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the foot-and-mouth disease virus cis-acting replication element (cre) can be complemented in trans within infected cells.a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation was identified within the 5'-untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the mutation destabilizes a stem-loop structure recently identified as a cis-acting replication element (cre). genetic analyses indicated that the ts defect in virus replication could be complemented. thus, the fmdv cre can function in trans. it is suggested that the cre be renamed a 3b-uridylylation site (bus).200312525659
engineering of escherichia coli beta-galactosidase for solvent display of a functional scfv antibody fragment.protein engineering allows the generation of hybrid polypeptides with functional domains from different origins and therefore exhibiting new biological properties. we have explored several permissive sites in escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to generate functional hybrid enzymes displaying a mouse scfv antibody fragment. when this segment was placed at the amino-terminus of the enzyme, the whole fusion protein was stable, maintained its specific activity and interacted specifically with the t ...200312505169
monitoring of fmd virus non-structural protein 3ab antibody in intensive pig farms after a severe outbreak of fmd. 200312974342
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific linear b-cell epitopes to differentiate between infected and vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. for several years, vaccination of animals, which had proven to be successful for the eradication of the disease, has been forbidden in the united states and the european community because of the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals. in this study, detailed investigations of the bovine humoral immune response against fmd virus (fmdv) were performed with the aim of identifyi ...200312885881
crystal structure of swine vesicular disease virus and implications for host adaptation.swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) is an enterovirus of the family picornaviridae that causes symptoms indistinguishable from those of foot-and-mouth disease virus. phylogenetic studies suggest that it is a recently evolved genetic sublineage of the important human pathogen coxsackievirus b5 (cbv5), and in agreement with this, it has been shown to utilize the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (car) for cell entry. the 3.0-a crystal structure of strain uk/27/72 svdv (highly virulent) reveals th ...200312692248
rna-dependent rna polymerase gene sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong.a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv, hkn/2002) was isolated in hong kong in 2002. the nucleotide sequence of the 3d(pol) gene encoding the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase was determined and compared with that of the same gene from other fmdvs. the 3d(pol) gene was 1410 nucleotides in length encoding a protein of 470 amino acid residues. sequence comparisons indicated that hkn/2002 belonged to serotype o. an evolutionary tree based on the 3d(pol) sequences of 20 fmdv isolates revealed that th ...200312927804
biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the bola-drb3*2703 allele.mhc class i and ii molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to t-lymphocytes. murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to mhc ii molecules influences th1/th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. to examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine mhc (bola), various self peptides (bola-dq and fibrinogen fragments) and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (ova), ...200312927080
procedures for preventing the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs and sheep by personnel in contact with infected pigs.the most effective method of containing an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is by the culling of livestock. however, qualified people must diagnose the disease before the culling can begin, and they must avoid susceptible animals after having been in contact with infected premises, to prevent them from transmitting the virus. to test the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures in preventing the transmission of fmd virus (o/uk/35/2001) investigators contacted and sampled pigs inoculated w ...200312934795
synthetic peptides. 200312958453
resistance of virus to extinction on bottleneck passages: study of a decaying and fluctuating pattern of fitness loss.rna viruses display high mutation rates and their populations replicate as dynamic and complex mutant distributions, termed viral quasispecies. repeated genetic bottlenecks, which experimentally are carried out through serial plaque-to-plaque transfers of the virus, lead to fitness decrease (measured here as diminished capacity to produce infectious progeny). here we report an analysis of fitness evolution of several low fitness foot-and-mouth disease virus clones subjected to 50 plaque-to-plaqu ...200312960384
recombinant adenovirus co-expressing capsid proteins of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): in vitro characterization and induction of neutralizing antibodies against fmdv in swine.human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) has been evaluated as a novel gene delivery vector for the development of live-viral vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in this study, we constructed an ad5 vector co-expressing the capsid precursor proteins, p1, of fmd virus (fmdv) field strains a24 cruzeiro and o1 campos and examined the neutralizing antibody responses in swine after inoculation with the vector. to construct the ad5 vector, a bicistronic expression cassette containing a cytomegalovirus pro ...200312782369
