TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
monitoring sequence space as a test for the target of selection in essential feature of viral quasispecies, predicted from quasispecies theory, is that the target of selection is the mutant distribution as a whole. to test molecularly the mutant composition selected from a viral quasispecies we reconstructed a mutant distribution using 19 antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). each variant was marked by a specific amino acid replacement at a major antigenic site of the virus that conferred resistance to a monoclonal antibody (mab). the va ...200515581890
rapid control of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks: is rnai a possible solution? 200515668119
the nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fra/1/2001 and comparison with its british parental strain o/ukg/35/2001.the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/fra/1/2001 (bovine isolate) was determined from five cdna clones covering most of the genome and compared with the british porcine isolate (o/ukg/35/2001) it originated from. seven substitutions, out of which three resulted in amino acid changes (in the leader protease, 3a protein and 3d rna-dependent rna polymerase sequences) were identified and confirmed by direct sequencing of rt-pcr products obtained from in vitro infe ...200515681075
comparative studies of the capsid precursor polypeptide p1 and the capsid protein vp1 cdna vectors for dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a severe livestock disease, and the virus is an interesting target for virology and vaccine studies.200515693054
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus type c of indian origin.comparison of nucleotide sequences of the partial 1d region of foot-and-mouth disease type c viruses of indian origin with those of european, south american, and southeast asian viruses revealed that the indian viruses form a distinct genotype. the vaccine strain c ind/51/79 belongs to this genotype and may be a prototype strain of this genotype.200515695720
foot-and-mouth disease virus replication sites form next to the nucleus and close to the golgi apparatus, but exclude marker proteins associated with host membrane compartments.picornavirus infection of cells generally results in the production of membranous vesicles containing the viral proteins necessary for viral rna synthesis. to determine whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection induced similar structures, and which cellular components were involved, the subcellular distribution of fmdv proteins was compared with protein markers of cellular membrane compartments. using immunofluorescence analysis and digital deconvolution, it was shown that fmdv struc ...200515722529
studies of the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in west bengal, india, between 1985 and 2002.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major disease constraint on international trade in livestock and their products. in the state of west bengal, india, 1,082 fmd outbreaks were reported in the 18 years from 1985 to 2002. of the prevalent four serotypes, o type fmd virus accounted for the most outbreaks (67%), followed by asia-1 virus type (15%) and a virus type (14%). outbreaks of the type c fmd virus were least prevalent (4%), and no cases have been recorded since 1996. the study shows clearly ...200516642764
selection of foot and mouth disease vaccine strains--a review.the choice of the most appropriate strains of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus vaccines to use in fmd control programmes and to store in vaccine antigen reserves is based on the matching of representative field isolates from outbreaks around the world to available vaccine strains. however, those involved in fmd control at a national level do not always give this work a high priority, while in countries without effective control of fmd there is little incentive to collect samples or to overcome ...200516642769
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part i. quality assurance: development of secondary and working movement in animals and animal products has urged organisations like the world organisation for animal health (oie) to draw up guidelines to regulate and facilitate trade between member countries. however, as the global market continues to grow, further standardisation and harmonisation of antibody detection assays for infectious diseases are needed, especially regarding the development and use of reference materials. for oie notifiable diseases for which primary or international r ...200516642770
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part ii. quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. however, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in ...200516642771
population dynamics of rna viruses: the essential contribution of mutant spectra.cells and their viral and cellular parasites are genetically highly diverse, and their genomes contain signs of past and present variation and mobility. the great adaptive potential of viruses, conferred on them by high mutation rates and quasispecies dynamics, demands new strategies for viral disease prevention and control. this necessitates a more detailed knowledge of viral population structure and dynamics. here we review studies with the important animal pathogen foot-and-mouth disease viru ...200516355868
kinetics of humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated against foot and mouth disease.the present investigation was conducted to study the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv)-specific humoral immune response (hir) in pigs, following vaccination with oil adjuvanted foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, upto 90 days post vaccination (dpv). for this, 40 large white yorkshire (lwy) pigs (20; one-year old female (gilts) and 20; three-month old piglets) were vaccinated @ 2 ml/animal, subcutaneously. sera samples were collected at fortnight interval from all the animals. the log10 sn50 ...200516359125
immunogenicity of the epitope of the foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with a hepatitis b core protein as expressed in transgenic tobacco.a novel plant-based vaccine protecting against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was developed by inserting the vp21 epitope into the internal region of the hepatitis b virus core antigen gene (hbcag). the specific sequence of the vp21 epitope is located within the vp1 capsid protein of the fmd virus (fmdv). it spans 21 amino acids located between positions 140 and 160 of the g-h loop. the fusion gene, hbcvp, was inserted into the plant binary vector pbi121 and then transformed into tobacco (nicotian ...200516359233
