inhibition of cellular protein secretion by picornaviral 3a proteins.during poliovirus infection, anterograde traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi is inhibited due to the action of 3a, an 87 amino acid viral protein. the ability of poliovirus protein 3a to inhibit er-to-golgi traffic is not required for virus growth. instead, we have suggested that the inhibition of host protein secretion, shown to reduce the secretion of interferon-beta, il-6, and il-8 and the expression of both newly synthesized mhc class i and tnf receptor in the plasma memb ...200515914217
induction of active immune suppression by co-immunization with dna- and protein-based vaccines.although immunization has been used for eliciting immune response, here we show that it can also induce immune suppression. when a dna vaccine encoding a viral antigen such as the vp1 protein from the foot and mouth disease virus is administered together with its recombinant protein antigen or a viral preparation containing the same antigen, the immunized animals developed significantly reduced antigen-specific t cell-mediated responses and became impaired to subsequent rechallenge with the same ...200515914231
factors required for the uridylylation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 3b1, 3b2, and 3b3 peptides by the rna-dependent rna polymerase (3dpol) in vitro.the 5' terminus of picornavirus genomic rna is covalently linked to the virus-encoded peptide 3b (vpg). foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is unique in encoding and using 3 distinct forms of this peptide. these peptides each act as primers for rna synthesis by the virus-encoded rna polymerase 3d(pol). to act as the primer for positive-strand rna synthesis, the 3b peptides have to be uridylylated to form vpgpu(pu). for certain picornaviruses, it has been shown that this reaction is achieved by t ...200515919922
immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease dna vaccines can be enhanced by coinjection with the isatis indigotica extract.the isatis indigotica extract is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of influenza, epidemic hepatitis, epidemic encephalitis b etc. the goal of this study was to investigate whether coinjection of the isatis indigotica extract with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dna vaccine could increase the protective immune response. mice were vaccinated twice with either fmdv dna vaccine plus the isatis indigotica extract or dna vaccine alone. compared with the group of dna vaccine alone, ...200515920343
identification and antigenic site analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus from pigs and cattle in korea.from may to june 2002, a total of 16 foot-and mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks due to the serotype o virus, pan asia strain, were recorded in korea. the viruses were identified by antigen elisa, rt-pcr and sequence analysis. the overall nucleotide sequence divergence of the vp1 region among the 4 isolates in 2002 was 0 to 1.4%, but between o/skr/2002 and o/skr/2000 isolates was 1.9-4.9%. phylogenetic analysis with the some known strains from east asian countries showed that the 4 korean isolates in ...200515933431
several recombinant capsid proteins of equine rhinitis a virus show potential as diagnostic antigens.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a significant pathogen of horses and is also closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). despite these facts, knowledge of the prevalence and importance of erav infections remains limited, largely due to the absence of a simple, robust diagnostic assay. in this study, we compared the antigenicities of recombinant full-length and fragmented erav capsid proteins expressed in escherichia coli by using sera from experimentally infected and naturally expo ...200515939754
novel purification method for recombinant 3ab1 nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus for use in differentiation between infected and vaccinated indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated animals. the test was based on a highly pure and concentrated preparation of recombinant 3ab1 protein obtained by expression in a prokaryotic system, protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and electro elution. experimental- and field-serum samples from naive, vaccinated, and infected cattle w ...200515945381
fmdv-2a sequence and protein arrangement contribute to functionality of cyp2b1-reporter fusion protein.two optimized forms of green fluorescence proteins (gfp), enhanced gfp (egfp) and humanized renilla gfp (hrgfp), were used to track expression of cytochrome p450 2b1 (cyp2b1), an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound protein. in transiently expressing hek293 cells we show that cyp2b1-gfp fusion proteins are stable and functional, whereas the vice-versa-arranged gfp-cyp2b1 fusions are not. the cyp2b1-hrgfp fusion protein is characterized by reduction in mean fluorescence intensity (mfi) to less th ...200515955524
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus internalization events in cultured has been demonstrated that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can utilize at least four members of the alpha(v) subgroup of the integrin family of receptors in vitro. the virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah loop of vp1. while there have been extensive studies of virus-receptor interactions at the cell surface, our understanding of the events during viral entry into the infected cel ...200515956593
early events in integrin alphavbeta6-mediated cell entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection mediated by the integrin alphavbeta6 takes place through clathrin-dependent endocytosis but not caveolae or other endocytic pathways that depend on lipid rafts. inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis by sucrose treatment or expression of a dominant-negative version of ap180 inhibited virus entry and infection. similarly, inhibition of endosomal acidification inhibited an early step in infection. blocking endosomal acidificati ...200515956594
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a10 61 alone and complexed with oligosaccharide receptor: receptor conservation in the face of antigenic variation.foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selection of variants in this process is important. crystal structures are available for type o, a and c viruses and also for a complex of type o strain o(1)bfs with heparin. the structure of fmdv a10(61) ...200515958669
infectious diseases. turf war halts spain's foot-and-mouth disease studies. 200515961639
patterns of spread and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and asia-1 in turkey: a meta-population approach.despite significant control efforts, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) persists in turkey, and new strains of serotypes a, o and asia-1 are periodically reported to enter the country from the east. the status of fmd in turkey is important regionally because the country forms a natural bridge between asia where the disease is endemic, and europe which has disease-free status. this study analysed spatial and temporal patterns of fmd occurrence in turkey to explore factors associated with the disease's ...200515962561
