detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: comparative diagnostic sensitivity of two independent real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays.rapid and accurate diagnosis is central to the effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). it is now recognized that reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays can play an important role in the routine detection of fmd virus (fmdv) in clinical samples. the aim of this study was to compare the ability of 2 independent real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and rna polymerase (3d) to detect fmdv in clinical samples. there was conc ...200616566264
on-farm eradication of foot-and-mouth disease as an alternative to mass culling.a control and eradication programme for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was initiated on a 1500-sow farm in asia as an alternative to mass culling. the programme was based on mass vaccination and exposure to fmd virus to ensure the development of effective immunity throughout the population. pigs are not long-term carriers of fmd virus and it should be eliminated by 21 days after infection. entry of breeding stock was temporarily halted and the sow herd was partially depopulated in order to create ...200616603550
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong during 2001-2002.most of the molecular epidemiological studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are based on comparison of vp1 gene sequence. in this report, the nucleotide sequences of the vp1 coding region of fmdv type o strains o/hkn/3/01, o/hkn/5/01, o/hkn/12/01, o/hkn/7/02 and o/hkn/10/02, isolated from the disease outbreak that occurred in hong kong special administrative region (hong kong sar) of china during 2001-2002, were determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs. the results reve ...200616604445
detection and serotype-specific differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus using a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.a multiplex, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed that allowed simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus strains--new jersey (vsv-nj) and indiana 1, 2, and 3 (vsv-in1-3). this assay involves use of a set of vsv universal primers located in the l gene that amplify vsv-in1-3 and vsv-nj using probes that allow differentiation of the major serotypes indiana and new jersey. the assay was evaluated using reference v ...200616617693
sequence analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3c protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates from an endemic country.a total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in vp1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3a and 3c protein-coding regions. the phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural vp1 protein-coding region. phylogenetic comparison at 3c region revealed clustering of asia1 viruses with ...200616621341
differential distribution of non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 cells.differences in the kinetics of expression and cell distribution among fmdv non-structural proteins (nsps) have been observed in bhk-21-infected cells. 3d(pol) was the first protein detected by immunofluorescence (1.5 h p.i.), showing a perinuclear distribution. at 2-2.5 h p.i., 2b, 2c, 3b and 3c were detected, mostly exhibiting a punctuated, scattered pattern, while 3a and 3d(pol) appeared concentrated at one side of the nucleus. this distribution was exhibited by all the nsps from 3 h p.i., bei ...200616624365
eradication of fmd virus. 200616632535
studies of the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in west bengal, india, between 1985 and 2002.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major disease constraint on international trade in livestock and their products. in the state of west bengal, india, 1,082 fmd outbreaks were reported in the 18 years from 1985 to 2002. of the prevalent four serotypes, o type fmd virus accounted for the most outbreaks (67%), followed by asia-1 virus type (15%) and a virus type (14%). outbreaks of the type c fmd virus were least prevalent (4%), and no cases have been recorded since 1996. the study shows clearly ...200516642764
selection of foot and mouth disease vaccine strains--a review.the choice of the most appropriate strains of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus vaccines to use in fmd control programmes and to store in vaccine antigen reserves is based on the matching of representative field isolates from outbreaks around the world to available vaccine strains. however, those involved in fmd control at a national level do not always give this work a high priority, while in countries without effective control of fmd there is little incentive to collect samples or to overcome ...200516642769
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part i. quality assurance: development of secondary and working movement in animals and animal products has urged organisations like the world organisation for animal health (oie) to draw up guidelines to regulate and facilitate trade between member countries. however, as the global market continues to grow, further standardisation and harmonisation of antibody detection assays for infectious diseases are needed, especially regarding the development and use of reference materials. for oie notifiable diseases for which primary or international r ...200516642770
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part ii. quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. however, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in ...200516642771
expression of tuberculosis antigen esat-6 in nicotiana tabacum using a potato virus x-based vector.a good candidate antigen to create a therapeutic vaccine against tb is the esat-6 protein. antigens produced in plants have already been successfully used as experimental vaccines, and small single-stranded rna plant viruses have emerged as promising tools to rapidly express large amounts of foreign proteins in susceptible host plants. here, we present the expression of esat-6 protein in nicotiana tabacum using a vector based on potato virus x (pvx). the complete esat-6 open reading frame is exp ...200616644283
protection of balb/c mice against infection with fmdv by immunostimulation with cpg oligonucleotides.oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) containing unmethylated cpg motifs are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, and are capable of aborting several infections in a non-specific manner. we here report studies of the capacity of such odn to protect mice against infection with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). susceptibility of balb/c mice to infection with isolates from the different serotypes of fmdv was investigated, and, at the same time, the capacity of cpg odn to modulate the infection ...200616678920
