell under intermediary agent of the cellfectin, the result showed that we have already acquired recombi ...200717578009
thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (htst) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees c/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees c with holding times of 2 to 3 s. it was the intent of this study to determine whether htst pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial ope ...200717582103
differential factor requirement to assemble translation initiation complexes at the alternative start codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna contains two in-frame aug codons separated by 84 nt that direct translation initiation of the viral polyprotein. the mechanism of initiation at the ires-proximal aug codon (aug1) has been previously analyzed, whereas no data on factor requirements for aug2 have been reported. here, using the method of 48s translation initiation complex reconstitution, we show that eif1 is indispensable in forming the 48s initiation complex at aug2. in contrast, it redu ...200717592045
development and validation of a 3abc indirect elisa for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected from vaccinated animals.non-structural protein (nsp) 3abc antibody is considered to be the most reliable indicator of present or past infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vaccinated animals. an indirect elisa was established, using purified his-tagged 3abc fusion protein as antigen, for detection of the antibody response to fmdv nsp 3abc in different animal species. the method was validated by simultaneous detection of the early antibody responses to nsp and structural protein (sp) in fmdv asia 1 infec ...200717601688
bacterial magnetic particles (bmps)-pei as a novel and efficient non-viral gene delivery system.non-viral methods of gene delivery, especially using polyethylenimine (pei), have been widely used in gene therapy or dna vaccination. however, the pei system has its own drawbacks, which limits its applications.200717605136
immunogenicity of plasmids encoding p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine this paper, two recombinant plasmids (pvir-p12ail18-3c and pvir-p12a-3c) containing foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 and using/or not swine il18 as a genetic adjuvant were constructed, and evaluated for their ability to induce humoral and cellular responses in mice and swine. in addition, the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. mice and swine were given booster vaccination twice and once, respectively, an ...200717606304
complete nucleotide sequence of a chinese serotype asia1 vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the full-length nucleotide sequence of the chinese vaccine strain asia1/ynbs/58 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was determined. the results showed that the complete genome of ynbs/58 is 8,164 nucleotides (nt) in length including a 1,061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6,990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3' utr. genome sequences of asia1/ynbs/58 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the homology analysis indicated that non-structural proteins are more conserved than st ...200717619135
a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.pseudorabies (pr), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. the gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. in this study, a recombinant prv, which could co-express protein precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of ppv, was constructed using prv tk(-)/ge(-)/lacz(+) mutant as the vector. after homologous recombination and plaque purifi ...200717628752
foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/ukg/2001) is poorly transmitted between sheep by the airborne route.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by the airborne route and therefore atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict where the virus might spread during a disease outbreak. airborne transmission between sheep of the fmdv strain involved in the outbreak in europe in 2001 (o/ukg/2001) was studied experimentally. recipient animals were exposed to two donor sheep excreting virus for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 24 h. although fmdv was detected in air samples collected during challenge ...200817629524
a continuous assay for foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease activity.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a highly contagious pathogen that spreads rapidly among livestock and is capable of causing widespread agricultural and economic devastation. the virus genome is translated to produce a single polypeptide chain that subsequently is cleaved by viral proteases into mature protein products, with one protease, 3c(pro), carrying out the majority of the cleavages. the highly conserved nature of this protease across different viral strains and its crucial role in viral m ...200717631855
antigen and vaccine banks: technical requirements and the role of the european antigen bank in emergency foot and mouth disease vaccination.antigen and vaccine banks are stocks of immunogenic materials ready to be formulated into vaccines (bulk antigens) or ready to use (vaccines) in case of need by one or more of the parties of the bank. these stocks were primarily developed by foot and mouth disease [fmd] free european countries to control unexpected severe fmd episodes after the cessation of routine vaccination in the 1990s. for various reasons, including the lack of suitable antigens or of discriminatory tests to be used followi ...200717633297
vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus--importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection.the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) displays several independent b cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. the site a on vp1 is the most prominent example of a dominant and variable site. this variability is a problem when designing vaccines against this disease, because it necessitates a close match between vaccine strain and virus in an outbreak. w ...200717640782
antibody response in a group of swine after infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.virus-neutralizing antibody and immunity after infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus was studied for 128 days in a group of swine. antibody first appeared at 3 days, rose to peak levels between 7-10 days, and regressed to a plateau by 28 days. after 28 days, there was little change in mean antibody titres. an attempt to reinfect 10 swine at 28 days was not successful. at 128 days, the immune status of 4 convalescent swine neutralized more than 4 logarithms of virus in an in vivo titration. ...196217649387
growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in dispersed tissue cells: i. methods of production.methods are described for rapid and economical production of large quantities of foot-and-mouth disease virus in stationary cultures of trypsin-dispersed bovine kidney cells in a simple medium. yields of between 10(7) and 10(8) plaque-forming units per milliliter were obtained from serum-free cultures containing approximately a million and a half viable trypsin-dispersed cells per milliliter. some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods of virus production are discussed.196217649388
formalin-treated foot-and-mouth disease virus: comparison of two adjuvants in cattle. 196317649456
effect of 2-(a hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole on teschen disease virus, pig enteric viruses, and foot-and-mouth disease virus in kidney cell cultures.the synthetic compound, 2-((a) hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (hbb) partially inhibited the cytopathogenicity and multiplication of teschen disease virus (tdv) and 6 enteric-cytopathogenic porcine orphan (ecpo) viruses in swine cells but not of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bovine kidney cells. for fmdv, there appeared to be a slight enhancement in virus yield and in cytopathic effect when hbb was present. the inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect and reproduction of tdv and ecpo viru ...196417649516
studies on a rabbit-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus of type c. waldmann: i. adaptation and immunogenicity. 196417649543
a peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 generating a neutralizing antibody response, and an immunostimulatory peptide.the epitopes of the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) play important roles in the construction of highly immunogenic subunit vaccines. however few epitopes have been found for fmdv serotype asia1. in this study we screened for epitopes of the vp1 and vp2 proteins of fmdv serotype asia1 isolate, ynbs/58. fragments consisting of amino acids 133-163 of vp1 and amino acids 1-33 of vp2 contained epitopes, and both induced lymphoproliferation in guinea pigs. only the vp1 fragment induced n ...200717656048
foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs.the aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus in groups of pigs. previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with fmd virus 14 days after vaccination was not suitable to start an infection chain, as inoculated vaccinated pigs resisted challenge. therefore, we carried out two experiments in which we used direct contact to a non-vaccinated pig as route of in ...200717658199
porcine b-cell activating factor promotes anti-fmdv antibodies in vitro but not in vivo after dna vaccination of pigs.'b-cell activating factor belonging to the tnf family' (baff) represents a cytokine produced by antigen presenting cells promoting b-cell maturation, activation and immunoglobulin class switching. in the present study, we demonstrate expression of baff on cultured monocyte-derived dendritic cells, which is further enhanced by interferon-alpha or interferon-gamma treatment. from these cells, porcine baff was cloned and the recombinant protein was expressed in mammalian cells with and without a fl ...200717658618
thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension.the heat resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains isolated from outbreaks in thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 degrees c. the first-order kinetic model fitted most of the observed linear inactivation curves. the ranges of decimal-reduction time (d value) of fmdv strains at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 degrees c were 732 to 1,275 s, 16.37 to 42.00 s, 6.06 to 10.87 s, 2.84 to 5.99 s, 1.65 to 3.18 s, and 1.90 to 2.94 s, respe ...200717660312
the complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/akesu/58 strain and its some molecular characteristics.the complete genome of o/akesu/58 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it is not closely related to epidemic strains or previous strains compared with reference sequences (the identities of complete vp1 nucleotide sequences range from 77.5 to 84.0%). its cell-receptor-binding site is a sgd (ser-gly-asp) motif instead of rgd (arg-gly-asp), and 43 bases were deleted in pks region of the 5'utr, although deletions were not found in othe ...200717680320
a meta-analysis quantifying transmission parameters of fmdv strain o taiwan among non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs.our aim was to provide additional estimates of main parameters for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain o taiwan (3/97). we used the data of previous experiments in non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs and combined the data of experiments with the same treatment(s). first, we quantified the reproduction ratio r for the various groups using a final-size method. our final-size results predicted that vaccination with a four-fold vaccine dose (but not with a single dose) at 1 ...200817683815
genetic and phenotypic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during serial passages in a natural host.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), like other rna viruses, exhibits high mutation rates during replication that have been suggested to be of adaptive value. however, even though genetic variation in rna viruses and, more specifically, fmdv has been extensively examined during virus replication in a wide variety of in vitro cell cultures, very little is known regarding the generation and effects of genetic variability of virus replication in the natural host under experimental conditions and no ...200717686868
effects of chronic heat stress on immune responses of the foot-and-mouth disease dna vaccination.the main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of chronic heat stress (chs) on humoral and cellular responses of dna vaccination. mice with the chs were exposed to a temperature set at 38 +/- 1 degrees c, 2h per day, for 35 days, and mice with thermoneutral (tn) temperature were maintained at 24 +/- 1 degrees c for the same period of time. both groups of mice were immunized with a dna vaccine-expressed viruscapsid protein 1 (vp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and we tested th ...200717688414
evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based approach for the selection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine strains.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus exists as seven serotypes within which are numerous variants necessitating careful selection of vaccine strains. currently, a serological assay system based on the use of polyclonal vaccine antisera is widely used for this selection. however, inherent variability in the matching antisera used makes the tests poorly reproducible and difficult to interpret. in this study, we have explored the possibility of replacing or supplementing the polyclonal antibody (pab) ...200817689892
biosecurity. u.k. labs suspected as source of foot-and-mouth outbreak. 200717690265
structural insights into the transcriptional and translational roles of ebp1.the erbb3-binding protein 1 (ebp1) is an important regulator of transcription, affecting eukaryotic cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. ebp1 can also affect translation and cooperates with the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb) to stimulate the activity of the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we report here the crystal structure of murine ebp1 (p48 isoform), providing the first glimpse of the architecture of this versatile ...200717690690
biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state determine biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state fair.200717696860
use of a peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus for the noninvasive imaging of human cancer: generation and evaluation of 4-[18f]fluorobenzoyl a20fmdv2 for in vivo imaging of integrin alphavbeta6 expression with positron emission tomography.expression of the epithelial-specific integrin alphavbeta6 is low or undetectable in most adult tissues but may be increased during wound healing and inflammation and is up-regulated dramatically by many different carcinomas, making alphavbeta6 a promising target for the in vivo detection of cancer using noninvasive imaging. in addition, alphavbeta6 is recognized as promoting invasion and correlates with aggressive behavior of human cancers and thus agents that recognize alphavbeta6 specifically ...200717699789
immune responses of swine inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine il-18.two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rfpv-p1 and rfpv-il18-2ap12a) containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 were evaluated to determine their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses in the presence or absence of swine il-18 as genetic adjuvant. the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. all swine were given booster vaccinations at 21 days after the initial inoculation and were challenged 10 days after ...200817706296
foot-and-mouth disease non-structural protein serology in cattle: use of a bayesian framework to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests and true prevalence in the field.the diagnostic performance of six foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) assays for detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsp) of the fmd virus (fmdv) was estimated using a bayesian analysis on field sera from cattle of unknown infection status originating from post-fmdv outbreak situations in israel and zimbabwe. estimations of the disease prevalence in both populations were also obtained. the diagnostic sensitivity estimates did not differ between both field studies, although overall b ...200717709157
productive entry of type c foot-and-mouth disease virus into susceptible cultured cells requires clathrin and is dependent on the presence of plasma membrane cholesterol.we have characterized the entry leading to productive infection of a type c fmdv in two cell lines widely used for virus growth, bhk-21 and ibrs-2. inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by sucrose treatment decreased both cell entry and virus multiplication. evidence of a direct requirement of clathrin for productive viral entry was obtained using bhk21-tta/anti-chc cells, which showed a significant reduction of viral entry and infection when the synthesis and functionality of clathrin hea ...200717714753
immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig farms after the 1997 outbreak in taiwan.this paper reports on a retrospective study of the antibody responses to structural and non-structural proteins of fmd virus o taiwan 97 in six pig herds in taiwan in the year after the 1997 taiwanese fmd outbreak. all herds were vaccinated against fmd after the outbreak as part of the countrywide control program. three of the herds had confirmed fmd infections (herds n, o and p) and three herds remained non-infected (herds k, l and m). the serum neutralizing antibody titers and the non-structur ...200817716836
development of a novel recombinant encapsidated rna particle: evaluation as an internal control for diagnostic rt-pcr.this report describes the generation of novel encapsidated rna particles and their evaluation as in-tube internal controls in diagnostic real-time reverse-transcription pcr (rrt-pcr) assays for the detection of rna viruses. a cassette containing sequences of 2 diagnostic primer sets for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and a set for swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) was engineered into a full-length cdna clone containing the rna-2 segment of cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv). after co-inoculation ...200717727966
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba).a study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). two detection methods: nasba-electrochemiluminescence (nasba-ecl) and a newly developed nasba-enzyme-linked oligonucleotide capture (nasba-eoc) were evaluated. the diagnostic sensitivity of these assays was compared with other laboratory-based methods using 200 clinical samples collected from different regions of the world. assay ...200817728080
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus infections in cell cultures with antisense morpholino oligomers.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed ungulates that can lead to severe losses in the livestock production and export industries. although vaccines have been extensively used to control fmd, there is no antiviral therapy available to treat ongoing infections with fmd virus (fmdv). six peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers (ppmos) with sequences complementary to various 21-nucleotide segments of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (utrs) of the fmdv g ...200717728223