genetic comparison of large fragment of the 5'untranslated region among foot-and-mouth disease viruses with special reference to serotype asia1.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the most economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in india. sequence analysis revealed that phylogenetic grouping of type asia1 field isolates on the basis of the large fragment of the 5'untranslated region (5'lf-utr) was quite similar to that based on the sequences of the capsid-coding (vp1) region of the same viruses. the existence of two distinct lineages of type asia1 suggested by the study on the vp1 region was further supported by th ...200515968474
[expression of recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c with multi-genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk-21 cells].in order to obtain the gene p12x3c of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that includes full length p1, 2a, 3c and a part of 2b, the site mutation strategy was used. after being digested by kpn i and xba i respectively, the gene p12x3c was cloned into the pcdna3.1 (+) expression vector. the recombinant plasmid was checked by restriction enzyme analysis and nucleic acid sequencing, and then named pcdna3.1/p12x3c. further, bhk-21 cells was transfected with pcdna3.1/p12x3c by using lipoid. the prot ...200315969026
genetic variation and responses to vaccines.disease is a major source of economic loss to the livestock industry. understanding the role of genetic factors in immune responsiveness and disease resistance should provide new approaches to the control of disease through development of safe synthetic subunit vaccines and breeding for disease resistance. the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has been an important candidate locus for immune responsiveness studies. however, it is clear that other loci play an important role. identifying the ...200415984325
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso peptides, also known as all-d-retro or retro-enantio peptides, are composed of d-amino acids assembled in the reverse order from that of the parent l-sequence. since the orientation of the side-chains in a retro-inverso analogue is very similar to that in the parent l-peptide, this leads to a high level of antigenic cross-reactivity between the two peptides. the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines has been investigated in the case of foot-and-mouth disease. a ...199815992041
recent spread of fmd virus serotype asia 1. 200515995241
vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves.the aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (fmd) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against fmd could reduce virus transmission in groups of calves by estimating the reproduction ratio r, i.e. the average number of secondary cases caused by one infectious animal in a susceptible population. we performed ...200516002192
invariant aphthovirus consensus nucleotide sequence in the transition to error catastrophe.rna viruses replicate as complex distributions of non-identical but closely related variant genomes termed viral quasispecies. when the error rate during genome replication exceeds a threshold value, the genetic information cannot be maintained and the system enters error catastrophe. this violation of the error threshold results in virus extinction and it is currently being investigated as a new antiviral strategy, based on antiviral activity of some mutagenic agents. previous studies with the ...200516002345
antigenic and genetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates for selection of candidate vaccine strain reveals emergence of a variant virus that is responsible for most recent outbreaks in india.recent reports indicated presence of two antigenic and genetic groups (genotypes vi and vii) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a in india and are divergent from the vaccine strains. in order to choose suitable field isolate as candidate vaccine strain, anti-sera against representative isolates from both the genotypes and two in-use vaccine strains are tested in neutralization assay. two candidate vaccine strains from both the genotypes are selected with close antigenic match to the fie ...200516022900
the application of new techniques to the improved detection of persistently infected cattle after vaccination and contact exposure to foot-and-mouth disease.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was compared with conventional serological and virological methods and with rt-pcr for the identification of fmdv carrier animals obtained after experimental contact challenge of vaccinated cattle. transmission from carriers to sentinels was also monitored. twenty fmdv vaccinated and five unvaccinated cattle were challenged by direct contact with five donor cattle excreting fmdv and monitored unti ...200516039761
a survey to investigate movements off sheep and cattle farms in new zealand, with reference to the potential transmission of foot-and-mouth quantify the numbers and extent of movements off sheep and cattle farms in new zealand, in order to construct more realistic simulation models to investigate how infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) might spread.200516044181
development of monoclonal antibody-linked elisa for sero-diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv-in) using baculovirus expressed glycoprotein.the gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (gp) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype, indiana (vsv-in), was expressed under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. the recombinant gp was applied as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of cattle and horse antibodies to vsv. in addition, the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) to gp of vsv-in was used as trapping antibody in a mab-linked indirect elisa (mli-elisa) or detecting antibody in a mab-linked competitive elisa (mlc-elisa). the dia ...200516076499
the adjuvant effect of levamisole on killed viral explore adjuvants that are capable of promoting th1-biased immune response, we investigated the usefulness of levamisole (lms) as one such adjuvant for two different preparations of killed viral vaccines, derived from the foot mouth disease virus (fmdv) or the porcine respiratory reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv) and tested respectively in balb/c or c57 bl/6 mice. the results showed that lms induced different types of immune responses in the host, depending on its dosage. while a high level ...200516095767
genomic and antigenic characterization of viruses from the 1993 italian foot-and-mouth disease outbreak.the origin and evolution of the type o foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) that caused the outbreak occurrence in italy in 1993, the first episode of the disease in the eu after adoption of a non-vaccination policy in 1991, have been studied by the analysis of sequences encoding three main antigenic sites on the viral capsid proteins. the phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the carboxyterminal end of vp1 showed that these italian viruses were grouped in the me-sa topotype, closel ...200616096711