genome variability and capsid structural constraints of hepatitis a virus.the number of synonymous mutations per synonymous site (k(s)), the number of nonsynonymous mutations per nonsynonymous site (k(a)), and the codon usage statistic (n(c)) were calculated for several hepatitis a virus (hav) isolates. while k(s) was similar to those of poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), k(a) was 1 order of magnitude lower. the n(c) parameter provides information on codon usage bias and decreases when bias increases. the n(c) value in hav was about 38, while in ...200312477850
genetic variation and responses to vaccines.disease is a major source of economic loss to the livestock industry. understanding the role of genetic factors in immune responsiveness and disease resistance should provide new approaches to the control of disease through development of safe synthetic subunit vaccines and breeding for disease resistance. the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has been an important candidate locus for immune responsiveness studies. however, it is clear that other loci play an important role. identifying the ...200415984325
the use of vaccines in south american foot-and-mouth disease eradication programmes.since the beginning of organized campaigns in the 1960s, vaccination has been a major component of national fmd control and eradication programmes in south america. aqueous vaccines were used in the 1960s and 1970s, and the introduction of oil vaccines in the mid 1980s helped to decrease endemism. bi- and trivalent fmd vaccine production increased from 266 thousand doses in 1967 to 580 million doses in 2002. currently, over 200 million cattle are vaccinated twice yearly throughout the continent. ...200415742616
making a vaccinate-to-live policy a reality in foot-and-mouth disease.public opinion and the availability of new technologies are making the use of 'stamping- out' an increasingly unattractive option as the method of first choice for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control in fmd-free countries or zones seeking to control incursion of disease. there is therefore increasing pressure to adopt a 'vaccinate-to-live' policy in these circumstances. for a successful vaccinate-to-live policy, veterinary services need access to appropriate, licensed vaccines; to have adequate ...200415742637
foot-and-mouth disease 'vaccination-to-live': possibilities and constraints.major constraints to the adoption of a 'vaccination to live' policy during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a previously fmd-free country are the dual problems in the development of persistent infection (>28 days) in some vaccinated ruminants exposed to virulent virus and reliably detecting these persistently infected animals. rapid advances in immunology, virology, molecular biology and information management present significant opportunities for improving the management of fmd ou ...200415742638
very fast (and safe) inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus and enteroviruses by a combination of binary ethyleneimine and formaldehyde.for fmd vaccine production, inactivation of the fmd virus is the most critical step. formerly, from 1940 onwards, the virus was inactivated with formaldehyde. this inactivation was relatively slow, about 0.2 - 0.3 log 10 per hour. because formaldehyde not only reacts with the virus produced but with many other components in the medium, such as proteins and amino acids, its concentration can become rate-limiting and inactivation plots may show tailing-off, resulting in residual infectivity. many ...200415742659
comparison of two 3abc enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity.the development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for fmdv. the nonstructural polyprotein 3abc has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. this paper evaluates the performance of two fmdv tests for anti ...200415131177
the production and evaluation of a standard diagnostic peste des petits ruminants (ppr) hyperimmune serum prepared from the egyptian antigen (egypt 87).the aim of this study was to produce a specific hyperimmune serum for diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (ppr). based on good laboratory practices and standard operating procedures, we produced this reagent in goats using attenuated local strain of pprv. the quality was assured to meet the internationally required levels of potency and sterility. the titer of the product was 1024 as evaluated by virus neutralization (vn) and agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) tests. in its final form, it is a ...200415724381
high-level expression of recombinant 3ab1 non-structural protein from fmdv in insect larvae.for its potential usefulness in diagnosis, the non-structural protein 3ab1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus was expressed as a soluble protein by using autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a vector. the 3ab1 coding sequence was introduced into acnpv genome via pbacpak3ab1 transfer vector to originate ac3ab1 recombinant baculovirus of phenotype occ-. rachiplusia nu larvae were injected with supernatants of sf9 cells infected with ac3ab1 and 5 days post-infection total protein ext ...200415664073