evolving perception on the benefits of vaccination as a foot and mouth disease control policy: contributions of south america.within the past decade, changes in perceptions on the benefits of vaccination as an appropriate tool to achieve complete foot and mouth disease eradication have become evident. the former negative view was derived from misconceptions, resulting mainly from the belief that vaccines are not entirely effective and that vaccination masks asymptomatic viral circulation. the advent in the 1990s of vaccination policies implemented within a strategic eradication plan in south america, and during recurre ...200516372885
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated cattle.the aim of this study was to evaluate the value of commercially available kits for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in vaccinated cattle. the cattle were vaccinated with a commercial aqueous fmd vaccine type a24 and subsequently challenged 28 days post vaccination with homologous fmd virus. seven of eight animals were protected from clinical disease and all became carriers. they were bled sequentially for up to 130 days post infection and samples of sera were tested ...200516385852
a decision-support system for real-time risk assessment of airborne spread of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.[corrected] the application of epidemic models during the first days following the confirmation of a virus outbreak should significantly contribute to minimize its costs. here we describe the first version of a decision-support system for the calculation of the airborne spread of a virus and its application to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the goal is to provide geographical maps depicting infection risk for various animal species to support the national health authorities.200516342927
pandemic strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.a particular genetic lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, which we have named the panasia strain, was responsible for an explosive pandemic in asia and extended to parts of africa and europe from 1998 to 2001. in 2000 and 2001, this virus strain caused outbreaks in the republic of korea, japan, russia, mongolia, south africa, the united kingdom, republic of ireland, france, and the netherlands, countries which last experienced fmd outbreaks decades before (ranging from 1934 ...200516485475
effect of emergency fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following direct contact challenge of cattle.previous work, in sheep vaccinated with emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, indicated the benefit of increasing the antigen payload in inhibiting local virus replication and consequently persistence following an indirect aerosol challenge with a virus homologous to the vaccine strain. the work presented here investigates this possibility further using cattle and a more severe semi-heterologous direct contact challenge. the quantitative dynamics of virus replication and excretion in b ...200616488060
integrin-alphavbeta6, a putative receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus, is constitutively expressed in ruminant airways.evolved functions of integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) include roles in epithelial cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions and in the binding and activation of latent tgf-beta(1). integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) is also exploited as a receptor by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and may play a significant role in its transmission and pathogenesis. the ovine beta(6) integrin subunit was cloned and sequenced (embl accession no. aj439062). screening of normal ovine tissues by rt-pcr and immunocytochemist ...200616517977
immunopotentiation of a foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine by interferon alpha.the adjuvant effect of porcine interferon alpha (pifn-alpha) was examined in swine vaccinated with a replication-defective adenovirus containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a24 capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions (ad5-a24). groups of swine were inoculated with either high or low doses of ad5-a24 in the presence or absence of ad5-pifnalpha or with a control ad5 and challenged by intradermal inoculation in the heel bulb with fmdv at 42 days post-vaccination. after challenge all control ...200616522345
[recombinant non-structural 3a, 3b and 3ab proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus: use for differentiation of vaccinated and infected cattle].recombinant proteins 3a, 3b and 3ab were obtained by expression in escherichia coli and purified by metal-chelate chromatography. the proteins were used as antigens in indirect elisa to differentiate vaccinated and infected cattle. while testing 200 sera from cattle 3a-elisa was more sensitive and specific than 3b- and 3ab-elisa. compared with "chekit fmd-3abc", 3a-elisa showed the same level of specificity and higher level of sensitivity.200616523703
fmd in the andaman and nicobar islands. 200616531585
adenovirus-mediated rna interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection both in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is responsible for the heavy economic losses in stockbreeding each year. because of the limited effectiveness of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs, the development of new strategies is needed. rna interference (rnai) is an effective means of suppressing virus replication in vitro. here we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) expressing short-hairpin rnas (shrnas) directed against either ...200616537624
multicistronic lentiviral vectors containing the fmdv 2a cleavage factor demonstrate robust expression of encoded genes at limiting moi.a number of gene therapy applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. in this study we explored the feasibility and efficiency of expressing two or three transgenes in hiv-1 based lentiviral vector. bicistronic and tricistronic self-inactivating lentiviral vectors were constructed employing the internal ribosomal entry site (ires) sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cleavage factor 2a. we employed enhanced gree ...200616539700
dna vaccines expressing b and t cell epitopes can protect mice from fmdv infection in the absence of specific humoral responses.despite foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) being responsible for one of the most devastating animal diseases, little is known about the cellular immune mechanisms involved in protection against this virus. in this work we have studied the potential of dna vaccines based on viral minigenes corresponding to three major b and t-cell fmdv epitopes (isolate c-s8c1) originally identified in natural hosts. the btt epitopes [vp1 (133-156)-3a (11-40)-vp4 (20-34)] were cloned into the plasmid pcmv, eithe ...200616563575
strategies for controlling fmd. 200616565329
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: comparative diagnostic sensitivity of two independent real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays.rapid and accurate diagnosis is central to the effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). it is now recognized that reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays can play an important role in the routine detection of fmd virus (fmdv) in clinical samples. the aim of this study was to compare the ability of 2 independent real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and rna polymerase (3d) to detect fmdv in clinical samples. there was conc ...200616566264
