targeting of proteins derived from self-processing polyproteins containing multiple signal sequences.the 18aa 2a self-cleaving oligopeptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus can be used for co-expression of multiple, discrete proteins from a single orf. 2a mediates a co-translational cleavage at its own c-terminus and is proposed to manipulate the ribosome into skipping the synthesis of a specific peptide bond (producing a discontinuity in the peptide backbone), rather than being involved in proteolysis. to explore the utility of the system to target discrete processing products, self-processin ...200415260831
expansion of host-cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus despite replication in a constant environment.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) variants adapted to bhk-21 cells showed an expanded host-cell tropism that extended to primate and human cell lines. virus replication in human hela and jurkat cells has been documented by titration of virus infectivity, quantification of virus rna, expression of a virus-specific non-structural antigen, and serial passage of virus in the cells. parallel serial infections of human jurkat cells with the same variant fmdvs indicates a strong stochastic component ...200415269370
detection of economically important viruses in boar semen by quantitative realtime pcr technology.the objective of this study was to develop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (reti-pcr) tests for the detection of five economically important viruses in swine semen namely, pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). each reti-pcr test was validated for specificity, analytical sensitivity (detection limits), and experimental ...200415288957
development and use of a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein in a solid-phase competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein was developed and used in a competitive elisa (celisa) to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies in cattle, sheep and pigs. in this report, we describe the cloning and expression of 3abc protein in escherichia coli cells as fusion protein with 6xhis and biotin. this celisa uses streptavidin to capture bacterially expressed and in vivo biotinylated 3abc antigen. the antigen capture strategy provides a simple and reliable method, which does no ...200415288965
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna-dependent rna polymerase and its complex with a template-primer rna.genome replication in picornaviruses is catalyzed by a virally encoded rna-dependent rna polymerase, termed 3d. the enzyme performs this operation, together with other viral and probably host proteins, in the cytoplasm of their host cells. the crystal structure of the 3d polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus, one of the most important animal pathogens, has been determined unliganded and bound to a template-primer rna decanucleotide. the enzyme folds in the characteristic fingers, palm and t ...200415294895
deconvolution of fully overlapped reflections from crystals of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1 g67.foot-and-mouth disease virus o(1) g67 forms crystals that appear similar to those of the closely related viruses o(1)k and o(1)bfs, both of which belong to space group i23. statistical disorder in the o(1) g67 crystals means, however, that the measured diffraction data possess higher symmetry consistent with point group 432. it is shown that this is due to intimate twinning, with mosaic blocks randomly distributed between the two orientations. this results in a twofold loss of information due to ...199515299317
foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south american camelids, in dromedaries and bactrians is reviewed. recent well-executed experimental studies in new world camels indicate that, although the llama and alpaca can be infected with fmd virus (fmdv) by direct contact, they are not very susceptible and do not pose a risk in transmitting fmd to susceptible animal species. they do not become fmdv carriers. reports on fmd in dromedaries are, however, conflicting. serological investigations in africa and t ...200415301761
sequence and secondary structure requirements in a highly conserved element for foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site activity and eif4g binding.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and other picornaviruses initiate translation of their positive-strand rna genomes at the highly structured internal ribosome entry site (ires), which mediates ribosome recruitment to an internal site of the virus rna. this process is facilitated by eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eifs), such as eif4g and eif4b. in the eif4g-binding site, a characteristic, discontinuous sequence element is highly conserved within the cardio- and aphthovirus subgroup ...200415302949
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna loads in bovine tissues: implications for the site of viral understand better the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the levels of viral rna in various bovine tissues during the acute and persistent stages of fmd virus (fmdv) infection were investigated by using quantitative rt-pcr. the viral rna levels in the tissues examined had peaked by day 1 post-infection (p.i.) and were markedly different among the tissues examined. the epithelium collected from sites of lesion development, i.e. the interdigital area and coronary band on the feet, an ...200415302950
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
towards a multi-site synthetic vaccine to foot-and-mouth disease: addition of discontinuous site peptide mimic increases the neutralization response in immunized animals.synthetic replicas of both antigenic sites a and d of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been tested as a first step towards a multicomponent peptide vaccine candidate. a first evaluation has been performed by neutralization assays on cells with serum mixtures from guinea pigs immunized independently with site a (a24) and site d (d8) peptides. the addition of site d antibodies to site a antibodies has a synergistic effect on neutralization. in a second group of experiments, guinea pigs have been ...200415315831
interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (h. duque and b. baxt, j. virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). to further examine these differences, we generated soluble ...200415331710
recombinant bivalent vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o/a infection in guinea this study, two dna fragments encoding amino acid (141-160)-(21-140)-(141-160) of the vp1 of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) serotype o and (138-160)-(21-40)-(138-160) of the serotype a fmdv were chemically synthesized. these two tandem-repeat fragments were ligated and transfected into prokaryotic expression vector ptrchis a to construct pth-o-a. the other vector called pth-o-scigg-a was constructed similarly only that the two tandem-repeat dna fragments were linked by the bovine-igg hea ...200415346195