exposure of mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious acute viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species. during 2001, 33 serum samples were collected from mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) in the eastern steppe of mongolia. samples were tested for antibodies to seven subtypes of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv). antibodies were detected in 67% of the animals, and serologic results indicated exposure to fmdv-o. this virus was present in domestic animal populations in mongolia fr ...200616699158
microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment.the evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of rna viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), an important animal pathogen. antigenic variants of fmdv have been classically diagnosed by immunological or rt-pcr-based methods. dna microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and s ...200616709242
improving baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells by surface display of a rgd-containing peptide, comprising 23 amino acids from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein was engineered into the envelope of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus surface (acnpv) using two different display strategies. the rgd-motif is a well-described tripeptide, that by binding to cell surface integrins facilitates virus entry into cells. this epitope was displayed, either by directly modifying the native major envelope protein gp64 of acnpv, or by incorporatin ...200616716431
embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. vii. the in vitro exposure of bovine and porcine embryos to foot-and-mouth disease virus.when 169 zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos were exposed to 10(6) pfu/ml of foot-and-mouth disease virus and then washed, no infectious virus was detected on any of the embryos. fmd viral infectivity was found, however, in association with 14 of 42 hatched (zona pellucida-free) bovine embryos and in a small number of zona pellucida-intact porcine embryos. the porcine embryos were assayed individually and in groups of 8 embryos. four of the 124 individual embryos and 2 of the 9 groups of embryo ...198616726224
embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. xiii. failure to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus through the transfer of embryos from viremic donors.a total of 436 embryos/unfertilized ova was collected from 30 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viremic cattle; 106 of these embryos/ova were from eight donors that had fmd virus in their reproductive tracts. the 436 embryos/ova were washed and then either assayed in cell culture or intradermally in steer tongues or transferred to recipients. foot-and-mouth infectivity was not found to be associated with any of the embryos/ova assayed in cell culture or intradermally. the 149 embryos transferred prod ...199116726913
eradication of fmd virus. 200616731710
[the immune responses of the fusion protein consisted of two copies of t-cell and b-cell epitopes of food-and-mouth disease virus vp1 type o and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli].a nucleotides fragment 2020vp1 related to t-cell epitope (aa21-40) and b-cell epitope (aa141-160) of vp1 of food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)type o was synthesized, and the recombined expression vector r2020-ltb-2020-sti was correctly constructed, which was used to express the fusion protein consisted of two copies of aa21-40aa141-160 of fmdv vp1 and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli. the fusion protein with molecular weight of about 45kd was successfully expressed in e.coli bl21(de ...200616735235
[construction and identification of recombinant adenovirus containing the polyproteins coding regions of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus by homologous recombination in escherichia coli].the gene coding for the polyprotein (pp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)was obtained by pcr from recombinant plasmid rpmd18-t/pp. the pcr product was digested with xba i and not i and inserted into the cloning site of the adenovirus shuttle vector padtrack-cmv, previously digested with the same enzymes. this recombinant shuttle plasmid was designated rpad-cmv/pp. the recombinant adenovirus vector rpad/pp was obtained by homologous recombination of plasmid rpad-cmv/pp and adenovirus skelet ...200616736581
effect of virus infection on the stability and synthesis of actinomycin-resistant ribonucleic acid in baby-hamster kidney cells.1. the sucrose-gradient pattern of (32)p-labelled rna synthesized in actinomycintreated baby-hamster kidney cells infected with foot-and-mouth-disease virus depends greatly on the period of labelling. 2. fractions are formed in infected cells that sediment at 12-20s and have the same base composition as similar fractions found in non-infected cells that have been treated with actinomycin. 3. in the presence of guanidine, which completely inhibits viral rna synthesis, these fractions are labelled ...196716742575
comparative evaluation of six elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of fmd virus. the sera came from naïve, vaccinated, infected and vaccinated-and-infected animals; two-thirds from cattle, the remainder from sheep and pigs. the assays were covariant for sensitivity, but not necessarily for specifi ...200616753241
[construction of recombinant yellow fever virus 17d containing 2a fragment as a vaccine vector].the yellow fever (yf) vaccine, an attenuated yellow fever 17d (yf-17d) live vaccine, is one of the most effective and safest vaccines in the world and is regarded as one of the best candidates for viral expression vector. we here first reported in china the construction and characterization of the recombinant expression vector of yellow fever 17d which contained the proteinase 2a fragment of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). three cdna fragments representing the full-length yf-17d genome, nam ...200616755933
quantification of within- and between-pen transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.quantified transmission parameters of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are needed for epidemic models used for control and surveillance. in this study, we quantified the within- and between-pen transmission of fmdv in groups of pigs by estimating the daily transmission rate beta, i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by one infectious pig during one day, using an sir (susceptible-infectious-removed) model. within-pen transmission was studied in four groups of ten pigs in which 5 infe ...200616777036
construction and immunogenicity of a recombinant fowlpox virus containing the capsid and 3c protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important pathogen with worldwide economic consequences. consequently, an important goal is the development of a vaccine that can provide rapid protection while overcoming the potential risk associated with the production of conventional inactivated vaccines. an important secondary feature of the vaccine would be the ability to distinguish vaccinated from infected animals. a recombinant fowlpox virus (vutal3cp1) containing fmdv capsid polypeptide and 3c ...200616780963
interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus with dendritic cells.despite several decades of investigation, the manner in which foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) interacts with the innate and adaptive immune compartments is not completely understood. the importance of elucidating this relationship is emphasized by the inability of current fmdv vaccines to provide long-term protection and the recent outbreaks of fmdv in formerly disease-free countries. dendritic cells (dcs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have evolved to monitor the environment ...200616781155
plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by foot-and-mouth disease virus requires immune complexes.natural ifn-producing cells (nipc), also called plasmacytoid dendritic cells, represent an essential component of the innate immune defense against infection. despite this, not much is known about the pathways involved in their activation by non-enveloped viruses. the present study demonstrates that the non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cannot stimulate ifn-alpha responses in nipc, unless complexed with fmdv-specific immunoglobulins. stimulation of nipc with such immune complexes ...200616783856
disease constraints for utilization of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) on game ranches in depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. in these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in zambia. it accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the game management areas and the total hunting revenue earned in zambia, respectively. it is ec ...200616786973
dynamics of mutation and recombination in a replicating population of complementing, defective viral a previous study, we documented that serial passage of a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) at high multiplicity of infection (moi) in cell culture resulted in viral populations dominated by defective genomes that included internal in-frame deletions, affecting the l and capsid-coding regions, and were infectious by complementation. in the present study, analyses of the defective genomes present in individual viral plaques, and of consensus nucleotide sequences determined ...200616797586
development and comparison of genome detection assays for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease suspected clinical samples.detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical specimens by conventional sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and virus isolation in cell culture is often compromised owing to limited sensitivity and inactivation during transit, respectively. a rt-pcr (oligoprobing) elisa in both solid and aqueous phase hybridization formats targeting an across serotype conserved site at 3c-3d region was developed and its effectiveness was compared with that of the known targets at ...200616814877
spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan estimated using imperfect data.we estimated the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in pakistan; we used a probability co-kriging model and the number of fmd outbreaks reported between 1996 and 2000 by pakistan to the office international des epizooties. we used a k-bessel model and small-ruminant and human densities as surrogate covariates for the population at risk and for livestock markets and movements, respectively. compared to no or only one covariate, the co-kriging model with both densities provided t ...200616814886
expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein using a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 elicits a humoral antibody response in a porcine develop a new type vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) prevention by using canine adenovirus as vector, the vp1 cdna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o strain china 99 was amplified by rt-pcr and cloned into pegfp-c1 by replacing the gfp gene with the vp1 cdna, resulting in an expression plasmid pvp1-c1. the expression cassette of vp1 composed of the cmv promoter, the vp1 gene and the sv40 early mrna polyadenylation signal was recovered by nsi i / mlu i digestion of pvp1-c1 an ...200616817763
quantifying specific antibody concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using slope correction.assessing the magnitude of an antibody response is important to many research and clinical endeavors; however, there are considerable differences in the experimental approaches used to achieve this end. although the time-honored approach of end point titration has merit, the titer can often be misleading due to differences in how it is calculated or when samples contain high concentrations of low-avidity antibodies. one frequently employed alternative is to adapt commercially available enzyme-li ...200616829619
caliciviruses differ in their functional requirements for eif4f components.two classes of viruses, namely members of the potyviridae and caliciviridae, use a novel mechanism for the initiation of protein synthesis that involves the interaction of translation initiation factors with a viral protein covalently linked to the viral rna, known as vpg. the calicivirus vpg proteins can interact directly with the initiation factors eif4e and eif3. translation initiation on feline calicivirus (fcv) rna requires eif4e because it is inhibited by recombinant 4e-bp1. however, to da ...200616835235
tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, nairobi, identify tickborne viruses circulating in kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in nairobi, kenya. species of ticks collected included rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), amblyomma gemma (14%), r. appendiculatus (8%), a. variegatum (6%), and others. a total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from a. gemma, 17 from r. pulchellus, 6 from a. variegatum, and 7 from other species. virus isolates included dugbe virus (dugv), an unknown virus related to dugv, thogo ...200616836823
foot-and-mouth disease virus: a first inter-laboratory comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and rt-pcr detection methods.five european reference laboratories participated in an exercise to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of their routinely employed rt-pcr tests and cell cultures for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. five identical sets of 20 coded samples were prepared from 10 vesicular epithelia, which were derived from submissions from suspect cases of fmd or swine vesicular disease (svd). sixteen samples were derived from six fmd virus positive epithelia representing fo ...200616846700
reconstruction of a swine sla-i protein complex and determination of binding nonameric peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease experimental system to date is available to identify viral t-cell epitopes in swine. in order to reconstruct the system for identification of short antigenic peptides, the swine sla-2 gene was linked to the beta(2)m gene via (g4s)3, a linker encoding a 15-amino acid glycine-rich sequence (g4s)3, using splicing overlap extension-pcr (soe-pcr). the maltose binding protein (mbp)-sla-2-(g4s)3-beta(2)m fusion protein was expressed and purified in a pmal-p2x/escherichia coli tb1 system. the purifie ...200616870265