on-farm eradication of foot-and-mouth disease as an alternative to mass culling.a control and eradication programme for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was initiated on a 1500-sow farm in asia as an alternative to mass culling. the programme was based on mass vaccination and exposure to fmd virus to ensure the development of effective immunity throughout the population. pigs are not long-term carriers of fmd virus and it should be eliminated by 21 days after infection. entry of breeding stock was temporarily halted and the sow herd was partially depopulated in order to create ...200616603550
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong during 2001-2002.most of the molecular epidemiological studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are based on comparison of vp1 gene sequence. in this report, the nucleotide sequences of the vp1 coding region of fmdv type o strains o/hkn/3/01, o/hkn/5/01, o/hkn/12/01, o/hkn/7/02 and o/hkn/10/02, isolated from the disease outbreak that occurred in hong kong special administrative region (hong kong sar) of china during 2001-2002, were determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs. the results reve ...200616604445
detection and serotype-specific differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus using a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.a multiplex, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed that allowed simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus strains--new jersey (vsv-nj) and indiana 1, 2, and 3 (vsv-in1-3). this assay involves use of a set of vsv universal primers located in the l gene that amplify vsv-in1-3 and vsv-nj using probes that allow differentiation of the major serotypes indiana and new jersey. the assay was evaluated using reference v ...200616617693
sequence analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3c protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates from an endemic country.a total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in vp1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3a and 3c protein-coding regions. the phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural vp1 protein-coding region. phylogenetic comparison at 3c region revealed clustering of asia1 viruses with ...200616621341
differential distribution of non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 cells.differences in the kinetics of expression and cell distribution among fmdv non-structural proteins (nsps) have been observed in bhk-21-infected cells. 3d(pol) was the first protein detected by immunofluorescence (1.5 h p.i.), showing a perinuclear distribution. at 2-2.5 h p.i., 2b, 2c, 3b and 3c were detected, mostly exhibiting a punctuated, scattered pattern, while 3a and 3d(pol) appeared concentrated at one side of the nucleus. this distribution was exhibited by all the nsps from 3 h p.i., bei ...200616624365
eradication of fmd virus. 200616632535
armored rna as virus surrogate in a real-time reverse transcriptase pcr assay proficiency recent years testing responsibilities for high-consequence pathogens have been expanded from national reference laboratories into networks of local and regional laboratories in order to support enhanced disease surveillance and to test for surge capacity. this movement of testing of select agents and high-consequence pathogens beyond reference laboratories introduces a critical need for standardized, noninfectious surrogates of disease agents for use as training and proficiency test samples. ...200616390950
the recombinant nonstructural polyprotein ns1 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) as diagnostic antigen in elisa to differentiate infected from vaccinated differentiate pigs infected with porcine parvovirus (ppv) from those vaccinated with inactivated whole-virus vaccine, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on detection of a nonstructural polyprotein 1 (ns1) was developed. a threshold of 0.23 optical density units was established and the assay had high specificity (100), sensitivity (88), accuracy (90) and positive predictive value (100) using haemagglutination inhibition as the standard method. a reproducibility test revealed th ...200616400603
detection of foot and mouth disease and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viral genes using microarray chip.two viral pathogens, namely, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), were selected as models for multiple pathogen detection in a cdna microarray. two signature regions selected from orf2 (around 500 bp) and orf5 (around 600 bp) of prrvs (america serotype), and one signature region from structural genes vp1 (around 500 bp) of fmdv type o were designed and spotted on a nylon membrane. for pcr sensitivity study, the cloned fmdv-vp1 templ ...200616400604
enhanced immunogenicity of microencapsulated multiepitope dna vaccine encoding t and b cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mice.the role of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid, plga) microparticles on enhancing immune responses of multiepitope dna vaccines was investigated in vitro and in vivo. pcdna-sg encoding t and b cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was encapsulated into plga microparticles. plga microparticles could protect themselves from nuclease degradation in vitro. plga-pcdna-sg microparticles could be uptaken by cells and expressed his-tagged sg immunogen in vitro and in vivo. a prolonged expre ...200616414158
cytokine and toll-like receptor mrnas in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues of cattle during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the pharyngeal region is known to play an important role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in relation to acute disease and viral persistence. in this study, the local mucosal immune response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (nalt) of cattle infected with fmdv (strain o ukg 34/2001) was examined. quantitative "real-time" rt-pcr assays were used to measure mrna expression of cytokines (ifn-alpha, beta and gamma, il-2, il-1alpha and tnf-alpha) and toll-like receptors (tlr)-3 and ...200616423571
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the induction of beta interferon mrna and blocks the host innate immune response.we have previously shown that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) blocks cap-dependent mrna translation and that a genetically engineered fmdv lacking the leader proteinase coding region (a12-llv2) is attenuated in cell culture and susceptible animals. the attenuated phenotype apparently is a consequence of the inability of a12-llv2 to block the expression of type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) protein, resulting in ifn-induced inhibition of fmdv replication. her ...200616439546