sequence and secondary structure requirements in a highly conserved element for foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site activity and eif4g binding.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and other picornaviruses initiate translation of their positive-strand rna genomes at the highly structured internal ribosome entry site (ires), which mediates ribosome recruitment to an internal site of the virus rna. this process is facilitated by eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eifs), such as eif4g and eif4b. in the eif4g-binding site, a characteristic, discontinuous sequence element is highly conserved within the cardio- and aphthovirus subgroup ...200415302949
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna loads in bovine tissues: implications for the site of viral persistence.to understand better the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the levels of viral rna in various bovine tissues during the acute and persistent stages of fmd virus (fmdv) infection were investigated by using quantitative rt-pcr. the viral rna levels in the tissues examined had peaked by day 1 post-infection (p.i.) and were markedly different among the tissues examined. the epithelium collected from sites of lesion development, i.e. the interdigital area and coronary band on the feet, an ...200415302950
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
detection of foot-and-mouth virus antibodies using a purified protein from the high-level expression of codon-optimized, foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes in escherichia coli.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the c-terminal end of a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) gene in pgex-6p-1 vector with the synonymous codons preferred by escherichia coli . the gene was synthesized using pcr and subsequently expressed in e. coli producing an intracellular, soluble fusion protein that retained antigenicity associated with fmd ...200415483387
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease serotype asial viruses grown in the presence of polyclonal antisera in serology and nucleotide sequence analysis.foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) have a high rate of mutation and spontaneous mutants can be readily. isolated in the laboratory. in this study, plaque purified fmdv asial vaccine strains (ind 63/72 and ind 491/97) were passaged in-vitro in baby hamster kidney-21 cell monolayers in the presence of sub-neutralizing levels of antiviral polyclonal sera (aps), raised in guinea pigs against the purified and inactivated whole virus particles of ind 63/72, ind 491/97 and ind 13/01. after serial pa ...200415593421
complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a vaccine strain and a field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 with an insertion in vp1 genomic region.complete nucleotide sequences except the poly (c) tract and poly (a) tail of a vaccine strain (ind 491/97) and an atypical field isolate (ind 321/01) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 are described. amino acid (aa) sequence analysis of the vp1 protein of the field isolate revealed that the latter has 212 instead of 210 or 211 aa found in the so far available sequences of other fmdv isolates of asia1 serotype. the insertion was localized in the hypervariable region of aa 130-1 ...200415595209
comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine igg heavy chain constant region or beta-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes.previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (gal-fmdv) consisting of beta-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. we now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against fmdv in swine. the immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the vp1 protein of serotype o fmdv, was fused to the carboxy terminus o ...200415464847
the effect of bovine ifn-alpha on the immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with dna vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d including p1, 2a, 3c, 3d and part of 2b gene of fmdv and pcdna3.1/ifn containing the gene encoding bovine ifn-alpha. we inoculated the dna vaccine pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d with or without pcdna3.1/ifn to evaluate the efficiency of this dna vaccine and the immunogenicity of dna vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcdna3.1/ifn. after two times of vaccination with dna vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 id50 fmdv typ ...200415483751
procedures for preventing transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/taw/97) by people.the aim of this study was to determine personal hygiene protocols and animal avoidance periods needed to prevent transmission of fmdv (o/taw/97). forty-six, 9-week-old barrows free of fmdv were randomly allocated to five treatment groups and a control group. investigators contacted and sampled fmdv-inoculated pigs for approximately 40 min and then contacted and sampled sentinel pigs after using no biosecurity procedures, washing hands and donning clean outerwear, or showering and donning clean o ...200415504585
detection of carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus among vaccinated cattle.to investigate and optimise detection of carriers, we vaccinated 15 calves with an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a turkey strain and challenged them and two further non-vaccinated calves with the homologous virus four weeks later. to determine transmission to a sensitive animal, we put a sentinel calf among the infected cattle from 60 days post-infection until the end of the experiment at 609 days post-infection. samples were tested for the presence of fmdv, vi ...200415504586
genome comparison of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus with other fmdv strains.the genome of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus, hkn/2002, was 8104 nucleotides (nt) in length (excluding the poly(c) tract and poly(a) tail) and was composed of a 1042-nt 5'-untranslated region (utr), a 6966-nt open reading frame, and a 93-nt 3'-utr. genome sequences of hkn/2002 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the vp1, vp2, and vp3-based neighbor-joining (nj) trees were divided into distinct clusters according to different serotypes, while other region-based nj trees exhibited so ...200415351730