enhanced immune response with foot and mouth disease virus vp1 and interleukin-1 fusion genes.the capsid of the foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus carries the epitopes that are critical for inducing the immune response. in an attempt to enhance the specific immune response, plasmid dna was constructed to express vp1/interleukin-1alpha (il-1alpha) and precursor capsid (p1) in combination with 2a (p1-2a)/il-1alpha under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) immediateearly promoter and intron. after dna transfection into ma104 (monkey kidney) cells, western blotting and an immunof ...200616871020
application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.there has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe, according to which, spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding herds, reducing the need for large-scale preemptive culling of at-risk animals. since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with fmdv following challenge exposure, it is necessary to eithe ...200616872727
multiplexed detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.liquid array technology was used to develop a multiplexed assay for the detection of antibodies to viral nonstructural proteins (nsps), raised in cattle in response to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. two assays, one based on recombinant nsps and the other on synthetically produced peptides, were developed and compared side-by-side. serum samples from serial bleeds of cattle, each experimentally infected with one of the seven serotypes (c, a, o, asia, sat1, sat2, sat3) of fmd v ...200616878883
dna immunization with 2c fmdv non-structural protein reveals the presence of an immunodominant cd8+, ctl epitope for balb/c mice.outbreaks of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) have devastating economic consequences in affected areas. the presence of multiple serotypes and virus variants makes vaccination complicated. a better understanding of protective immune mechanisms may help in development of novel vaccines with cross protective capacity. while much attention has been devoted to humoral responses to fmdv, less is known about the role of cell-mediated responses in protective immunity. predictions of potential ctl ep ...200616890298
viral fitness can influence the repertoire of virus variants selected by antibodies.minority genomes in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies may differ in relative fitness. here, we report experiments designed to evaluate the contribution of relative fitness to selection by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab). we have reconstructed a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) quasispecies, with two matched pairs of distinguishable mab-escape mutants as minority genomes of the mutant spectrum. each mutant of a pair differs from the other by 11-fold or 33-fold in relative fitne ...200616890952
foot-and-mouth disease - quantification and size distribution of airborne particles emitted by healthy and infected pigs.there is strong evidence to suggest that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted by airborne virus up to many kilometres from a virus source. atmospheric dispersion models are often used to predict where this disease might spread. this study investigated whether fmd virus (fmdv) aerosol has specific characteristics which need to be taken into consideration in these models. the characteristics and infectiousness of particles emitted by 12 pigs have been studied pre- and post-infection wit ...200716904353
plus- and minus-stranded foot-and-mouth disease virus rna quantified simultaneously using a novel real-time rt-pcr.even though tagged rt-pcr and rtth rt-pcr have been developed to improve strand-specific detection of rna virus, these assays are not quantitative. in this study, a novel real-time rt-pcr assay, which combines the benefits of both the tagged and rtth rt-pcr has been developed to quantify the strand-specific rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the tagged-primers plus a taqman probe located within the highly conserved viral 3d region were used. the in vitro synthesized minus-and plus-stran ...200716927127
dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease via electroporation: study of molecular approaches for enhancing vp1 antigenicity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) affects susceptible livestock animals and causes disastrous economic impact. immunization with plasmid expressing vp1 that contains the major antigenic epitope(s) of fmdv as cytoplasmic protein (cvp1) failed to elicit full protection against fmdv challenge.200616927362
rational dissection of binding surfaces for mimicking of discontinuous antigenic sites.peptide-based approaches to mimicking protein interactive regions have relied mainly on linear peptides; however, most binding sites are discontinuous and thus not easily reproducible by a linear sequence. any attempt to replicate those sites by chemical means must not only integrate all residues involved in the recognition but also provide structural organization to native-like levels. here we describe a surface mimic approach to the reconstruction of such complex molecular architectures, using ...200616931331
identification of novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitopes in c/c and d/d haplotype miniature identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the non-structural protein 3d in swine, pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation and interferon-gamma elispot assays using lymphocytes from two strains of inbred miniature pigs (c/c and d/d haplotype) experimentally infected with fmdv. lymphocytes of c/c pigs recognized peptides from three different regions in 3d, d/d lymphocytes recognized peptides from two regions, one of them being adjacent to an epitope of ...200616934904
the effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows.the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) transmission. to estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated and one group of non-vaccinated dairy cows (ten animals per group). half of both groups were intranasally inoculated, with fmdv field isolate o/net2001, and housed with the other half of the group (co ...200716949184
efficacy of particle-based dna delivery for vaccination of sheep against an alternative strategy to classical inactivated viral vaccine against fmdv, naked dna vaccine is attractive because of safety, flexibility and low cost. however dna vaccination is usually poorly efficient in target species. indeed we found that naked dna plasmids encoding for p1-2a3c3d and gm-csf proteins did not induce any detectable immunity against fmdv in sheep. interestingly, we demonstrate herein that formulations of dna on poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (plg) or in lipofectin triggere ...200616949709