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: specificity at the p2 and p3 positions and comparison with other papain-like enzymes.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) frees itself from the growing viral polyprotein by self-processing between its own c-terminus and the n-terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the arglysleulys*glyalaglygln sequence is recognized. the proteinase subsequently cleaves the two isoforms of host cell protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g at the alaasnleugly*argthrthrleu (eif4gi) and leuasnvalgly*serargargser (eif4gii) sequences. the enzyme does not, however, recogni ...200415350134
genome comparison of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus with other fmdv strains.the genome of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus, hkn/2002, was 8104 nucleotides (nt) in length (excluding the poly(c) tract and poly(a) tail) and was composed of a 1042-nt 5'-untranslated region (utr), a 6966-nt open reading frame, and a 93-nt 3'-utr. genome sequences of hkn/2002 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the vp1, vp2, and vp3-based neighbor-joining (nj) trees were divided into distinct clusters according to different serotypes, while other region-based nj trees exhibited so ...200415351730
implementation in australia of molecular diagnostic techniques for the rapid detection of foot and mouth disease evaluate and implement rapid molecular diagnostic techniques for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) suitable for use in australia.200415354851
skipping the co-expression problem: the new 2a "chysel" technology.the rapid progress in the field of genomics is increasing our knowledge of multi-gene diseases. however, any realistic hope of gene therapy treatment for those diseases needs first to address the problem of co-ordinately co-expressing several transgenes. currently, the use of internal ribosomal entry sites (iress) is the strategy chosen by many researchers to ensure co-expression. the large sizes of the iress (~0.5 kb), and the difficulties of ensuring a well-balanced co-expression, have prompte ...200415363111
[expression of fmdv vp1 protein in pichia pastoris and its immunological activity in mice].to express and identify bovine o type foot and mouth disease virus protein 1 (fmdv vp1) in yeast pichia pastoris.200415367336
molecular epidemiology of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from cattle in ethiopia between 1979-2001.partial 1d gene characterization was used to study phylogenetic relationships between 17 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in ethiopia as well as with other o-type isolates from eritrea, kenya, south and west africa, the middle east, asia and south america. a homologous region of 495 bp corresponding to the c-terminus end of the 1d gene was used for phylogenetic analysis. this study described three lineages, viz. african/middle east-asia, cathay and south american. within lineage i ...200415373335
preserved antigenicity of hiv-1 p24 produced and purified in high yields from plants inoculated with a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-derived vector.production of structural proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and bovine herpes virus (bhv-1) in nicotiana benthamiana through the use of a tobacco mosaic virus-based vector (tmv-30b) has been reported previously. the development of the tmv-30b-hisc vector, a new version that adds a c-terminal histidine (his) sequence to the foreign protein expressed is described. coding sequences from the fmdv vpl protein and the core protein, p24, from a clade c hiv-1 isolate from zambia were clon ...200415381357
sequencing and analysis for the full-length genome rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus china/99.the complete nucleotide sequence of genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain china/99 from infected bovine tongue epithelium is presented. the nucleotide sequence extending from the 5' end of the genomic rna to the 5' end of poly (a) tail contains 8173 nucleotides (nt). its open reading frame, which encodes a single polypeptide of 2332 amino acids, encompasses 6999 nt starting from the initiation codon aug and terminating at the uaa codon 93 bases upstream from the 5' end of pol ...200415382679
theoretical interpretations of some experiments with intermediate variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 195015406245
[pleurality of foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 195015425226
sequential modification of translation initiation factor eif4gi by two different foot-and-mouth disease virus proteases within infected baby hamster kidney cells: identification of the 3cpro cleavage site.infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the rapid inhibition of cellular cap-dependent protein synthesis that results from cleavage of the translation initiation factor eif4g, a component of the cap-binding complex eif4f. two fmdv proteins, the leader (l) and 3c proteases, have been shown individually to induce cleavage of eif4gi at distinct sites within baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. here, sequential cleavage of eif4gi by the l and 3c proteases was demonstrated in fmd ...200415448358
participatory diagnosis of a heat-intolerance syndrome in cattle in tanzania and association with foot-and-mouth disease.a heat-intolerance (hi) syndrome in cattle in tanzania was suspected to be associated with previous, clinical foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a participatory appraisal (pa) method called "matrix scoring" was used to explore livestock-keeper perceptions of association between hi and cattle diseases. a pa method called 'proportional piling' was used to estimate herd incidence of fmd and other diseases, herd incidence of hi, and association between hi and other cattle diseases. use of matrix scoring ...200415454324
comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine igg heavy chain constant region or beta-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes.previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (gal-fmdv) consisting of beta-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. we now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against fmdv in swine. the immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the vp1 protein of serotype o fmdv, was fused to the carboxy terminus o ...200415464847
vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus induces apoptosis via the akt signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) binds to cellular integrins through an rgd motif in its capsid protein, vp1. it is unclear, however, what kind of cellular event(s) are triggered after the binding of vp1 to the cells. in this study, we show that aqueous soluble recombinant dna-derived vp1 (rvp1) of fmdv induced apoptosis of bhk-21 cells after binding to integrins. in addition, treatment of bhk-21 cells with rvp1 resulted in deactivation of akt and enhancement of several proapoptotic responses ...200415466859