determinants of early foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in pigs.this paper provides a quantitative description of the early infectious process in pigs experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), obtained by dose-dependent, time course studies of viral load in serum. pigs were inoculated by the intravenous or intradermal/subcutaneous route with fmdv and housed together in groups or individually. the effects of dose, inoculation route and exposure intensity on the replication of fmdv in vivo and the development of disease were studied. it ...200415511538
skipping the co-expression problem: the new 2a "chysel" technology.the rapid progress in the field of genomics is increasing our knowledge of multi-gene diseases. however, any realistic hope of gene therapy treatment for those diseases needs first to address the problem of co-ordinately co-expressing several transgenes. currently, the use of internal ribosomal entry sites (iress) is the strategy chosen by many researchers to ensure co-expression. the large sizes of the iress (~0.5 kb), and the difficulties of ensuring a well-balanced co-expression, have prompte ...200415363111
[a review of the risks involved in the import of foot and mouth disease vaccinated animals and the products of such animals]. 200415232965
preserved antigenicity of hiv-1 p24 produced and purified in high yields from plants inoculated with a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-derived vector.production of structural proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and bovine herpes virus (bhv-1) in nicotiana benthamiana through the use of a tobacco mosaic virus-based vector (tmv-30b) has been reported previously. the development of the tmv-30b-hisc vector, a new version that adds a c-terminal histidine (his) sequence to the foreign protein expressed is described. coding sequences from the fmdv vpl protein and the core protein, p24, from a clade c hiv-1 isolate from zambia were clon ...200415381357
foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. recent fmd outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. this review describes the reemergence of fmd in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control stra ...200415084510
effect of chemical adjuvants on dna vaccination.dna vaccination is useful for generating immune responses, particularly the cell-mediated immune response, in a wide variety of species. however, dna vaccination generally induces only relatively weak responses; hence, various approaches have been developed recently in order to improve its efficacy or immunopotency. the use of a chemical adjuvant is one of them. previously we have shown that bupivacaine or marcaine can modulate immune responses induced by dna vaccines [proc. natl. acad. sci. 90 ...200415246629
generation of an infectious cdna clone of an fmdv strain isolated from swine.a full-length cdna clone of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated from swine was assembled in, the plasmid vector pbluescript ii sk+ downstream of a t7 promoter. rna synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase lead to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of bhk-21 cells, as shown by cytopathic effects. the rescued virus was also found to be highly pathogenic for mice by intradermal injection producing a fatal disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. the a ...200415246653
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in raw and pasteurized milk and milk products.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not a public health threat, but it is highly contagious to cloven-footed animals. the virus is shed into milk up to 33 h before there are apparent signs of the disease in dairy cows, and, in extreme cases, signs of disease may not appear for up to 14 d. during this time, raw milk can serve as a vector for spread of the disease both at the farm and during transport to the processing plant by milk tanker. raw milk and milk products fed to animals have the ...200415259248
evolutionary transition toward defective rnas that are infectious by complementation.passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture resulted in the generation of defective rnas that were infectious by complementation. deletions (of nucleotides 417, 999, and 1017) mapped in the l proteinase and capsid protein-coding regions. cell killing followed two-hit kinetics, defective genomes were encapsidated into separate viral particles, and individual viral plaques contained defective genomes with no detectable standard fmdv rna. infection in the absence of standard fmdv ...200415479809
targeting of proteins derived from self-processing polyproteins containing multiple signal sequences.the 18aa 2a self-cleaving oligopeptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus can be used for co-expression of multiple, discrete proteins from a single orf. 2a mediates a co-translational cleavage at its own c-terminus and is proposed to manipulate the ribosome into skipping the synthesis of a specific peptide bond (producing a discontinuity in the peptide backbone), rather than being involved in proteolysis. to explore the utility of the system to target discrete processing products, self-processin ...200415260831