analysis of the epidemiological dynamics during the 1982-1983 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in denmark based on molecular high-resolution strain epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causing a total of 23 cases in 1982-1983, primarily on the island of funen, denmark, was subjected to molecular epidemiological investigations. in an attempt to exploit the quasi-species nature of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains for molecular high-resolution strain identification in order to analyse the dynamics of this epidemic, full-length vp1 coding regions were sequenced for 17 isolates collected at different farms during the epidemic. the seq ...200516099917
[expression of foot and mouth disease virus antigens in transgenic plants].owing to its geographical distribution and its highly contagious character, the foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus is responsible for one of the most dreaded of all livestock diseases. the currently-used vaccine is polyvalent and is based on an inactivated virus. current research on fmd vaccines focuses on the creation of vaccines that are easier and cheaper to produce, and that avoid manipulation of large quantities of virus. the use of transgenic plants to express relevant antigens has been ev ...200516110887
buffalo (bubalus bubalis) interleukin-12: analysis of expression profiles and functional cross-reactivity with bovine system.interleukin-12, a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine, from water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) was analyzed for its for its tissue specific expression and functionality. concanavalin a stimulated splenocytes displayed an up-regulation of the il-12 p40 subunit 8-24h post-stimulation, whereas the p35 subunit did not show any quantitative variation at different time intervals. basal level expressions of both the subunits were observed by rt-pcr in spleen. in addition p40 transcripts could be det ...200616112195
[foot-and-mouth disease:: an old disease--new solutions].the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in united kingdom provoked a crisis in the european union with deleterious consequences not only for livestock industry. public opinion is more and more concerned about stamping out measures used to control the disease even with previously vaccinated animals. presently the trend is to "vaccinate for life". this policy change requires to improve vaccines and diagnostic tools. it is not foreseen nevertheless to come back to a generalized vaccination of ...200516116814
tissue distribution of a plasmid dna containing epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus in is known that only the minority of plasmid dnas effect a cure or prevention after intramuscular injection into host. but what is the fate of the majority? and indeed how many of the injected dnas work? till now, little is known about it. to answer these questions, two methods including pcr and autoradiography were used in distribution study in mice that had received a single muscular inoculation of plasmid dna containing antigenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the results showed t ...200516125283
development of a lightcycler-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease step taqman real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (r/t rt-pcr) using a set of primers/probes was developed for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. the gene-specific probes labeled fluorogen for the internal ribosomal entry site, leader sequence and 2b regions were used to detect fmd virus (fmdv). this assay specifically detected fmdv both in cell culture preparations and clinical samples, and was capable of distinguishing fmd from other viral diseases sim ...200516131823
expressions of bovine ifn-gamma and foot-and-mouth disease vp1 antigen in p. pastoris and their effects on mouse immune response to fmd a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) may cause a considerable social-economic loss in those countries affected. ifn-gamma has a wide range of antiviral and immune modulating functions. thus, to study the immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine ifn-gamma (rboifn-gamma) on a recombinant fmdv vaccine, boifn-gamma, fmdv vp1 and boifn-gamma/vp fusion genes were cloned, expressed, co-expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pastoris) respectively, ...200616135391
a preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in queen elizabeth national park, uganda.a survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging african buffaloes, (syncerus caffer) from may to june 1997 in the queen elizabeth national park, uganda. using the gamma interferon test, exposure to m. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. one dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from ...200516137132
microarray-based detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen because of its highly infectious nature and the devastating effects the virus has on the livestock industry. rapid diagnostic methods are needed for detection and typing of fmdv serotypes and differentiation from other viruses causing vesicular diseases. we developed a microarray-based test that uses a fmd dna chip containing 155 oligonucleotide probes, 35-45 base pair (bp) long, virus-common and serotype- ...200616139533
impairment of thymus-dependent responses by murine dendritic cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a cytopathic virus that experimentally infects mice, inducing a thymus-independent neutralizing ab response that rapidly clears the virus. in contrast, vaccination with uv-inactivated virus induces a typical thymus-dependent (td) response. in this study we show that dendritic cells (dcs) are susceptible to infection with fmdv in vitro, although viral replication is abortive. infected dcs down-regulate the expression of mhc class ii and cd40 molecules and up ...200516148145
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: use in emergency outbreak response.recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of fmdv in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. in this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the vir ...200516153756
enhancing immune responses against a plasmid dna vaccine encoding a fmdv empty capsid from serotype o.various parameters have been examined for the improvement of immune responses induced by immunisation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dna vaccine (pcdna 3.1/p1-2a3c3d, p1) in swine. our findings show that increasing the amount of p1 dna plasmids and pgmcsf adjuvant plasmids induces stronger fmdv specific and neutralising antibody responses, as well as promoting cytokines il-8 and ifngamma secretion, in immunised pigs via multiple inoculation sites.200616154238