reintroduction of foot-and-mouth disease in argentina: characterisation of the isolates and development of tools for the control and eradication of the disease.this paper describes the antigenic and molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains isolated during the 2000-2002 epidemic in argentina, and the strategy implemented for disease control. two different fmdv serotypes, o and a, were involved. of the various field isolates studied, two distinct o1 lineages (strains corrientes/00 and misiones/00) and two serotype a lineages (a/argentina/00 and a/argentina/01 prototypes) were identified. the genome sequences of these stra ...200415474705
evolutionary transition toward defective rnas that are infectious by complementation.passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture resulted in the generation of defective rnas that were infectious by complementation. deletions (of nucleotides 417, 999, and 1017) mapped in the l proteinase and capsid protein-coding regions. cell killing followed two-hit kinetics, defective genomes were encapsidated into separate viral particles, and individual viral plaques contained defective genomes with no detectable standard fmdv rna. infection in the absence of standard fmdv ...200415479809
new approaches to rapidly control foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.economically, foot-and-mouth disease is the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. the disease is highly contagious and foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. recent outbreaks in previously foot-and-mouth disease-free countries and the potential use of foot-and-mouth disease virus by terrorist groups have demonstrated the vulnerability of countries and the need to develop control strategies that can rapidly inhibit or limit spread of the disease ...200315482155
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by small interfering rna.foot-and-mouth disease, caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is one of the most dangerous diseases of cloven-hoofed animals and is a constant threat to the dairy and beef industries in the middle east and other regions of the world, despite intensive vaccination programmes. in this work, the ability of specific small interfering (si)rnas to inhibit virus replication in bhk-21 cells was examined. by using bioinformatic computer programs, all fmdv sequences in public-domain databases wer ...200415483234
detection of foot-and-mouth virus antibodies using a purified protein from the high-level expression of codon-optimized, foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes in escherichia coli.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the c-terminal end of a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) gene in pgex-6p-1 vector with the synonymous codons preferred by escherichia coli . the gene was synthesized using pcr and subsequently expressed in e. coli producing an intracellular, soluble fusion protein that retained antigenicity associated with fmd ...200415483387
the effect of bovine ifn-alpha on the immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with dna vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d including p1, 2a, 3c, 3d and part of 2b gene of fmdv and pcdna3.1/ifn containing the gene encoding bovine ifn-alpha. we inoculated the dna vaccine pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d with or without pcdna3.1/ifn to evaluate the efficiency of this dna vaccine and the immunogenicity of dna vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcdna3.1/ifn. after two times of vaccination with dna vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 id50 fmdv typ ...200415483751
procedures for preventing transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/taw/97) by people.the aim of this study was to determine personal hygiene protocols and animal avoidance periods needed to prevent transmission of fmdv (o/taw/97). forty-six, 9-week-old barrows free of fmdv were randomly allocated to five treatment groups and a control group. investigators contacted and sampled fmdv-inoculated pigs for approximately 40 min and then contacted and sampled sentinel pigs after using no biosecurity procedures, washing hands and donning clean outerwear, or showering and donning clean o ...200415504585
detection of carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus among vaccinated investigate and optimise detection of carriers, we vaccinated 15 calves with an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a turkey strain and challenged them and two further non-vaccinated calves with the homologous virus four weeks later. to determine transmission to a sensitive animal, we put a sentinel calf among the infected cattle from 60 days post-infection until the end of the experiment at 609 days post-infection. samples were tested for the presence of fmdv, vi ...200415504586
determinants of early foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in pigs.this paper provides a quantitative description of the early infectious process in pigs experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), obtained by dose-dependent, time course studies of viral load in serum. pigs were inoculated by the intravenous or intradermal/subcutaneous route with fmdv and housed together in groups or individually. the effects of dose, inoculation route and exposure intensity on the replication of fmdv in vivo and the development of disease were studied. it ...200415511538
validation of binary ethyleneimine (bei) used as an inactivant for foot and mouth disease tissue culture vaccine.the complete inactivation of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus is a critical requirement in the production of fmd vaccine to ensure the safety of the product. binary ethyleneimine (bei) is an aziridine compound, produced from bromoethylamine hydrobromide (bea) commonly used for the inactivation of fmd virus during vaccine manufacturing. the validation of bei, when used as an inactivant, is essential to ensure the quality of the inactivating agent and the validity of the process. in the present ...200415536046
monitoring sequence space as a test for the target of selection in essential feature of viral quasispecies, predicted from quasispecies theory, is that the target of selection is the mutant distribution as a whole. to test molecularly the mutant composition selected from a viral quasispecies we reconstructed a mutant distribution using 19 antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). each variant was marked by a specific amino acid replacement at a major antigenic site of the virus that conferred resistance to a monoclonal antibody (mab). the va ...200515581890
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asial viruses grown in the presence of polyclonal antisera in serology and nucleotide sequence analysis.foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) have a high rate of mutation and spontaneous mutants can be readily. isolated in the laboratory. in this study, plaque purified fmdv asial vaccine strains (ind 63/72 and ind 491/97) were passaged in-vitro in baby hamster kidney-21 cell monolayers in the presence of sub-neutralizing levels of antiviral polyclonal sera (aps), raised in guinea pigs against the purified and inactivated whole virus particles of ind 63/72, ind 491/97 and ind 13/01. after serial pa ...200415593421
complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a vaccine strain and a field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 with an insertion in vp1 genomic region.complete nucleotide sequences except the poly (c) tract and poly (a) tail of a vaccine strain (ind 491/97) and an atypical field isolate (ind 321/01) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 are described. amino acid (aa) sequence analysis of the vp1 protein of the field isolate revealed that the latter has 212 instead of 210 or 211 aa found in the so far available sequences of other fmdv isolates of asia1 serotype. the insertion was localized in the hypervariable region of aa 130-1 ...200415595209
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
immune response characteristics following emergency vaccination of pigs against foot-and-mouth disease.pigs were vaccinated with the emergency inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine--water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with montanide isa206--known to protect after 3-5 days. peripheral blood leukocyte (pbl) sub-populations did not differ between vaccinates and controls post-vaccination. there was neither lymphopenia nor inflammatory reaction. fmdv-specific antibody and t lymphocyte activity developed in the vaccinates. virus-induced th1-like cytokine protein and mrna (ifngamma and il-2 ...200515620477
viruses in boar semen: detection and clinical as well as epidemiological consequences regarding disease transmission by artificial insemination.many viruses have been reported to be present in boar semen, particularly during the viremic phase of the diseases. some of them, such foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine parvovirus, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, japanese encephalitis virus, pseudorabies virus, african swine fever virus and reoviruses are of particular importance and accurate monitoring prior to and during the presence of boars i ...200515626416
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking elisa based on baculovirus expressed fmdv 3abc antigen and a 3abc monoclonal antibody.a blocking elisa that differentiated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals from vaccinated animals was developed which uses baculovirus expressed fmdv 3abc non-structural protein as antigen and monoclonal antibody against fmdv 3abc non-structural protein as capture and detector antibody. sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle, sheep and pigs were examined. the specificity of the test was high. non-specific reactions observed in particular in sera of cattle and sheep could ...200515645377
introduction and history of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been recognized as a significant epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century, and in the late nineteenth century it was shown by loeffler and frosch to be caused by a submicroscopic, filterable transmissible agent, smaller than any known bacteria. the agent causing fmd was thus the first virus of vertebrates to be discovered, soon after the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus of plants. it was not until 1920 that a convenient animal ...200515648172
translation and replication of fmdv rna.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna is infectious. after delivery of the rna (about 8.3 kb) into the cytoplasm of a cell, the rna must initially be translated to produce the viral proteins required for rna replication and for the packaging of the rna into new virions. subsequently there has to be a switch in the function of the rna; translation has to be stopped to permit rna replication. the signals required for the control of the different roles of viral rna must be included within the vir ...200515648174
the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus.structural studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have largely focused on the mature viral particle, providing atomic resolution images of the spherical protein capsid for a number of sero- and sub-types, structures of the highly immunogenic surface loop, fab and gag receptor complexes. additionally, structures are available for a few non-structural proteins. the chapter reviews our current structural knowledge and its impact on our understanding of the virus life cycle proceeding from t ...200515648175
natural and vaccine induced immunity to fmd.a brief overview of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) literature over the last 100 years will give the impression that a great deal is known about the immune response of livestock to infection and vaccination. at the practical level, this is indeed the case and our knowledge is more than adequate in relation to the production and supply of potent vaccines for the control of the disease. the deficiencies in our understanding of the immune response are at the fundamental level and, arguably, stand ...200515648176
global epidemiology and prospects for control of foot-and-mouth disease. 200515648177
foot-and-mouth disease virus evolution: exploring pathways towards virus extinction.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is genetically and phenotypically variable. as a typical rna virus, fmdv follows a quasispecies dynamics, with the many biological implications of such a dynamics. mutant spectra provide a reservoir of fmdv variants, and minority subpopulations may become dominant in response to environmental demands or as a result of statistical fluctuations in population size. accumulation of mutations in the fmdv genome occurs upon subjecting viral populations to repeated b ...200515648178
quasispecies dynamics and rna virus extinction.the extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is strongly influenced by mutation rates, types of mutations, relative viral fitness and virus population regimens during infection. here we review experimental results and theoretical models that describe a contrast between the effective extinction of fmdv subjected to increased mutagenesis, and the remarkable resistance to extinction of the same and related fmdv clones subjected to serial bottleneck events. the results suggest procedures to ...200515649559
action of mutagenic agents and antiviral inhibitors on foot-and-mouth disease virus.our current knowledge on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entry into error catastrophe is reviewed. fmdv can establish cytolytic and persistent infections in the field and in cell culture. both types of fmdv infection in cell culture can be treated with mutagens, with or without classical (non-mutagenic) antiviral inhibitors, to drive the virus to extinction. 5-fluorouracil (fu) and 5-azacytidine (azc) have been employed as mutagenic agents to treat cytolytic fmdv infections, and ribavirin (r ...200515649564