presence of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in repeatedly vaccinated cattle.for the purpose of removing infected animals by detecting humoral immune responses to non-structural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, antibodies induced by contaminated residual non-structural proteins contained in less pure fmd vaccine can be problematic for serological screening. the aim of the present study was to measure the possible presence of antibodies against these non-structural proteins in repeatedly vaccinated calves and beef cattle. five imported fmd vaccines were ...200616446061
novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.speed is paramount in the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. the development of a one-step, reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (rt-lamp) assay enables fmd virus (fmdv) to be detected in under an hour in a single tube without thermal cycling. a fragment of the 3d rna polymerase gene of the virus is amplified at 65 degrees c in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and bst dna polym ...200616453084
evidence of reciprocal tertiary interactions between conserved motifs involved in organizing rna structure essential for internal initiation of translation.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements consist of highly structured rna regions that determine internal initiation of translation. we have previously shown that the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires contains a gnra tetraloop spanning residues g178uaa181. here we show that tertiary rna interactions dependent on the gnra motif determine the structural organization of the central domain. by using mutational analysis in combination with rna probing, we have identified distant reciprocal ...200616373480
the structure of a protein primer-polymerase complex in the initiation of genome replication.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by the covalent attachment of a ump molecule to the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine in the terminal protein vpg. this reaction is carried out by the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (3d). here, we report the x-ray structure of two complexes between foot-and-mouth disease virus 3d, vpg1, the substrate utp and divalent cations, in the absence and in the presence of an oligoadenylate of 10 residues. in both complexes, vpg fits the rna binding cleft of the po ...200616456546
an antiviral mechanism investigated with ribavirin as an rna virus mutagen for foot-and-mouth disease prove whether error catastrophe/lethal mutagenesis is the primary antiviral mechanism of action of ribavirin against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). ribavirin passage experiments were performed and supernatants of rp1 to rp5 were harvested. morphological alterations as well as the levels of viral rnas, proteins, and infectious particles in the bhk-21 cells infected using the supernatants of rp1 to rp5 and control were measured by microscope, real-time rt-pcr, western-blotting and plaque ...200616466632
detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer.rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. we have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-pcr, based on primer-probe energy transfer (priproet), for simultaneous detection and differentiation of three office international des epizooties (oie) classified vesicular viruses: foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and swine vesicular disease, causi ...200616472874
lack of susceptibility of the dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o. 200616474054
selective lymphocyte depletion during the early stage of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in the present study we use fmdv serotype c infection of swine to determine, by analytical techniques, the direct ex vivo visualization of virus-infected immune cells during the first 17 days of infection. we report, for the first time, that fmdv c-s8c1 can infect t and b cells at short periods of time postinoculation, corresponding with the peak of the viremia. there is ...200616474143
expression of tuberculosis antigen esat-6 in nicotiana tabacum using a potato virus x-based vector.a good candidate antigen to create a therapeutic vaccine against tb is the esat-6 protein. antigens produced in plants have already been successfully used as experimental vaccines, and small single-stranded rna plant viruses have emerged as promising tools to rapidly express large amounts of foreign proteins in susceptible host plants. here, we present the expression of esat-6 protein in nicotiana tabacum using a vector based on potato virus x (pvx). the complete esat-6 open reading frame is exp ...200616644283
protection of balb/c mice against infection with fmdv by immunostimulation with cpg oligonucleotides.oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) containing unmethylated cpg motifs are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, and are capable of aborting several infections in a non-specific manner. we here report studies of the capacity of such odn to protect mice against infection with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). susceptibility of balb/c mice to infection with isolates from the different serotypes of fmdv was investigated, and, at the same time, the capacity of cpg odn to modulate the infection ...200616678920
exposure of mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious acute viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species. during 2001, 33 serum samples were collected from mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) in the eastern steppe of mongolia. samples were tested for antibodies to seven subtypes of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv). antibodies were detected in 67% of the animals, and serologic results indicated exposure to fmdv-o. this virus was present in domestic animal populations in mongolia fr ...200616699158
microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment.the evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of rna viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), an important animal pathogen. antigenic variants of fmdv have been classically diagnosed by immunological or rt-pcr-based methods. dna microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and s ...200616709242
improving baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells by surface display of a rgd-containing peptide, comprising 23 amino acids from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein was engineered into the envelope of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus surface (acnpv) using two different display strategies. the rgd-motif is a well-described tripeptide, that by binding to cell surface integrins facilitates virus entry into cells. this epitope was displayed, either by directly modifying the native major envelope protein gp64 of acnpv, or by incorporatin ...200616716431