geographical and age-stratified distributions of foot-and-mouth disease virus-seropositive and probang-positive cattle herds in the adamawa province of cameroon.six of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus occur in africa. this paper describes the results of a population-based cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of fmd and the persistence of the virus in cattle herds and associated sheep flocks in the adamawa province of cameroon. antibody titres measured by the virus neutralising test indicated that serotypes o, a and sat2 viruses had been circulating in the province. the estimates of apparent seroprevalence in cattle ...200616950886
study on the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus i. production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reported here were produced against the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that caused the devastating swine disease on 1997 in taiwan. a panel (25) of mabs were found to react with vp1 of o/taiwan/97 (o/97) by elisa with various potencies. the biological identities of these vp1 reacting mabs, such as neutralization activity, isotype and capability to distinguish between two serotype o fmdvs, o/97 and o/taiwan/km1/99 (o/99), were further analyzed. elev ...200616953088
a serological survey for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus in indigenous tswana goats and sheep in kasane, maun and shakawe districts in northwestern botswana.a serological survey was conducted in apparently healthy, unvaccinated indigenous tswana goats and sheep in kasane, maun and shakawe districts in northwestern botswana in order to determine in these animals, the levels of exposure to the south african territories (sat) serotypes: sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). a total of 250, 142 and 134 goat sera originating respectively from kasane, maun and shakawe districts were tested for fmdv antibodies against the three sat ...200616958266
the 3' end of the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome establishes two distinct long-range rna-rna interactions with the 5' end region.the untranslated regions (utrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome contain multiple functional elements. in the 5' utr, the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element governs cap-independent translation initiation, whereas the s region is presumably involved in rna replication. the 3' utr, composed of two stem-loops and a poly(a) tract, is required for viral infectivity and stimulates ires activity. here, it was found that the 3' end established two distinct strand-specific, long ...200616963760
molecular epidemiology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001.the objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which the genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) arising over the course of infection of an individual animal becomes fixed, is transmitted to other animals, and thereby accumulates over the course of an outbreak. complete consensus sequences of 23 genomes (each of 8,200 nucleotides) of fmdv were recovered directly from epithelium tissue acquired from 21 farms infected over a nearly 7-month period during the 2001 fmdv ou ...200616971422
recombination patterns in aphthoviruses mirror those found in other picornaviruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is thought to evolve largely through genetic drift driven by the inherently error-prone nature of its rna polymerase. there is, however, increasing evidence that recombination is an important mechanism in the evolution of these and other related picornoviruses. here, we use an extensive set of recombination detection methods to identify 86 unique potential recombination events among 125 publicly available fmdv complete genome sequences. the large number of eve ...200616971423
specificity of the vp1 gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus for alphav integrins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can use a number of integrins as receptors to initiate infection. attachment to the integrin is mediated by a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) tripeptide located on the gh loop of vp1. other residues of this loop are also conserved and may contribute to integrin binding. in this study we have used a 17-mer peptide, whose sequence corresponds to the gh loop of vp1 of type o fmdv, as a competitor of integrin-mediated virus binding and infect ...200616973584
role of rna structure and rna binding activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protein in vpg uridylylation and virus replication.the uridylylation of the vpg peptide primer is the first stage in the replication of picornavirus rna. this process can be achieved in vitro using purified components, including 3b (vpg) with the rna dependent rna polymerase (3dpol), the precursor 3cd, and an rna template containing the cre/bus. we show that certain rna sequences within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 5' untranslated region but outside of the cre/bus can enhance vpg uridylylation activity. furthermore, we have shown that ...200616973591
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: recent structural and functional insights into an antiviral target.the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3c(pro)) is critical for viral pathogenesis, having vital roles in both the processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication. although recent structural and functional studies have revealed new insights into the mechanism and function of the enzyme, key questions remain that must be addressed before the potential of fmdv 3c(pro) as an antiviral drug target can be realised.200716979372
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
enhanced immunogenicity to food-and-mouth disease virus in mice vaccination with alphaviral replicon-based dna vaccine expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1).recently, alphavirus replicon-based dna vaccines, also known as suicidal dna vaccines, have emerged as an important strategy to enhance the potency of dna vaccines. in this study, two different types of dna vaccines encoding the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were constructed and the immunogenicity were investigated and compared in mouse model. the first dna vaccine, pcdp1, is a conventional plasmid dna vaccine in which p1 was driven directly by a cytome ...200616991005
[effect of rgd-containing peptides on platelet aggregation].the influence of new synthetic peptides argds-nh2 and rgd-dfk (synthesized by the fermentative method) and vpnlrgdlqvla (a fragment of the foot-and-mouth virus's surface peptide) on the adp-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro was studied. all peptides were found to inhibit the human platelet aggregation, but the synthetic peptides (argds-nh2 and rgd-dfk) showed the most pronounced effect. significant decrease in the platelet aggregation was observed at their concentrations within 0.1-10 ...200616995437
effects of picornavirus 3a proteins on protein transport and gbf1-dependent cop-i recruitment.the 3a protein of the coxsackievirus b3 (cvb3), an enterovirus that belongs to the family of the picornaviruses, inhibits endoplasmic reticulum-to-golgi transport. recently, we elucidated the underlying mechanism by showing that cvb3 3a interferes with adp-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1)-dependent cop-i recruitment to membranes by binding and inhibiting the function of gbf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is required for the activation of arf1 (e. wessels et al., dev. cell 11:191-201, 20 ...200617005635