crystal structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease. new insights into catalytic mechanism and cleavage specificity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a widespread and economically devastating disease of domestic livestock. although fmdv vaccines are available, political and technical problems associated with their use are driving a renewed search for alternative methods of disease control. the viral rna genome is translated as a single polypeptide precursor that must be cleaved into functional proteins by virally encoded proteases. 10 of the 13 cleavages are performed by the highly conserved 3c prote ...200515654079
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute disease that can be lethal for adult laboratory mice.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that causes an acute vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this virus continues to be threat to livestock worldwide with outbreaks causing severe economic losses. however, very little is known about fmdv pathogenesis, partially due to the inconveniences of working with cattle and swine, the main natural hosts of the virus. here we demonstrate that c57bl/6 and balb/c adult mice are highly susceptible to fmdv infection when the virus is a ...200515661169
phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates from india.the capsid-coding (p1) and 3a regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977-2000 were analyzed. in the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes vi and vii, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains (ind 17/77 and ind 490/97) and the reference strains of the genotypes vi (ind ...200515662482
protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with recombinant p1 polyprotein expressed in pichia pastoris.vaccination of the susceptible livestock with potent, safe and cost effective vaccine is the primary requirement to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in an endemic country. in this study, an alternative approach was used in which structural protein genes of all the four serotypes of fmdv (o, asia 1, a22 and c) were expressed separately in methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the recombinant polyproteins (p1) were characterized by sds-page and in western blot analysis. partially purified prot ...200515662485
high-level expression of recombinant 3ab1 non-structural protein from fmdv in insect larvae.for its potential usefulness in diagnosis, the non-structural protein 3ab1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus was expressed as a soluble protein by using autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a vector. the 3ab1 coding sequence was introduced into acnpv genome via pbacpak3ab1 transfer vector to originate ac3ab1 recombinant baculovirus of phenotype occ-. rachiplusia nu larvae were injected with supernatants of sf9 cells infected with ac3ab1 and 5 days post-infection total protein ext ...200415664073
rapid control of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks: is rnai a possible solution? 200515668119
the nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fra/1/2001 and comparison with its british parental strain o/ukg/35/2001.the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/fra/1/2001 (bovine isolate) was determined from five cdna clones covering most of the genome and compared with the british porcine isolate (o/ukg/35/2001) it originated from. seven substitutions, out of which three resulted in amino acid changes (in the leader protease, 3a protein and 3d rna-dependent rna polymerase sequences) were identified and confirmed by direct sequencing of rt-pcr products obtained from in vitro infe ...200515681075
comparative studies of the capsid precursor polypeptide p1 and the capsid protein vp1 cdna vectors for dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a severe livestock disease, and the virus is an interesting target for virology and vaccine studies.200515693054
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus type c of indian origin.comparison of nucleotide sequences of the partial 1d region of foot-and-mouth disease type c viruses of indian origin with those of european, south american, and southeast asian viruses revealed that the indian viruses form a distinct genotype. the vaccine strain c ind/51/79 belongs to this genotype and may be a prototype strain of this genotype.200515695720
foot-and-mouth disease virus replication sites form next to the nucleus and close to the golgi apparatus, but exclude marker proteins associated with host membrane compartments.picornavirus infection of cells generally results in the production of membranous vesicles containing the viral proteins necessary for viral rna synthesis. to determine whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection induced similar structures, and which cellular components were involved, the subcellular distribution of fmdv proteins was compared with protein markers of cellular membrane compartments. using immunofluorescence analysis and digital deconvolution, it was shown that fmdv struc ...200515722529
the production and evaluation of a standard diagnostic peste des petits ruminants (ppr) hyperimmune serum prepared from the egyptian antigen (egypt 87).the aim of this study was to produce a specific hyperimmune serum for diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (ppr). based on good laboratory practices and standard operating procedures, we produced this reagent in goats using attenuated local strain of pprv. the quality was assured to meet the internationally required levels of potency and sterility. the titer of the product was 1024 as evaluated by virus neutralization (vn) and agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) tests. in its final form, it is a ...200415724381
dna fragment encoding human il-1beta 163-171 peptide enhances the immune responses elicited in mice by dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.dna vaccine has been tested for protection against foot-and-mouth disease. however, the relatively low efficacy of dna vaccine in inducing immune responses in large animals has restricted its practical use. interleukin-1 plays an essential role in amplifying both the cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens, and may therefore represent a good candidate as an adjuvant of dna vaccines. since the inflammatory activity of il-i may restrict its application in dna vaccine treatment, w ...200515727290
development of transgenic alfalfa plants containing the foot and mouth disease virus structural polyprotein gene p1 and its utilization as an experimental immunogen.the use of transgenic plants as vectors for the expression of viral and bacterial antigens has been increasingly tested as an alternative methodology for the production of experimental vaccines. here, we report the production of transgenic alfalfa plants containing the genes encoding the polyprotein p1 and the protease 3c of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). the immunogenicity of the expressed products was tested using a mouse experimental model. parenterally immunized mice developed a strong ...200515734052