eradication of fmd virus. 200616731710
[the immune responses of the fusion protein consisted of two copies of t-cell and b-cell epitopes of food-and-mouth disease virus vp1 type o and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli].a nucleotides fragment 2020vp1 related to t-cell epitope (aa21-40) and b-cell epitope (aa141-160) of vp1 of food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)type o was synthesized, and the recombined expression vector r2020-ltb-2020-sti was correctly constructed, which was used to express the fusion protein consisted of two copies of aa21-40aa141-160 of fmdv vp1 and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli. the fusion protein with molecular weight of about 45kd was successfully expressed in e.coli bl21(de ...200616735235
[construction and identification of recombinant adenovirus containing the polyproteins coding regions of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus by homologous recombination in escherichia coli].the gene coding for the polyprotein (pp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)was obtained by pcr from recombinant plasmid rpmd18-t/pp. the pcr product was digested with xba i and not i and inserted into the cloning site of the adenovirus shuttle vector padtrack-cmv, previously digested with the same enzymes. this recombinant shuttle plasmid was designated rpad-cmv/pp. the recombinant adenovirus vector rpad/pp was obtained by homologous recombination of plasmid rpad-cmv/pp and adenovirus skelet ...200616736581
dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease via electroporation: study of molecular approaches for enhancing vp1 antigenicity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) affects susceptible livestock animals and causes disastrous economic impact. immunization with plasmid expressing vp1 that contains the major antigenic epitope(s) of fmdv as cytoplasmic protein (cvp1) failed to elicit full protection against fmdv challenge.200616927362
rational dissection of binding surfaces for mimicking of discontinuous antigenic sites.peptide-based approaches to mimicking protein interactive regions have relied mainly on linear peptides; however, most binding sites are discontinuous and thus not easily reproducible by a linear sequence. any attempt to replicate those sites by chemical means must not only integrate all residues involved in the recognition but also provide structural organization to native-like levels. here we describe a surface mimic approach to the reconstruction of such complex molecular architectures, using ...200616931331
identification of novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitopes in c/c and d/d haplotype miniature identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the non-structural protein 3d in swine, pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation and interferon-gamma elispot assays using lymphocytes from two strains of inbred miniature pigs (c/c and d/d haplotype) experimentally infected with fmdv. lymphocytes of c/c pigs recognized peptides from three different regions in 3d, d/d lymphocytes recognized peptides from two regions, one of them being adjacent to an epitope of ...200616934904
comparative evaluation of six elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of fmd virus. the sera came from naïve, vaccinated, infected and vaccinated-and-infected animals; two-thirds from cattle, the remainder from sheep and pigs. the assays were covariant for sensitivity, but not necessarily for specifi ...200616753241
[construction of recombinant yellow fever virus 17d containing 2a fragment as a vaccine vector].the yellow fever (yf) vaccine, an attenuated yellow fever 17d (yf-17d) live vaccine, is one of the most effective and safest vaccines in the world and is regarded as one of the best candidates for viral expression vector. we here first reported in china the construction and characterization of the recombinant expression vector of yellow fever 17d which contained the proteinase 2a fragment of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). three cdna fragments representing the full-length yf-17d genome, nam ...200616755933
quantification of within- and between-pen transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.quantified transmission parameters of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are needed for epidemic models used for control and surveillance. in this study, we quantified the within- and between-pen transmission of fmdv in groups of pigs by estimating the daily transmission rate beta, i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by one infectious pig during one day, using an sir (susceptible-infectious-removed) model. within-pen transmission was studied in four groups of ten pigs in which 5 infe ...200616777036
construction and immunogenicity of a recombinant fowlpox virus containing the capsid and 3c protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important pathogen with worldwide economic consequences. consequently, an important goal is the development of a vaccine that can provide rapid protection while overcoming the potential risk associated with the production of conventional inactivated vaccines. an important secondary feature of the vaccine would be the ability to distinguish vaccinated from infected animals. a recombinant fowlpox virus (vutal3cp1) containing fmdv capsid polypeptide and 3c ...200616780963
interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus with dendritic cells.despite several decades of investigation, the manner in which foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) interacts with the innate and adaptive immune compartments is not completely understood. the importance of elucidating this relationship is emphasized by the inability of current fmdv vaccines to provide long-term protection and the recent outbreaks of fmdv in formerly disease-free countries. dendritic cells (dcs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have evolved to monitor the environment ...200616781155
plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by foot-and-mouth disease virus requires immune complexes.natural ifn-producing cells (nipc), also called plasmacytoid dendritic cells, represent an essential component of the innate immune defense against infection. despite this, not much is known about the pathways involved in their activation by non-enveloped viruses. the present study demonstrates that the non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cannot stimulate ifn-alpha responses in nipc, unless complexed with fmdv-specific immunoglobulins. stimulation of nipc with such immune complexes ...200616783856
disease constraints for utilization of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) on game ranches in depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. in these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in zambia. it accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the game management areas and the total hunting revenue earned in zambia, respectively. it is ec ...200616786973