retrospective genetic analysis of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in southern areas where foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in wildlife hosts, such as the kruger national park (knp) in south africa, control measures are in place that ensure that potentially infected antelope and buffalo do not come into close contact with domestic animals. in south africa several sat-1 outbreaks occurred nearly simultaneously in cattle and impala between 1971-1981. phylogenetic analysis based on partial 1d gene nucleotide sequencing indicated that several of these outbreaks were ...200616155727
analysis of the immune response to fmdv structural and non-structural proteins in cattle in argentina by the combined use of liquid phase and 3abc-elisa tests.the successful sanitary campaign implemented to control the 2000-2002 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina was greatly assisted by the combination of an elisa test (3abc-elisa) that detects antibodies directed against fmdv viral non-structural proteins (nsps) and a liquid phase blocking competitive elisa (lpelisa) for the detection of antibodies against the viral structural proteins (sps). the combined use of these two assays in large-scale analysis of field samples allo ...200616171905
the alpha(v)beta6 integrin receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is expressed constitutively on the epithelial cells targeted in cattle.field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use a number of alpha(v)-integrins as receptors to initiate infection on cultured cells, and integrins are believed to be the receptors used to target epithelial cells in animals. in this study, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and real-time rt-pcr were used to investigate expression of two of the integrin receptors of fmdv, alpha(v)beta6 and alpha(v)beta3, within various epithelia targeted by this virus in cattle. these studies show tha ...200516186231
analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus type a24 isolate containing an sgd receptor recognition site in vitro and its pathogenesis in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via an arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. following serial passages of a type a(24) cruzeiro virus (a(24)cru) in bovine, via tongue inoculation, a virus was generated which contained an sgd sequence in the cell receptor-binding site and expressed a turbid plaque phenotype in bhk-21 cells. propagation of this virus in these cells resulted in the rapid selection of ...200516189001
secretory iga as an indicator of oro-pharyngeal foot-and-mouth disease virus replication and as a tool for post vaccination surveillance.a serotype-specific elisa was developed to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific iga antibody in the saliva of cattle, and the method was evaluated for its feasibility in detecting serotype o fmdv carrier animals, particularly amongst vaccinated cattle that had subsequently become sub-clinically infected. for this purpose, saliva samples were collected from naïve cattle (n = 173), fmdv challenged cattle (n = 10), fmdv vaccinated cattle (n = 40) and fmdv vaccinated-and-challenged ca ...200616203061
host and virus determinants of picornavirus pathogenesis and tropism.the family picornaviridae contains some notable members, including rhinovirus, which infects humans more frequently than any other virus; poliovirus, which has paralysed or killed millions over the years; and foot-and-mouth-disease virus, which led to the creation of dedicated institutes throughout the world. despite their profound impact on human and animal health, the factors that regulate pathogenesis and tissue tropism are poorly understood. in this article, we review the clinical and econom ...200516205710
the "friedrich-loeffler-institut": past, present and future of research in infectious diseases of animals.the friedrich-loeffler-institut, founded in 1910 by friedrich loeffler, the discoverer of the first animal virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, is the oldest virological research facility in the world. beyond viruses, its area of competence has significantly expanded since its foundation and now also covers bacterial, parasitic and prion diseases of livestock, poultry and aquatic animals. presently located at four sites within germany (insel riems, jena,tübingen,wusterhausen) the tasks of the in ...200516206922
dna prime followed by protein boost enhances neutralization and th1 type immunity against strategy has been exhibited its potency to enhance immune responses, which would be important to the success to develop a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). an eukaryotic expression construct encoding the fmdv capsid vp1 protein with a recombinant vp1 protein or a commercial fmdv vaccine were tested in the prime-boost strategy in mice and cattle trials. the levels of induced specific antibodies, t cell proliferations, and dth activities were significantly higher ...200516212533
extract from agaricus blazei murill can enhance immune responses elicited by dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.the fungus agaricus blazei murill (abm) is particularly rich in polysaccharides, which have shown particularly strong results in treating and preventing cancers. the goal of this study was to investigate whether co-administration of the abm extract with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dna vaccine could increase the immune responses. compared with the control mice, which received fmdv dna vaccine alone, significant increase in not only the fmdv-specific antibody response but also t cell proli ...200616213597
mutant viral polymerase in the transition of virus to error catastrophe identifies a critical site for rna binding.a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polymerase (3d) with amino acid replacements g118d, v239m and g373d (triple dmd mutant) was obtained from a molecular clone derived from a virus population treated with ribavirin, in the transition to error catastrophe (virus extinction through lethal mutagenesis). dmd 3d was expressed in escherichia coli, purified, and its activity compared with that of wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes with either replacement g118d, g118a or d338a (the latter affecting t ...200516216271
interferon-gamma production in vitro from whole blood of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccinated and infected cattle after incubation with inactivated fmdv.studies were performed to determine whether a rapid method to detect cell mediated immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) could be used either as a diagnostic test or provide a correlate of protection in animals post-vaccination. using protocols based on the bovigam assay for tuberculosis, whole blood samples from fmdv vaccinated or control animals, before and after challenge infection, were stimulated overnight with inactivated fmdv antigen. the quantity of interferon gamma (if ...200616242818