selection and characterization of rna aptamers to the rna-dependent rna polymerase from foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a highly contagious disease of agricultural livestock and is of enormous economic importance. replication of the rna genome of the virus, via negative strand intermediates, involves an rna-dependent rna polymerase (3dpol). rna aptamers specific to this enzyme have been selected and characterized. some of these molecules inhibit enzymatic activity in vitro, with ic50 values of <20 nm and ki values of 18-75 nm. two of these show similarity, both with each other ...200617018573
immune responses generated by lactobacillus as a carrier in dna immunization against foot-and-mouth disease exploit lactobacillus acidophilus as a carrier in dna immunization against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid (prc/cmv2-vp1-rep. 8014) harboring prc/cmv2 vector, the fmdv vp1 gene, and a replication origin from lactobacillus plantarum atcc 8014 strain was constructed. to detect the vp1 protein, prc/cmv2-vp1-rep. 8014 was expressed in pk 15 cells and transfected into a l. acidophilus sw1 strain (l. acidophilus sfmd-1). to evaluate the immunization ...200717028078
[fusion expression of o type foot-and-mouth diseases virus vp1 gene and hsp70 gene and induction of immune responses in mice].vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth diseases virus and m. tuberculosis hsp70 were expressed in methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris expression system. the results of cellular immune responses and humoral immune response were examined after balb/c mice were immunized with fusion protein expressed in methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the genes was cloned into the vector ppiczalpha-a by routine molecular technique. the plasmid fusion (ppiczalphaa-vp1-hsp70) was created that hsp70 located downstre ...200617037194
2'-c-methylcytidine as a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we report on the potent and selective in vitro antiviral activity of 2'-c-methylcytidine (2'-c-metcyt) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). fmdv belongs to the picornaviridae and has the potential to cause devastating epidemics in livestock. the 50% and 90% effective concentrations (ec50 and ec90) for inhibition of the fmdv-induced cytopathic effect (cpe) formation were 6.4+/-3.8 and 10.8+/-5.4 microm. comparable ec50 values for inhibition of viral rna synthesis were observed. treatment ...200717055073
phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o re-emerging in free areas of south america.the nucleotide sequences of the complete vp(1)-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv), type o, isolated during the recent emergencies of the disease in free areas of south america (mato grosso do sul, brazil, october 2005, and corrientes, argentina, february 2006), were determined. also established were the complete vp(1)-coding sequences of viruses occurring in neighbouring locations between the years 2000 and 2003. a phylogenetic analysis was performed based on comparison with ...200717056146
high throughput sequencing and comparative genomics of foot-and-mouth disease virus.despite a basic understanding of many aspects of fmd biology, much information regarding fmdv virulence, host range, and virus transmission remains poorly understood. here we present how the use of high throughput sequencing for complete genome sequences of foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) led to a series of new insights into viral genome sequence conservation and variability, genetic diversity in nature and phylogenetic classification of isolates, including the first complete sequences of th ...200617058478
development of an inhibition elisa test for the detection of non-capsid polyprotein 3abc in viral suspensions destined for inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.the use during the last decade of immuno-enzymatic tests based on the detection of antibodies to the non-capsid proteins (ncps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to assess viral circulation, irrespective of vaccination, supported the incorporation into the oie code of the 'free from fmdv with vaccination' category and opened the way to a 'vaccination to live' policy. eradication programmes in south america include systematic vaccination accompanied by large serosurveys through ncp antibody ...200617058500
structural and mutagenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease reveals the role of the beta-ribbon in proteolysis.the 3c protease (3c(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of a widespread and economically devastating disease of domestic livestock, is a potential target for antiviral drug design. we have determined the structure of a new crystal form of fmdv 3c(pro), a chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, which reveals features that are important for catalytic activity. in particular, we show that a surface loop which was disordered in previous structures adopts a beta-ribbon st ...200717065215
reporting of suspect cases of foot-and-mouth-disease during the 2001 epidemic in the uk, and the herd sensitivity and herd specificity of clinical diagnosis.we described the clinical diagnostic process utilized during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth-disease in the united kingdom (uk), and considered it as a series of diagnostic tests. premises were classified according to these diagnostic-test results and actual disease status, determined by the reference test, which in this case was one or more internationally accepted laboratory tests. the herd-level sensitivity (hse) and herd-level specificity (hsp) of the clinical diagnostic process were cal ...200717081639
immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine il-18 on foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and can cause a considerable socio-economic loss for affected countries. interleukin-18 (il-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important role in both the development of a functional immune system as well as the response of the organism to infection. in the present study, bovine il-18 (boil-18), foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 and vp1/boil-18 fusion genes were cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pas ...200717084491
localization of functional polypeptides in bacterial inclusion bodies.bacterial inclusion bodies, while showing intriguing amyloid-like features, such as a beta-sheet-based intermolecular organization, binding to amyloid-tropic dyes, and origin in a sequence-selective deposition process, hold an important amount of native-like secondary structure and significant amounts of functional polypeptides. the aggregation mechanics supporting the occurrence of both misfolded and properly folded protein is controversial. single polypeptide chains might contain both misfolde ...200717085715