rotational symmetry in foot-and-mouth disease virus and models.with small, animal viruses for which electron-microscope images show little penetration by negative stain, the rotation technique for structure determination is useful. foot-and-mouth disease virus resembles a 32-unit model when rotational images of virus and models simulating virus in negative stain are compared.196517751854
mutation pressure shapes codon usage in the gc-rich genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is economically the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. in this study, we report the results of a survey of codon usage bias of fmd virus (fmdv) representing all seven serotypes (a, o, c, asia 1, sat 1, sat 2, and sat 3). correspondence analysis, a commonly used multivariate statistical approach, was carried out to analyze synonymous codon usage bias. the analysis showed that the overall extent of codon usage bias in fmdv is low. furthermore, th ...200717768673
fmd in surrey: investigations continue into the source of the virus. 200717784509
in vitro induction of mucosa-type dendritic cells by all-trans retinoic acid.efficient induction of mucosal immunity usually employs nasal or oral vaccination while parenteral immunization generally is ineffective at generating mucosal immune responses. this relates to the unique ability of resident mucosal dendritic cells (dc) to induce iga switching and to imprint mucosa-specific homing receptors on lymphocytes. based on the well-established plasticity of the dc system, this study sought to investigate whether peripheral dc could be modulated toward "mucosa-type" dc by ...200717785784
bovine serum panel for evaluating foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody tests.a panel of 36 sera has been assembled from experimental cattle that had been infected by inoculation or contact exposure with 4 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with or without prior vaccination. virus replication and persistence had been characterized in all of the animals. the proportion of the sera scored positive by 5 tests for antibodies to the nonstructural proteins of fmdv varied, suggesting that the panel can discriminate between the sensitivity with which such tests are ...200717823399
foot-and-mouth disease: measurements of aerosol emission from pigs as a function of virus strain and initial dose.measurements of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus have been made using 20 pigs that had either o ukg or c noville injected into their heel-pads to determine if the kinetics of virus emission are related to the virus strain and dose administered in the challenge inoculum. viable virus was detected in aerosol emissions for 3 days regardless of the strain or dose of virus given. no correlation was found between the peak level of virus emission and dose, but pigs infected with a lower dose of vi ...200817827041
myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in lambs.the present study describes the pathogenetic mechanisms of myocarditis in 9 lambs that died in a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in samsun, turkey. in all the heart samples tested, elisa and sequencing for phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus, namely o/tur/samsun/05, was associated with the panasia pandemic strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o. the lambs had myocardial lesions but no typical vesicular lesions. in situ reverse transcription showed that many cardiomyocytes a ...200717846231
[efficacy of an emergency vaccine against foot and mouth disease in pigs]. 200717849910
biosecurity. reports blame animal health lab in foot-and-mouth whodunit. 200717872418
back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(a) synergy and the selective advantage of ires-driven translation.translation of most eukaryotic mrnas involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(a) tail at the initiation step. the poly(a) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (ires)-directed translation. these effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eif4g and poly(a)-binding protein (pabp) but also to the participation of pabp in other steps during translation initiation. as the rabbit reticul ...200717881372
degradation of nuclear factor kappa b during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.we have previously shown that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) interferes with the innate immune response by blocking the translation of interferon (ifn) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of beta ifn mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. here, we report that l(pro) regulates the activity of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). analysis of nf-kappab-dependent reporter gene expression in bhk-21 cells demonstrated that infection with wild-type (wt) vi ...200717881445
molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine toll-like receptor 7 involved in recognition of single-stranded rna virus/ssrna.the interest in understanding interaction between the toll-like receptor and the viral infection has increased because of its importance in disease control. here we have cloned the porcine tlr7 (ptlr7) cdna encoding for 1050 amino acids. the ptlr7 exhibits 90, 87, 87, 86, 84 and 78% similarity to tlr7 from cattle, dog, horse, cat, human and mouse, respectively. rt-pcr data suggested that ptlr7 mrna was mostly synthesized in secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph node and tonsil) and antigen-p ...200817889367
animal vaccination and the evolution of viral pathogens.despite reducing disease, vaccination rarely protects against infection and many pathogens persist within vaccinated animal populations. circulation of viral pathogens within vaccinated populations may favour the development of vaccine resistance with implications for the evolution of virus pathogenicity and the emergence of variant viruses. the high rate of mutations during replication of ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses is conducive to the development of escape mutants. in vaccinated cattle, unu ...200717892155
investigating the substrate specificity and oligomerisation of the leader protease of foot and mouth disease virus using nmr.the leader protease (lbpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus frees itself during translation from the viral polyprotein by cleavage between its own c terminus and the n terminus of the subsequent protein, vp4. lbpro also specifically cleaves the host proteins eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi and 4gii, thus disabling host cell protein synthesis. we used nmr to study full-length lbpro as well as a shortened species lacking six c-terminal amino acid residues (slbpro) to examine the mechanism o ...200717897674
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