absence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus in free-ranging roe deer from selected areas of germany (2001-2002).blood samples (n = 223) of free-ranging roe deer (capreolus capreolus) were collected from selected hunting grounds in germany between october 2001 and october 2002. samples originated from lower saxony (n = 43) and north-rhine westphalia (n = 108) within a 20-km area ("cordon") cordoned off along the border of the netherlands. this is adjacent to the area of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak that occurred between 21 march and 22 april 2001 in the netherlands. negative control samples were taken ...200516244071
a novel mucosal vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus induces protection in mice and swine.epitopes of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein vp1 complex and a chimera of 6xhis-tagged cholera toxin b subunit (hctb) were expressed in hansenula polymorpha and used together as a mucosal vaccine. antibody and cytokine responses to vp1-hctb vaccine and protection against fmdv were evaluated by elisa and a virus challenge test in mice, respectively. vp1-hctb directly enhanced the expression of interleukin-5 (il-5) both in serum and supernatants of cultured spleen cells. after ...200516247672
non-capsid proteins to identify foot-and-mouth disease viral circulation in cattle irrespective of vaccination.the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to establish subclinical and even persistent infection, the so called carrier state, imposes the need to reliably demonstrate absence of viral circulation, to monitor the progress of control measures, either during eradication programs or after reintroduction of virus in free areas. this demonstration becomes critical in immunized populations, because of the concern that silent viral circulation could be hidden by immunization. this concern orig ...200516257539
simultaneous detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease non-structural proteins 3abc, 3d, 3a and 3b by a multiplexed luminex assay to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle.for the first time, a multiplex bead immunoassay was used to test simultaneously, with a single sample, the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease non-structural proteins 3abc, 3a, 3b and 3d from experimentally infected and vaccinated cattle. we cloned and expressed these non-structural proteins (nsps) as recombinant antigens. the purified proteins were coupled to microspheres labeled with anti-his monoclonal antibody with different proportions of red and orange fluorescent dyes and reacted a ...200616260073
comparison of immune responses after intra-typic heterologous and homologous vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in pigs.this study compares the immune responses and protection induced by intra-typic heterologous vaccination with that induced by homologous vaccination against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protection against challenge with fmdv o taiwan were examined in a non-vaccinated group, a group vaccinated with o taiwan fmd vaccine and a group vaccinated with o manisa fmd vaccine. five pigs from each group were challenged with fmdv type o ta ...200616289709
development of novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease: marker vaccines and antivirals.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is economically the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. the disease is highly contagious and fmd virus (fmdv) replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. outbreaks in previously fmd-free countries, including taiwan, the united kingdom, and uruguay, and the potential use of fmdv by terrorist groups have demonstrated the vulnerability of countries and the need to develop control strategies that can rapidly inhibit or limit disease spread. the curren ...200516289996
regulation of immunologicals in the european union: current and emerging issues. 200516289997
development of synthetic peptide elisa based on nonstructural protein 2c of foot and mouth disease was reported that the sera of convalescent animals contain antibodies to foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) 2c, highly conserved nonstructural protein (nsp), whereas the sera of vaccinated animals do not. but elisa methods using this protein were not reported and developed until recently. in this study, nsp 2c peptides were synthesized within the amino acid sequence of the conserved 2c nonstructural region of fmdv according to the sequences from genbank database and used for identifyin ...200516293996
further observations of foot and mouth disease virus type s.a.t 1 infection of cattle in tanzania. 197616300346
evidence for an rna chaperone function of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in picornavirus translation.the cellular polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb) is recruited by the genomic rnas of picornaviruses to stimulate translation initiation at their internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. we investigated the contribution of the individual rna recognition motif (rrm) domains of ptb to its interaction with the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using a native gel system, we found that ptb is a monomer, confirming recent reports that challenged the previous view that ptb is a di ...200516314455
high expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp1 in tobacco chloroplasts.a tobacco chloroplast expression vector, ptrvp1, containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 gene and the selective marker aada gene, was constructed and transferred to tobacco by biolistic method. three resistant lines were obtained through spectinomycin selection, and each transgenic line was subjected to a second round of spectinomycin selection. pcr and pcr southern blot analysis revealed that the vp1 gene had integrated into the chloroplast genome. western blot and quantification ...200616320056
role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of asian and south american foot-and-mouth disease viruses in this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the extend of the process of apoptotic cell death by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). apoptosis can also occur in some virus-infected cells, and ability of viruses to either inhibit or promote apoptosis may influence the pathologic outcome of infection. in this study, to determine if apoptosis plays a role in the outcome of fmdv infection in swine, we evaluated apoptosis in diseased tissues collected from pigs inoculated with two different ...200516327217
a novel genetic lineage differentiating rt-pcr as a useful tool in molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in india.comparison of nucleotide sequences at the vp1 coding region of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia1 viruses from india has revealed two genetic lineages with emergence of a genetically divergent group in recent years. in this study a simple, fast, relatively costeffective multi-primer rt-pcr assay to differentiate genetic lineages of type asia1 viruses was developed. efforts were made in the design of novel lineage-specific primers and in optimization of the multi-primer assay protocol in conju ...200616329004