production and characterization of two serotype independent monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced from mice immunized with either fmdv serotype a, subunit (12s) or fmdv serotype o, whole virus (140s). both mabs (f1412sa and f21140so) recognized all seven serotypes of fmdv in a double antibody sandwich (das) elisa, suggesting that the binding epitopes of the two mabs are conserved between serotypes. these mabs are igg1 isotype and contain kappa light chains. in order to define the mab binding epitopes, the reac ...200717109972
comparison of sensitivity and specificity in three commercial foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein elisa kits with swine sera in taiwan.three commercialized elisa kits for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus were compared, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, challenged and naturally infected pigs. the kinetics of the antibody response to nsps was compared on sequential serum samples in swine from challenge studies and outbreaks. the results showed that elisa a (ubi) and elisa b (cedi) had better sensitivity than that of the 3abc recombinant protein-based elisa c (chekit). the peak f ...200717112687
genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates recovered from persistently infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates, serotype o, recovered serially over a 1-year period from persistently infected buffalos was assessed. the persistent state was established experimentally with plaque-purified fmdv, strain o(1)campos, in five buffalos (bubalus bubalis). viral isolates collected from esophageal-pharyngeal (ep) fluids for up to 71 weeks after infection were analyzed at different times by nucleotide sequencing and t(1) rnase oligonucleotide fingerpri ...200717113729
ratiometric fluorescence-imaging assays of plant membrane traffic using polyproteins.fluorescent protein markers are widely used to report plant membrane traffic; however, effective protocols to quantify fluorescence or marker expression are lacking. here the 20 residue self-cleaving 2a peptide from foot and mouth disease virus was used to construct polyproteins that expressed a trafficked marker in fixed stoichiometry with a reference protein in a different cellular compartment. various pairs of compartments were simultaneously targeted. together with a bespoke image analysis t ...200617118121
development and evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody using a chemically synthesized 2b peptide as antigen.forty peptides were synthesized corresponding to hydrophilic clusters of amino acids within the sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp). six peptides were studied in more detail and the most promising, a 2b peptide, was evaluated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using sera from naive, vaccinated, and vaccinated-and-challenged cattle as well as bovine sera from field outbreaks. the performance of the new nsp peptide elisa was compared to that of 4 ...200617121081
inhibition of the secretory pathway by foot-and-mouth disease virus 2bc protein is reproduced by coexpression of 2b with 2c, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2c.infection of cells with picornaviruses can lead to a block in protein secretion. for poliovirus this is achieved by the 3a protein, and the consequent reduction in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i proteins may inhibit host immune responses in vivo. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), another picornavirus, can cause persistent infection of ruminants, suggesting it too may inhibit immune responses. endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...200717121791
passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. there is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. we aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs). twenty-four vhhs binding serotype o fmdv in vitro were isolated from immunized llamas by phage display and expressed in bakers yeast for further characterization. they recognized fou ...200717127019
[vaccination... health by injection?]. 200617137226
modeled detection time for surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease virus in bulk tank estimate when foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) would first be detected in bulk tank milk of dairies after exposure to fmdv.200617144803
the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o from 1998 to 2004 in turkey.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes significant economic losses in turkish livestock. we have analysed the genetic diversity of the 1d sequences, encoding the hypervariable surface protein vp1, of turkish isolates of serotype a and o collected from 1998 to 2004 in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information.200617144917
foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with decreased sensitivity to ribavirin: implications for error catastrophe.the nucleoside analogue ribavirin (r) is mutagenic for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). passage of fmdv in the presence of increasing concentrations of r resulted in the selection of fmdv with the amino acid substitution m296i in the viral polymerase (3d). measurements of progeny production and viral fitness with chimeric viruses in the presence and absence of r documented that the 3d substitution m296i conferred on fmdv a selective replicative advantage in the presence of r but not in the a ...200717151116
deterministic, compensatory mutational events in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus in response to the introduction of mutations found in viruses from persistent infections.the evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (biological clone c-s8c1) in persistently infected cells led to the emergence of a variant (r100) that displayed increased virulence, reduced stability, and other modified phenotypic traits. some mutations fixed in the r100 genome involved a cluster of highly conserved residues around the capsid pores that participate in interactions with each other and/or between capsid protomers. we have investigated phenotypic and genotypic changes that occ ...200717151123
serological and mucosal immune responses after vaccination and infection with fmdv in pigs.the aim of this study was to determine a possible correlation between humoral immune responses shortly after vaccination and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and to study the serological and mucosal antibody responses after vaccination and infection. we used three groups of ten pigs, one non-vaccinated group, one group vaccinated with a single dose vaccine and one group vaccinated with a four-fold dose vaccine. at 7 days post vaccination, five pigs per group were ...200717157418