dynamics of mutation and recombination in a replicating population of complementing, defective viral a previous study, we documented that serial passage of a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) at high multiplicity of infection (moi) in cell culture resulted in viral populations dominated by defective genomes that included internal in-frame deletions, affecting the l and capsid-coding regions, and were infectious by complementation. in the present study, analyses of the defective genomes present in individual viral plaques, and of consensus nucleotide sequences determined ...200616797586
development and comparison of genome detection assays for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease suspected clinical samples.detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical specimens by conventional sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and virus isolation in cell culture is often compromised owing to limited sensitivity and inactivation during transit, respectively. a rt-pcr (oligoprobing) elisa in both solid and aqueous phase hybridization formats targeting an across serotype conserved site at 3c-3d region was developed and its effectiveness was compared with that of the known targets at ...200616814877
spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan estimated using imperfect data.we estimated the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in pakistan; we used a probability co-kriging model and the number of fmd outbreaks reported between 1996 and 2000 by pakistan to the office international des epizooties. we used a k-bessel model and small-ruminant and human densities as surrogate covariates for the population at risk and for livestock markets and movements, respectively. compared to no or only one covariate, the co-kriging model with both densities provided t ...200616814886
expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein using a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 elicits a humoral antibody response in a porcine develop a new type vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) prevention by using canine adenovirus as vector, the vp1 cdna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o strain china 99 was amplified by rt-pcr and cloned into pegfp-c1 by replacing the gfp gene with the vp1 cdna, resulting in an expression plasmid pvp1-c1. the expression cassette of vp1 composed of the cmv promoter, the vp1 gene and the sv40 early mrna polyadenylation signal was recovered by nsi i / mlu i digestion of pvp1-c1 an ...200616817763
quantifying specific antibody concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using slope correction.assessing the magnitude of an antibody response is important to many research and clinical endeavors; however, there are considerable differences in the experimental approaches used to achieve this end. although the time-honored approach of end point titration has merit, the titer can often be misleading due to differences in how it is calculated or when samples contain high concentrations of low-avidity antibodies. one frequently employed alternative is to adapt commercially available enzyme-li ...200616829619
caliciviruses differ in their functional requirements for eif4f components.two classes of viruses, namely members of the potyviridae and caliciviridae, use a novel mechanism for the initiation of protein synthesis that involves the interaction of translation initiation factors with a viral protein covalently linked to the viral rna, known as vpg. the calicivirus vpg proteins can interact directly with the initiation factors eif4e and eif3. translation initiation on feline calicivirus (fcv) rna requires eif4e because it is inhibited by recombinant 4e-bp1. however, to da ...200616835235
tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, nairobi, identify tickborne viruses circulating in kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in nairobi, kenya. species of ticks collected included rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), amblyomma gemma (14%), r. appendiculatus (8%), a. variegatum (6%), and others. a total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from a. gemma, 17 from r. pulchellus, 6 from a. variegatum, and 7 from other species. virus isolates included dugbe virus (dugv), an unknown virus related to dugv, thogo ...200616836823
foot-and-mouth disease virus: a first inter-laboratory comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and rt-pcr detection methods.five european reference laboratories participated in an exercise to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of their routinely employed rt-pcr tests and cell cultures for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. five identical sets of 20 coded samples were prepared from 10 vesicular epithelia, which were derived from submissions from suspect cases of fmd or swine vesicular disease (svd). sixteen samples were derived from six fmd virus positive epithelia representing fo ...200616846700
reconstruction of a swine sla-i protein complex and determination of binding nonameric peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease experimental system to date is available to identify viral t-cell epitopes in swine. in order to reconstruct the system for identification of short antigenic peptides, the swine sla-2 gene was linked to the beta(2)m gene via (g4s)3, a linker encoding a 15-amino acid glycine-rich sequence (g4s)3, using splicing overlap extension-pcr (soe-pcr). the maltose binding protein (mbp)-sla-2-(g4s)3-beta(2)m fusion protein was expressed and purified in a pmal-p2x/escherichia coli tb1 system. the purifie ...200616870265
enhanced immune response with foot and mouth disease virus vp1 and interleukin-1 fusion genes.the capsid of the foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus carries the epitopes that are critical for inducing the immune response. in an attempt to enhance the specific immune response, plasmid dna was constructed to express vp1/interleukin-1alpha (il-1alpha) and precursor capsid (p1) in combination with 2a (p1-2a)/il-1alpha under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) immediateearly promoter and intron. after dna transfection into ma104 (monkey kidney) cells, western blotting and an immunof ...200616871020
application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.there has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe, according to which, spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding herds, reducing the need for large-scale preemptive culling of at-risk animals. since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with fmdv following challenge exposure, it is necessary to eithe ...200616872727