a peptide vaccine administered transcutaneously together with cholera toxin elicits potent neutralising anti-fmdv antibody this study a synthetic peptide representing residues 141-159 from the gh loop of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was tested for its capacity to elicit virus neutralising antibodies in mice after transcutaneous immunisation. topical application of the peptide conjugated to bovine serum albumin together with cholera toxin as an adjuvant elicited anti-peptide antibody responses with strong virus neutralising activity. the combination of cholera toxin with an immunostimulatory cpg mot ...200515734548
the use of vaccines in south american foot-and-mouth disease eradication programmes.since the beginning of organized campaigns in the 1960s, vaccination has been a major component of national fmd control and eradication programmes in south america. aqueous vaccines were used in the 1960s and 1970s, and the introduction of oil vaccines in the mid 1980s helped to decrease endemism. bi- and trivalent fmd vaccine production increased from 266 thousand doses in 1967 to 580 million doses in 2002. currently, over 200 million cattle are vaccinated twice yearly throughout the continent. ...200415742616
making a vaccinate-to-live policy a reality in foot-and-mouth disease.public opinion and the availability of new technologies are making the use of 'stamping- out' an increasingly unattractive option as the method of first choice for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control in fmd-free countries or zones seeking to control incursion of disease. there is therefore increasing pressure to adopt a 'vaccinate-to-live' policy in these circumstances. for a successful vaccinate-to-live policy, veterinary services need access to appropriate, licensed vaccines; to have adequate ...200415742637
foot-and-mouth disease 'vaccination-to-live': possibilities and constraints.major constraints to the adoption of a 'vaccination to live' policy during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a previously fmd-free country are the dual problems in the development of persistent infection (>28 days) in some vaccinated ruminants exposed to virulent virus and reliably detecting these persistently infected animals. rapid advances in immunology, virology, molecular biology and information management present significant opportunities for improving the management of fmd ou ...200415742638
very fast (and safe) inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus and enteroviruses by a combination of binary ethyleneimine and formaldehyde.for fmd vaccine production, inactivation of the fmd virus is the most critical step. formerly, from 1940 onwards, the virus was inactivated with formaldehyde. this inactivation was relatively slow, about 0.2 - 0.3 log 10 per hour. because formaldehyde not only reacts with the virus produced but with many other components in the medium, such as proteins and amino acids, its concentration can become rate-limiting and inactivation plots may show tailing-off, resulting in residual infectivity. many ...200415742659
use of new adjuvants in an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus: evaluation of conferred immunity.the ability of an emergency adjuvanted fmdv vaccine to elicit early protective immune response in mice was examined. we studied the efficacy of several adjuvants to induce such protection. the aqueous ims1313 plus inactivated fmdv induce a higher protective immune response than the vaccine with inactivated virus alone at seven days post vaccination (dpv). mice vaccinated with this formula showed higher lymphoproliferative index values and higher il-2, il-4 and ifngamma levels than the controls.200415742663
past and present vaccine development strategies for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus to be identified. since then, it has become a model system in animal virology and more information has been obtained about fmdv. the disease causes heavy economic crises in enzootic countries both due to loss of animal health and productivity. the only way of its control in an enzootic area is strict vaccination and restricted animal movement. the first experimental vaccine against fmd was made in 1925 using formaldehyde inacti ...200415745043
evaluation of in vitro inhibitory potential of small interfering rnas directed against various regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus genome.india is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease and it continues to be a major threat to the livestock industry despite vaccination programmes. in the present study, the ability of specific small interfering (si)rnas directed against different genomic regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to inhibit virus replication in bhk-21 cells was examined. for preliminary evaluation of possible sirna-mediated fmdv inhibition, a cocktail of several unique populations of 12-30bp sirnas were successfull ...200515752771
site-specific peptide vaccines for immunotherapy and immunization against chronic diseases, cancer, infectious diseases, and for veterinary applications.united biomedical, inc. (ubi) has developed a set of core technologies for the discovery and production of synthetic peptide-based immunotherapeutics and vaccines. these core technologies have led to products that stimulate functional site-directed antibody responses for therapeutic effects. ubi active immunotherapies can be used to modulate physiological processes effective for the control of cell entry by hiv virions, for control of prostate cancer and allergy, and for immunocastration in live ...200515755569
effects of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins on the structure and function of the early secretory pathway: 2bc but not 3a blocks endoplasmic reticulum-to-golgi transport.infection of cells by picornaviruses leads to the generation of intracellular membrane vesicles. the expression of poliovirus (pv) 3a protein causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and inhibition of protein trafficking between the er and the golgi apparatus. here, we report that the nonstructural proteins of a second picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), also perturb the secretory pathway. fmdv proteins 3a, 2b, 2c, and 2bc expressed alone in cells were recovered from crud ...200515767438
analysis of the immune response against mixotope peptide libraries from a main antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the design of vaccines for rna viral diseases is complicated by the high genetic variability of the viruses, which favors the selection of escape mutants. a case in point is foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), for which only limited protection has been observed in vaccination with single peptides. we have explored the potential of immunogens of higher sequence diversity, covering a broad range of field or culture-induced mutations at the immunodominant site a of fmdv, serotype c. four mixotope- ...200515780448