a second rgd motif in the 1d capsid protein of a sat1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolate is not essential for attachment to target cells.the amino acid sequence motif arg-gly-asp (rgd), located in the surface-exposed betag-betah loop of the 1d protein of different serotypes and subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is highly conserved and participates in binding of fmdv to susceptible cells. previous sequence analyses of the 1d-encoding region of a fmdv serotype sat1 field isolate from namibia (nam/307/98) indicated the presence of a second rgd motif upstream of the conserved betag-betah loop rgd. the role of these rgd ...200717161881
[protective immune response of guinea pigs against challenge with foot and mouth disease virus by immunization with foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the fmdv structural protein vp1].the plant constitutive expression vector pbin438/vp1 for vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/ china/99 was constructed. mediated with agrobacterium tumefaciens gv3101 harboring pbin438/vp1, vp1 gene was transferred into cotyledons of tomato. after selected by kanamysin, sixty resistant lines were obtained. the integration and transcription of the vp1 gene in transformed plants was detected by pcr and rt-pcr. after being detected by sandwich-elisa assays, about 40% transformed plant ...200617172031
comparison of different methods of routine typing of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 200617177617
comparison of sat-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from east africa between 1971 and 2000 with viruses from the rest of sub-saharan africa.foot-and-mouth disease serotype sat-1 seems to be endemic in many sub-saharan african countries. phylogenetic analysis using the 1d gene of 51 sat-1 isolates from east, west and southern africa indicated the presence of at least 6 lineages and 11 genotypes with linkages between various geographical regions of the subcontinent. differences were observed between countries in east africa, the main focus of this study, with individual countries suffering outbreaks from isolates belonging to various ...200717187294
characterisation of a sat-1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive african buffalo (syncerus caffer): clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the sat types of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. these long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. during an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the kruger national park (knp), an outbreak of sat-1 occurred and was further investigated. the clinical signs were rec ...200717194552
removal of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity in salted natural casings by minor adaptation of standardized industrial procedures.intestines are used for the production of natural casings as edible sausage containers. derived from animals (pigs and sheep) experimentally infected with fmdv (initial dosage 10(7.3) pfu/ml, strain o(1kaufbeuren)), these natural casings were treated with sodium chloride or a phosphate salts/sodium chloride mixture and the residual fmdv titres measured. after storage at about 20 degrees c, no remaining infectivity was found after either treatment, whereas casings stored at 4 degrees c still cont ...200717196281
stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein vp1 fused with cholera toxin b subunit in the potato (solanum tuberosum).the expression vector, pbi121ctbvp1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 gene and the cholera toxin b subunit (ctb) gene was constructed by fused pcr and transferred into potato (solanum tuberosum l.) by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. the transgenic plantlets were identified by pcr, southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quant ...200717208421
identification of neutralizing linear epitopes from the vp1 capsid protein of enterovirus 71 using synthetic peptides.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) and has been associated with severe neurological diseases resulting in high mortalities. currently, there is no vaccine available and treatment is limited to palliative care. in this study, antisera were raised in mice against 95 overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the vp1 capsid protein of ev71. two peptides, sp55 and sp70, containing amino acid 163-177 and 208-222 of vp1, respectively, are capable of e ...200717222936
european pharmacopoeia foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle: between test variability and its the event of a foot-and-mouth (fmd) outbreak in a densely populated livestock area within the european community, emergency vaccination will most likely be employed. the objective of the present study was to support the european fmd control policy by evaluating the between test variability of the european accepted method for assessing the potency, a major determinant in vaccine choice, of an fmd vaccine batch. the test system suffers from low in vivo repeatability and reproducibility (67.6 an ...200717227691
consistent change in the b-c loop of vp2 observed in foot-and-mouth disease virus from persistently infected cattle: implications for association with persistence.the mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) persistence are poorly understood. it is thought the existence of viral quasispecies that encompass sub-populations with varying survival competencies and antigenicities may play some role in the maintenance of virus in persistently infected animals. by analyzing nucleotide sequences encoding the viral vp2 protein in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (probang) samples from cattle at different stages of infection, the significance of any amino acid ...200717241682
structure-function analysis of arg-gly-asp helix motifs in alpha v beta 6 integrin relating to the structural basis of ligand recognition by integrins are limited. here we describe the physical requirements for high affinity binding of ligands to alpha v beta6. by combining a series of structural analyses with functional testing, we show that 20-mer peptide ligands, derived from high affinity ligands of alpha v beta6 (foot-and-mouth-disease virus, latency associated peptide), have a common structure comprising an arg-gly-asp motif at the tip of a hairpin turn followed imm ...200717244604
mosaic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes.the results of a simple pairwise-scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination fragments, applied to genome data from 156 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) representing all seven serotypes, are reported. large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments were identified from all parts of the fmdv genome, with the exception of the capsid genes, within which such fragments are infrequent. as expected, intertypic fragment exchange is most common between geographica ...200717251567
quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination.sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. we therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with fmd virus strain o/net/2001 in groups of lambs. we used six groups of four lambs each, in which half of each group was inoculated and the other half was contact-exposed. to quantify the effectiveness of a single vaccination we also included six groups of four ...200717254674
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