multiplexed detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.liquid array technology was used to develop a multiplexed assay for the detection of antibodies to viral nonstructural proteins (nsps), raised in cattle in response to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. two assays, one based on recombinant nsps and the other on synthetically produced peptides, were developed and compared side-by-side. serum samples from serial bleeds of cattle, each experimentally infected with one of the seven serotypes (c, a, o, asia, sat1, sat2, sat3) of fmd v ...200616878883
dna immunization with 2c fmdv non-structural protein reveals the presence of an immunodominant cd8+, ctl epitope for balb/c mice.outbreaks of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) have devastating economic consequences in affected areas. the presence of multiple serotypes and virus variants makes vaccination complicated. a better understanding of protective immune mechanisms may help in development of novel vaccines with cross protective capacity. while much attention has been devoted to humoral responses to fmdv, less is known about the role of cell-mediated responses in protective immunity. predictions of potential ctl ep ...200616890298
viral fitness can influence the repertoire of virus variants selected by antibodies.minority genomes in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies may differ in relative fitness. here, we report experiments designed to evaluate the contribution of relative fitness to selection by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab). we have reconstructed a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) quasispecies, with two matched pairs of distinguishable mab-escape mutants as minority genomes of the mutant spectrum. each mutant of a pair differs from the other by 11-fold or 33-fold in relative fitne ...200616890952
efficacy of particle-based dna delivery for vaccination of sheep against an alternative strategy to classical inactivated viral vaccine against fmdv, naked dna vaccine is attractive because of safety, flexibility and low cost. however dna vaccination is usually poorly efficient in target species. indeed we found that naked dna plasmids encoding for p1-2a3c3d and gm-csf proteins did not induce any detectable immunity against fmdv in sheep. interestingly, we demonstrate herein that formulations of dna on poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (plg) or in lipofectin triggere ...200616949709
geographical and age-stratified distributions of foot-and-mouth disease virus-seropositive and probang-positive cattle herds in the adamawa province of cameroon.six of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus occur in africa. this paper describes the results of a population-based cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of fmd and the persistence of the virus in cattle herds and associated sheep flocks in the adamawa province of cameroon. antibody titres measured by the virus neutralising test indicated that serotypes o, a and sat2 viruses had been circulating in the province. the estimates of apparent seroprevalence in cattle ...200616950886
study on the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus i. production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reported here were produced against the porcinophilic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that caused the devastating swine disease on 1997 in taiwan. a panel (25) of mabs were found to react with vp1 of o/taiwan/97 (o/97) by elisa with various potencies. the biological identities of these vp1 reacting mabs, such as neutralization activity, isotype and capability to distinguish between two serotype o fmdvs, o/97 and o/taiwan/km1/99 (o/99), were further analyzed. elev ...200616953088
a serological survey for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus in indigenous tswana goats and sheep in kasane, maun and shakawe districts in northwestern botswana.a serological survey was conducted in apparently healthy, unvaccinated indigenous tswana goats and sheep in kasane, maun and shakawe districts in northwestern botswana in order to determine in these animals, the levels of exposure to the south african territories (sat) serotypes: sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). a total of 250, 142 and 134 goat sera originating respectively from kasane, maun and shakawe districts were tested for fmdv antibodies against the three sat ...200616958266
the 3' end of the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome establishes two distinct long-range rna-rna interactions with the 5' end region.the untranslated regions (utrs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome contain multiple functional elements. in the 5' utr, the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element governs cap-independent translation initiation, whereas the s region is presumably involved in rna replication. the 3' utr, composed of two stem-loops and a poly(a) tract, is required for viral infectivity and stimulates ires activity. here, it was found that the 3' end established two distinct strand-specific, long ...200616963760
molecular epidemiology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the united kingdom in 2001.the objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which the genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) arising over the course of infection of an individual animal becomes fixed, is transmitted to other animals, and thereby accumulates over the course of an outbreak. complete consensus sequences of 23 genomes (each of 8,200 nucleotides) of fmdv were recovered directly from epithelium tissue acquired from 21 farms infected over a nearly 7-month period during the 2001 fmdv ou ...200616971422
recombination patterns in aphthoviruses mirror those found in other picornaviruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is thought to evolve largely through genetic drift driven by the inherently error-prone nature of its rna polymerase. there is, however, increasing evidence that recombination is an important mechanism in the evolution of these and other related picornoviruses. here, we use an extensive set of recombination detection methods to identify 86 unique potential recombination events among 125 publicly available fmdv complete genome sequences. the large number of eve ...200616971423
specificity of the vp1 gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus for alphav integrins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can use a number of integrins as receptors to initiate infection. attachment to the integrin is mediated by a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) tripeptide located on the gh loop of vp1. other residues of this loop are also conserved and may contribute to integrin binding. in this study we have used a 17-mer peptide, whose sequence corresponds to the gh loop of vp1 of type o fmdv, as a competitor of integrin-mediated virus binding and infect ...200616973584