specific interference between two unrelated internal ribosome entry site elements impairs translation efficiency.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements allow simultaneous synthesis of multiple proteins in eukaryotic cells. here, two unrelated iress that perform efficiently in bicistronic constructs, the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and the cellular immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (bip) ires, were used to generate a tricistronic vector. functional analysis of the tricistronic rna evidenced that the efficiency of protein synthesis under the control of bip ires was lower t ...200516330032
utility of automated real-time rt-pcr for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus excreted in milk.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be excreted in milk and thereby spread infection to susceptible animals in other holdings. the feasibility of using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) as a diagnostic tool for detection of fmdv in milk was assessed by studying the excretion of virus from experimentally-infected cattle. fore- and machine milk samples were collected over a 4-week period from two dairy cows infected with fmdv and from two in-contact cows held ...200616336929
a modified tmv-based vector facilitates the expression of longer foreign epitopes in tobacco.based upon a mutant isolated from tobacco infected with a recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), a new tmv-based vector was developed in which four to six c-terminal amino acid residues were deleted from the viral coat protein (cp) subunit. the new vector was quite similar to the original tmv-based vector, which all expressed a well characterized epitope peptide f11 (p(142)-a(152)) of vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o in tobacco, in the infectivity, yield of the virus part ...200616337317
picornaviruses and cell death.members of the picornavirus family, including poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, are widespread pathogens of humans and domestic animals. recent global developments in the resurgence of poliovirus infection and in the control of foot-and-mouth disease infection highlight the problems caused by the ability of picornaviruses to alter the apoptotic machinery of host cells and establish persistent infections. despite the medical, economic and social impact of this family of viruses, little ...200616337385
a decision-support system for real-time risk assessment of airborne spread of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.[corrected] the application of epidemic models during the first days following the confirmation of a virus outbreak should significantly contribute to minimize its costs. here we describe the first version of a decision-support system for the calculation of the airborne spread of a virus and its application to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the goal is to provide geographical maps depicting infection risk for various animal species to support the national health authorities.200516342927
detection of minimal quantities of foot-and-mouth disease virus with bovine kidney tissue cultures.minute quantities of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were suspended in 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-ml volumes of virus growth medium and inoculated into primary bovine kidney cell cultures grown as monolayers in 5-liter povitsky bottles. after 48 hr of incubation, the low concentrations of fmdv, containing from 10 to 10 plaque-forming units (pfu) per milliliter of inoculum, multiplied to approximately 10 pfu per milliliter of fluid. the presence of extracellular virus after multiplication was ver ...196516349661
population dynamics of rna viruses: the essential contribution of mutant spectra.cells and their viral and cellular parasites are genetically highly diverse, and their genomes contain signs of past and present variation and mobility. the great adaptive potential of viruses, conferred on them by high mutation rates and quasispecies dynamics, demands new strategies for viral disease prevention and control. this necessitates a more detailed knowledge of viral population structure and dynamics. here we review studies with the important animal pathogen foot-and-mouth disease viru ...200516355868
kinetics of humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated against foot and mouth disease.the present investigation was conducted to study the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv)-specific humoral immune response (hir) in pigs, following vaccination with oil adjuvanted foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, upto 90 days post vaccination (dpv). for this, 40 large white yorkshire (lwy) pigs (20; one-year old female (gilts) and 20; three-month old piglets) were vaccinated @ 2 ml/animal, subcutaneously. sera samples were collected at fortnight interval from all the animals. the log10 sn50 ...200516359125
immunogenicity of the epitope of the foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with a hepatitis b core protein as expressed in transgenic tobacco.a novel plant-based vaccine protecting against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was developed by inserting the vp21 epitope into the internal region of the hepatitis b virus core antigen gene (hbcag). the specific sequence of the vp21 epitope is located within the vp1 capsid protein of the fmd virus (fmdv). it spans 21 amino acids located between positions 140 and 160 of the g-h loop. the fusion gene, hbcvp, was inserted into the plant binary vector pbi121 and then transformed into tobacco (nicotian ...200516359233
evolving perception on the benefits of vaccination as a foot and mouth disease control policy: contributions of south america.within the past decade, changes in perceptions on the benefits of vaccination as an appropriate tool to achieve complete foot and mouth disease eradication have become evident. the former negative view was derived from misconceptions, resulting mainly from the belief that vaccines are not entirely effective and that vaccination masks asymptomatic viral circulation. the advent in the 1990s of vaccination policies implemented within a strategic eradication plan in south america, and during recurre ...200516372885
evidence of reciprocal tertiary interactions between conserved motifs involved in organizing rna structure essential for internal initiation of translation.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements consist of highly structured rna regions that determine internal initiation of translation. we have previously shown that the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires contains a gnra tetraloop spanning residues g178uaa181. here we show that tertiary rna interactions dependent on the gnra motif determine the structural organization of the central domain. by using mutational analysis in combination with rna probing, we have identified distant reciprocal ...200616373480