amyloid-like properties of bacterial inclusion bodies.bacterial inclusion bodies are major bottlenecks in protein production, narrowing the spectrum of relevant polypeptides obtained by recombinant dna. while regarded as amorphous deposits formed by passive and rather unspecific precipitation of unfolded chains, we prove here that they are instead organized aggregates sharing important structural and biological features with amyloids. by using an escherichia coli beta-galactosidase variant, we show that aggregation does not necessarily require unfo ...200515784261
quantitative risk assessment of fmd virus transmission via water.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus is known to spread by direct contact between infected and susceptible animals, by animal products such as meat and milk, by the airborne route, and mechanical transfer on people, wild animals, birds, and by vehicles. during the outbreak of 2001 in the netherlands, milk from dairy cattle was illegally discharged into the sewerage as a consequence of transport prohibition. this may lead to con ...200515787753
detection of antibody to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural polyprotein 3abc in sheep by elisa.the specificity and sensitivity of an elisa for detecting igg to the 3abc non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was evaluated in fmd naive, aerosol-infected, aerosol plus direct contact infected and field-exposed sheep. all 12 sheep that were experimentally infected without prior vaccination seroconverted in the test, although fewer field sera from fmd-exposed sheep were scored seropositive compared to test results for structural protein antibodies. the 3abc test specifici ...200515794985
constitutive expression of alpha interferon by skin dendritic cells confers resistance to infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus.the role of dendritic cells (dc) in the initiation of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is poorly understood. we analyzed the innate response of freshly isolated swine skin dc to the virus and show a rapid induction of beta interferon (ifn-beta) mrna but not ifn-alpha mrna. however, these dc secreted both ifn-alpha and ifn-beta proteins in response to live virus but not killed virus. furthermore, the surface expression of swine major histocompatibility complex class ii ...200515795269
interleukin-2 potentiates foot-and-mouth disease vaccinal immune responses in mice.the present study describes the role of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rh il-2) as immunomodulatory molecule in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccinal immune response in a murine model. the humoral immune response was evaluated by examining the antibody titre against fmd virus type o, a(22) and asia 1 in serum samples obtained from different groups of mice inoculated with pbs, fmd vaccine alone; vaccine along with rh il-2 on 0, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days post vaccination (dpv) by indirect double an ...200515811646
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
stable antibody expression at therapeutic levels using the 2a peptide.therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mabs) are currently being developed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. despite clinical success, widespread application of mab therapies may be limited by manufacturing capabilities. in this paper, we describe a mab delivery system that allows continuous production of a full-length antibody at high-concentrations in vivo after gene transfer. the mab is expressed from a single open reading frame by linking the heavy and light chains with a 2a self-p ...200515834403
immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with dna vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/ order to obtain the gene p12x3c of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv o/china99) that includes full length p1, 2a, 3c and part of 2b and 3b, the site mutation strategy was used. the recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c was transfected into bhk-21 cells. the capsid proteins of fmdv expressed in bhk-21 cells were confirmed by sandwich-elisa and indirect immunofluorescence test. then the plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c was administered to guinea pigs intramuscularly, and purified fmdv o/china993d protein ...200515837227
a segmented form of foot-and-mouth disease virus interferes with standard virus: a link between interference and competitive fitness.serial passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells at high multiplicity of infection resulted in dominance of particles containing defective rnas that were infectious by complementation in the absence of standard viral rna. in the present study, we show that the defective fmdv particles interfere with replication of the cognate standard virus. coinfections of defective fmdv with standard fmdv mutants that differ up to 151-fold in relative fitness have documented that the degre ...200515840515
short hairpin rna targeted to the highly conserved 2b nonstructural protein coding region inhibits replication of multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious agents of animals. recent disease outbreaks in fmd-free countries have prompted the development of new control strategies that could improve the levels of protection against this virus. we have delivered a plasmid expressing a short hairpin rna (shrna) directed against a highly conserved sequence in the 2b nonstructural protein coding region of fmdv rna to porcine cells. after virus infection, these cells showed a significant redu ...200515840521
development and evaluation of a multiplex pcr for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains native to india.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) for the differentiation of indian fmdv serotypes, o, a, asia 1 and c was developed and evaluated on 142 clinical and 39 cell culture samples. on the latter samples both the tests worked well with 100% efficiency, whereas on clinical samples mpcr had better efficiency than elisa. the test was found to be specific for fmdv. the detection limit of the assay was varied among the serotypes; it was most sensitive on types a and asia 1 and least sensitive on type c. the mpcr clea ...200515847913
use of confocal immunofluorescence microscopy to localize viral nonstructural proteins and potential sites of replication in pigs experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in infected pig epithelium has been studied by immunofluorescence labeling of the viral nonstructural protein 3abc and confocal microscopy. the results were correlated with viral rna copy numbers in tissue samples from adjacent sites determined by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). lesion formation was seen in the tongues and coronary band epithelia of infected pigs 2 days after infection. viral replication was observed in cells of the epithelium of t ...200515858024