role of rna structure and rna binding activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protein in vpg uridylylation and virus replication.the uridylylation of the vpg peptide primer is the first stage in the replication of picornavirus rna. this process can be achieved in vitro using purified components, including 3b (vpg) with the rna dependent rna polymerase (3dpol), the precursor 3cd, and an rna template containing the cre/bus. we show that certain rna sequences within the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 5' untranslated region but outside of the cre/bus can enhance vpg uridylylation activity. furthermore, we have shown that ...200616973591
high throughput sequencing and comparative genomics of foot-and-mouth disease virus.despite a basic understanding of many aspects of fmd biology, much information regarding fmdv virulence, host range, and virus transmission remains poorly understood. here we present how the use of high throughput sequencing for complete genome sequences of foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) led to a series of new insights into viral genome sequence conservation and variability, genetic diversity in nature and phylogenetic classification of isolates, including the first complete sequences of th ...200617058478
development of an inhibition elisa test for the detection of non-capsid polyprotein 3abc in viral suspensions destined for inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.the use during the last decade of immuno-enzymatic tests based on the detection of antibodies to the non-capsid proteins (ncps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to assess viral circulation, irrespective of vaccination, supported the incorporation into the oie code of the 'free from fmdv with vaccination' category and opened the way to a 'vaccination to live' policy. eradication programmes in south america include systematic vaccination accompanied by large serosurveys through ncp antibody ...200617058500
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
enhanced immunogenicity to food-and-mouth disease virus in mice vaccination with alphaviral replicon-based dna vaccine expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1).recently, alphavirus replicon-based dna vaccines, also known as suicidal dna vaccines, have emerged as an important strategy to enhance the potency of dna vaccines. in this study, two different types of dna vaccines encoding the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were constructed and the immunogenicity were investigated and compared in mouse model. the first dna vaccine, pcdp1, is a conventional plasmid dna vaccine in which p1 was driven directly by a cytome ...200616991005
[effect of rgd-containing peptides on platelet aggregation].the influence of new synthetic peptides argds-nh2 and rgd-dfk (synthesized by the fermentative method) and vpnlrgdlqvla (a fragment of the foot-and-mouth virus's surface peptide) on the adp-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro was studied. all peptides were found to inhibit the human platelet aggregation, but the synthetic peptides (argds-nh2 and rgd-dfk) showed the most pronounced effect. significant decrease in the platelet aggregation was observed at their concentrations within 0.1-10 ...200616995437
effects of picornavirus 3a proteins on protein transport and gbf1-dependent cop-i recruitment.the 3a protein of the coxsackievirus b3 (cvb3), an enterovirus that belongs to the family of the picornaviruses, inhibits endoplasmic reticulum-to-golgi transport. recently, we elucidated the underlying mechanism by showing that cvb3 3a interferes with adp-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1)-dependent cop-i recruitment to membranes by binding and inhibiting the function of gbf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is required for the activation of arf1 (e. wessels et al., dev. cell 11:191-201, 20 ...200617005635
selection and characterization of rna aptamers to the rna-dependent rna polymerase from foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a highly contagious disease of agricultural livestock and is of enormous economic importance. replication of the rna genome of the virus, via negative strand intermediates, involves an rna-dependent rna polymerase (3dpol). rna aptamers specific to this enzyme have been selected and characterized. some of these molecules inhibit enzymatic activity in vitro, with ic50 values of <20 nm and ki values of 18-75 nm. two of these show similarity, both with each other ...200617018573
ratiometric fluorescence-imaging assays of plant membrane traffic using polyproteins.fluorescent protein markers are widely used to report plant membrane traffic; however, effective protocols to quantify fluorescence or marker expression are lacking. here the 20 residue self-cleaving 2a peptide from foot and mouth disease virus was used to construct polyproteins that expressed a trafficked marker in fixed stoichiometry with a reference protein in a different cellular compartment. various pairs of compartments were simultaneously targeted. together with a bespoke image analysis t ...200617118121
development and evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody using a chemically synthesized 2b peptide as antigen.forty peptides were synthesized corresponding to hydrophilic clusters of amino acids within the sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp). six peptides were studied in more detail and the most promising, a 2b peptide, was evaluated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using sera from naive, vaccinated, and vaccinated-and-challenged cattle as well as bovine sera from field outbreaks. the performance of the new nsp peptide elisa was compared to that of 4 ...200617121081
[protective immune response of guinea pigs against challenge with foot and mouth disease virus by immunization with foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the fmdv structural protein vp1].the plant constitutive expression vector pbin438/vp1 for vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/ china/99 was constructed. mediated with agrobacterium tumefaciens gv3101 harboring pbin438/vp1, vp1 gene was transferred into cotyledons of tomato. after selected by kanamysin, sixty resistant lines were obtained. the integration and transcription of the vp1 gene in transformed plants was detected by pcr and rt-pcr. after being detected by sandwich-elisa assays, about 40% transformed plant ...200617172031
comparison of different methods of routine typing of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 200617177617
extract from agaricus blazei murill can enhance immune responses elicited by dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.the fungus agaricus blazei murill (abm) is particularly rich in polysaccharides, which have shown particularly strong results in treating and preventing cancers. the goal of this study was to investigate whether co-administration of the abm extract with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dna vaccine could increase the immune responses. compared with the control mice, which received fmdv dna vaccine alone, significant increase in not only the fmdv-specific antibody response but also t cell proli ...200616213597
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