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated cattle.the aim of this study was to evaluate the value of commercially available kits for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in vaccinated cattle. the cattle were vaccinated with a commercial aqueous fmd vaccine type a24 and subsequently challenged 28 days post vaccination with homologous fmd virus. seven of eight animals were protected from clinical disease and all became carriers. they were bled sequentially for up to 130 days post infection and samples of sera were tested ...200516385852
armored rna as virus surrogate in a real-time reverse transcriptase pcr assay proficiency recent years testing responsibilities for high-consequence pathogens have been expanded from national reference laboratories into networks of local and regional laboratories in order to support enhanced disease surveillance and to test for surge capacity. this movement of testing of select agents and high-consequence pathogens beyond reference laboratories introduces a critical need for standardized, noninfectious surrogates of disease agents for use as training and proficiency test samples. ...200616390950
the recombinant nonstructural polyprotein ns1 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) as diagnostic antigen in elisa to differentiate infected from vaccinated differentiate pigs infected with porcine parvovirus (ppv) from those vaccinated with inactivated whole-virus vaccine, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on detection of a nonstructural polyprotein 1 (ns1) was developed. a threshold of 0.23 optical density units was established and the assay had high specificity (100), sensitivity (88), accuracy (90) and positive predictive value (100) using haemagglutination inhibition as the standard method. a reproducibility test revealed th ...200616400603
detection of foot and mouth disease and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viral genes using microarray chip.two viral pathogens, namely, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), were selected as models for multiple pathogen detection in a cdna microarray. two signature regions selected from orf2 (around 500 bp) and orf5 (around 600 bp) of prrvs (america serotype), and one signature region from structural genes vp1 (around 500 bp) of fmdv type o were designed and spotted on a nylon membrane. for pcr sensitivity study, the cloned fmdv-vp1 templ ...200616400604
enhanced immunogenicity of microencapsulated multiepitope dna vaccine encoding t and b cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mice.the role of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid, plga) microparticles on enhancing immune responses of multiepitope dna vaccines was investigated in vitro and in vivo. pcdna-sg encoding t and b cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was encapsulated into plga microparticles. plga microparticles could protect themselves from nuclease degradation in vitro. plga-pcdna-sg microparticles could be uptaken by cells and expressed his-tagged sg immunogen in vitro and in vivo. a prolonged expre ...200616414158
cytokine and toll-like receptor mrnas in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues of cattle during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the pharyngeal region is known to play an important role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in relation to acute disease and viral persistence. in this study, the local mucosal immune response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (nalt) of cattle infected with fmdv (strain o ukg 34/2001) was examined. quantitative "real-time" rt-pcr assays were used to measure mrna expression of cytokines (ifn-alpha, beta and gamma, il-2, il-1alpha and tnf-alpha) and toll-like receptors (tlr)-3 and ...200616423571
the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the induction of beta interferon mrna and blocks the host innate immune response.we have previously shown that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) blocks cap-dependent mrna translation and that a genetically engineered fmdv lacking the leader proteinase coding region (a12-llv2) is attenuated in cell culture and susceptible animals. the attenuated phenotype apparently is a consequence of the inability of a12-llv2 to block the expression of type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) protein, resulting in ifn-induced inhibition of fmdv replication. her ...200616439546
presence of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in repeatedly vaccinated cattle.for the purpose of removing infected animals by detecting humoral immune responses to non-structural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, antibodies induced by contaminated residual non-structural proteins contained in less pure fmd vaccine can be problematic for serological screening. the aim of the present study was to measure the possible presence of antibodies against these non-structural proteins in repeatedly vaccinated calves and beef cattle. five imported fmd vaccines were ...200616446061
novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.speed is paramount in the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. the development of a one-step, reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (rt-lamp) assay enables fmd virus (fmdv) to be detected in under an hour in a single tube without thermal cycling. a fragment of the 3d rna polymerase gene of the virus is amplified at 65 degrees c in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and bst dna polym ...200616453084
homologous sequences in non-structural proteins from cowpea mosaic virus and analyses have revealed sequence homology between two non-structural proteins encoded by cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv), and corresponding proteins encoded by two picornaviruses, poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. a region of 535 amino acids in the 87-k polypeptide from cpmv was found to be homologous to the rna-dependent rna polymerases from both picornaviruses, the best matches being found where the picornaviral proteins most resemble each other. additionally, the 58-k polypeptid ...198416453518
the structure of a protein primer-polymerase complex in the initiation of genome replication.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by the covalent attachment of a ump molecule to the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine in the terminal protein vpg. this reaction is carried out by the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (3d). here, we report the x-ray structure of two complexes between foot-and-mouth disease virus 3d, vpg1, the substrate utp and divalent cations, in the absence and in the presence of an oligoadenylate of 10 residues. in both complexes, vpg fits the rna binding cleft of the po ...200616456546
an antiviral mechanism investigated with ribavirin as an rna virus mutagen for foot-and-mouth disease prove whether error catastrophe/lethal mutagenesis is the primary antiviral mechanism of action of ribavirin against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). ribavirin passage experiments were performed and supernatants of rp1 to rp5 were harvested. morphological alterations as well as the levels of viral rnas, proteins, and infectious particles in the bhk-21 cells infected using the supernatants of rp1 to rp5 and control were measured by microscope, real-time rt-pcr, western-blotting and plaque ...200616466632
detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer.rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. we have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-pcr, based on primer-probe energy transfer (priproet), for simultaneous detection and differentiation of three office international des epizooties (oie) classified vesicular viruses: foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and swine vesicular disease, causi ...200616472874
lack of susceptibility of the dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o. 200616474054
selective lymphocyte depletion during the early stage of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in the present study we use fmdv serotype c infection of swine to determine, by analytical techniques, the direct ex vivo visualization of virus-infected immune cells during the first 17 days of infection. we report, for the first time, that fmdv c-s8c1 can infect t and b cells at short periods of time postinoculation, corresponding with the peak of the viremia. there is ...200616474143
pandemic strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.a particular genetic lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, which we have named the panasia strain, was responsible for an explosive pandemic in asia and extended to parts of africa and europe from 1998 to 2001. in 2000 and 2001, this virus strain caused outbreaks in the republic of korea, japan, russia, mongolia, south africa, the united kingdom, republic of ireland, france, and the netherlands, countries which last experienced fmd outbreaks decades before (ranging from 1934 ...200516485475
effect of emergency fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following direct contact challenge of cattle.previous work, in sheep vaccinated with emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, indicated the benefit of increasing the antigen payload in inhibiting local virus replication and consequently persistence following an indirect aerosol challenge with a virus homologous to the vaccine strain. the work presented here investigates this possibility further using cattle and a more severe semi-heterologous direct contact challenge. the quantitative dynamics of virus replication and excretion in b ...200616488060
inhibition of ribonucleic acid methylation in the foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected host cell. 196716496523
integrin-alphavbeta6, a putative receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus, is constitutively expressed in ruminant airways.evolved functions of integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) include roles in epithelial cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions and in the binding and activation of latent tgf-beta(1). integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) is also exploited as a receptor by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and may play a significant role in its transmission and pathogenesis. the ovine beta(6) integrin subunit was cloned and sequenced (embl accession no. aj439062). screening of normal ovine tissues by rt-pcr and immunocytochemist ...200616517977
immunopotentiation of a foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine by interferon alpha.the adjuvant effect of porcine interferon alpha (pifn-alpha) was examined in swine vaccinated with a replication-defective adenovirus containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a24 capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions (ad5-a24). groups of swine were inoculated with either high or low doses of ad5-a24 in the presence or absence of ad5-pifnalpha or with a control ad5 and challenged by intradermal inoculation in the heel bulb with fmdv at 42 days post-vaccination. after challenge all control ...200616522345
[recombinant non-structural 3a, 3b and 3ab proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus: use for differentiation of vaccinated and infected cattle].recombinant proteins 3a, 3b and 3ab were obtained by expression in escherichia coli and purified by metal-chelate chromatography. the proteins were used as antigens in indirect elisa to differentiate vaccinated and infected cattle. while testing 200 sera from cattle 3a-elisa was more sensitive and specific than 3b- and 3ab-elisa. compared with "chekit fmd-3abc", 3a-elisa showed the same level of specificity and higher level of sensitivity.200616523703
fmd in the andaman and nicobar islands. 200616531585
adenovirus-mediated rna interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection both in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is responsible for the heavy economic losses in stockbreeding each year. because of the limited effectiveness of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs, the development of new strategies is needed. rna interference (rnai) is an effective means of suppressing virus replication in vitro. here we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) expressing short-hairpin rnas (shrnas) directed against either ...200616537624
multicistronic lentiviral vectors containing the fmdv 2a cleavage factor demonstrate robust expression of encoded genes at limiting moi.a number of gene therapy applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. in this study we explored the feasibility and efficiency of expressing two or three transgenes in hiv-1 based lentiviral vector. bicistronic and tricistronic self-inactivating lentiviral vectors were constructed employing the internal ribosomal entry site (ires) sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cleavage factor 2a. we employed enhanced gree ...200616539700
mouse resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by injections of pyran.mouse resistance to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was induced by intraperitoneal injections of pyran copolymer. a biphasic pattern of protection occurred with greatest resistance 4 and 48 hr after injection of this polyanion. viremia was not detectable in pretreated mice challenge-exposed with fmdv. incubation of virus with pyran did not alter viral infectivity in mice or tissue culture. serum interferon was demonstrated 1 and 2 days after pyran administration.197116557961
dna vaccines expressing b and t cell epitopes can protect mice from fmdv infection in the absence of specific humoral responses.despite foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) being responsible for one of the most devastating animal diseases, little is known about the cellular immune mechanisms involved in protection against this virus. in this work we have studied the potential of dna vaccines based on viral minigenes corresponding to three major b and t-cell fmdv epitopes (isolate c-s8c1) originally identified in natural hosts. the btt epitopes [vp1 (133-156)-3a (11-40)-vp4 (20-34)] were cloned into the plasmid pcmv, eithe ...200616563575
strategies for controlling fmd. 200616565329
Displaying items 2501 - 2600 of 4462