comparative genomics of foot-and-mouth disease we present complete genome sequences, including a comparative analysis, of 103 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) representing all seven serotypes and including the first complete sequences of the sat1 and sat3 genomes. the data reveal novel highly conserved genomic regions, indicating functional constraints for variability as well as novel viral genomic motifs with likely biological relevance. previously undescribed invariant motifs were identified in the 5' and 3' untranslate ...200515858032
crystallization of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: surface mutagenesis and a novel crystal-optimization strategy.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3c protease (3c(pro)) plays a vital role in virus replication by performing most of the cleavages required to divide the viral polyprotein precursor into its functional component proteins. to date, no structural information has been available for fmdv 3c(pro), which is an attractive target for antiviral drugs. targeted mutagenesis of surface amino acids identified two cys residues that were detrimental to solubility and contributed to the time-dependent format ...200515858279
[high expression of the foot-and-mouth disease's structural protein p1 in escherichia coli and analysis of its biology activity].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the aetiological angent of a highly contagious viral disease. the complete gene encoding the structural protein of fmdv (p1) was subcloned into expression vector pgex-kg, resulting in the fusion expression plasmid pkg-p1. after transformed into e. coli bl21(de3) and induced by iptg, the results of sds-page showed that the gst-p1 fusion protein was expressed in high level. the molecular weight of the fusion protein wa 110kd and the expressed products were so ...200515859349
an investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in zimbabwe.african buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. the buffalo were infected with sat serotypes (sat-1, sat-2 and sat-3) of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of fmd to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. th ...200415861873
enhanced laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction.the performance of an automated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was compared to virus isolation (vi) in cell culture and antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease (fmd). the world reference laboratory for fmd in woking, the united kingdom, examined a collection of 334 epithelia received from eighteen countries between august 2002 and january 2004. the results showed that all vi positive (n ...200415861896
cross-inhibition to heterologous foot-and-mouth disease virus infection induced by rna interference targeting the conserved regions of viral genome.rna interference (rnai) is the process by which double-stranded rna (dsrna) directs sequence-specific degradation of messenger rna in animal and plant cells. in mammalian cells, rnai can be triggered by 21-23 nucleotide duplexes of small interfering rna (sirna). strategies to inhibit rna virus multiplication based on the use of sirnas have to consider the high genetic polymorphism exhibited by this group of virus. here we described a significant cross-inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) v ...200515866070
linear hoof defects in sheep infected with foot-and-mouth disease.during the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the netherlands in 2001, a sheep farm was identified that had been subclinically infected with the disease. the fmd virus genome was detected in 12 of 16 probang samples collected from the sheep and the virus was isolated from four of these samples. linear defects were observed, 1 to 3 cm from the coronary band, in the hooves of several of the sheep. the defects were thought to have been caused by the fmd infection. it was thought that the d ...200515866901
effects of multiple copies of cpg on dna has previously been demonstrated that a dose-dependent enhancement of immune response is derived from immunization with several copies of the cpg motif. following that lead, we sought to incorporate a higher copy number of cpg motifs into an expression construct to evaluate the augmentation of immune responses. by multiple insertions, 30 copies of the cpg motif were cloned into the backbone of an expression construct encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein vp1. after i ...200515869406
transgenic plants for the production of veterinary vaccines.the expression of antigens in transgenic plants has been increasingly used in the development of experimental vaccines, particularly oriented to the development of edible vaccines. hence, this technology becomes highly suitable to express immunogenic proteins from pathogens. foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rotavirus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus are considered to be the most important causative agents of economic loss of cattle production in argentina, and they are thus optimal candidate ...200515877600
the binding of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase to eif4gi involves conserved ionic interactions.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initially cleaves itself from the polyprotein. subsequently, l(pro) cleaves the host proteins eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi and 4gii. this prevents protein synthesis from capped cellular mrnas; the viral rna is still translated, initiating from an internal ribosome entry site. l(pro) cleaves eif4gi between residues g674 and r675. we showed previously, however, that l(pro) binds to residues 640-669 of eif4gi. binding w ...200515885108
rapid protection of cattle from direct challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by a single inoculation with an adenovirus-vectored fmdv subunit vaccine.we have previously demonstrated that swine vaccinated with one dose of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vector containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were protected when challenged 7 days later with homologous virus. in the current study, we have extended this approach to cattle, the most economically important animals susceptible to fmd. five cattle were vaccinated with the ad5-fmdv subunit vaccine and these animals and ...200515893355
utility of recombinant integrin alpha v beta6 as a capture reagent in immunoassays for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.recombinant integrin alpha v beta6 was evaluated as a capture ligand in a sandwich elisa for the detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. our routinely applied method employs seven serotype-specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture ligands and seven serotype-specific guinea pig polyclonal antibodies as detecting reagents. the recombinant integrin bound fmd virus of all seven serotypes but not that of another vesicular disease, swine vesicular disease (svd). consider ...200515893568
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