towards a multi-site synthetic vaccine to foot-and-mouth disease: addition of discontinuous site peptide mimic increases the neutralization response in immunized animals.synthetic replicas of both antigenic sites a and d of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been tested as a first step towards a multicomponent peptide vaccine candidate. a first evaluation has been performed by neutralization assays on cells with serum mixtures from guinea pigs immunized independently with site a (a24) and site d (d8) peptides. the addition of site d antibodies to site a antibodies has a synergistic effect on neutralization. in a second group of experiments, guinea pigs have been ...200415315831
interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 integrins.at least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (h. duque and b. baxt, j. virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). to further examine these differences, we generated soluble ...200415331710
recombinant bivalent vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o/a infection in guinea pig.in this study, two dna fragments encoding amino acid (141-160)-(21-140)-(141-160) of the vp1 of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) serotype o and (138-160)-(21-40)-(138-160) of the serotype a fmdv were chemically synthesized. these two tandem-repeat fragments were ligated and transfected into prokaryotic expression vector ptrchis a to construct pth-o-a. the other vector called pth-o-scigg-a was constructed similarly only that the two tandem-repeat dna fragments were linked by the bovine-igg hea ...200415346195
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: specificity at the p2 and p3 positions and comparison with other papain-like enzymes.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) frees itself from the growing viral polyprotein by self-processing between its own c-terminus and the n-terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the arglysleulys*glyalaglygln sequence is recognized. the proteinase subsequently cleaves the two isoforms of host cell protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g at the alaasnleugly*argthrthrleu (eif4gi) and leuasnvalgly*serargargser (eif4gii) sequences. the enzyme does not, however, recogni ...200415350134
implementation in australia of molecular diagnostic techniques for the rapid detection of foot and mouth disease virus.to evaluate and implement rapid molecular diagnostic techniques for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) suitable for use in australia.200415354851
comparative immunogenecity of foot and mouth disease virus antigens in fmd-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and fmd vaccine alone in buffalo calves.humoral immune response was evaluated by monitoring the serum antibody titres and virus specific igm titres against foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus antigens in serum samples obtained from different groups of calves inoculated with combined vaccine or fmd vaccine alone, on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days post-vaccination (dpv). the cellular immune response was monitored by mtt based lymphoproliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. higher liquid phase blocking (lpb) elisa ant ...200415233294
sequential modification of translation initiation factor eif4gi by two different foot-and-mouth disease virus proteases within infected baby hamster kidney cells: identification of the 3cpro cleavage site.infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the rapid inhibition of cellular cap-dependent protein synthesis that results from cleavage of the translation initiation factor eif4g, a component of the cap-binding complex eif4f. two fmdv proteins, the leader (l) and 3c proteases, have been shown individually to induce cleavage of eif4gi at distinct sites within baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. here, sequential cleavage of eif4gi by the l and 3c proteases was demonstrated in fmd ...200415448358
validation of binary ethyleneimine (bei) used as an inactivant for foot and mouth disease tissue culture vaccine.the complete inactivation of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus is a critical requirement in the production of fmd vaccine to ensure the safety of the product. binary ethyleneimine (bei) is an aziridine compound, produced from bromoethylamine hydrobromide (bea) commonly used for the inactivation of fmd virus during vaccine manufacturing. the validation of bei, when used as an inactivant, is essential to ensure the quality of the inactivating agent and the validity of the process. in the present ...200415536046
participatory diagnosis of a heat-intolerance syndrome in cattle in tanzania and association with foot-and-mouth disease.a heat-intolerance (hi) syndrome in cattle in tanzania was suspected to be associated with previous, clinical foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a participatory appraisal (pa) method called "matrix scoring" was used to explore livestock-keeper perceptions of association between hi and cattle diseases. a pa method called 'proportional piling' was used to estimate herd incidence of fmd and other diseases, herd incidence of hi, and association between hi and other cattle diseases. use of matrix scoring ...200415454324
vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus induces apoptosis via the akt signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) binds to cellular integrins through an rgd motif in its capsid protein, vp1. it is unclear, however, what kind of cellular event(s) are triggered after the binding of vp1 to the cells. in this study, we show that aqueous soluble recombinant dna-derived vp1 (rvp1) of fmdv induced apoptosis of bhk-21 cells after binding to integrins. in addition, treatment of bhk-21 cells with rvp1 resulted in deactivation of akt and enhancement of several proapoptotic responses ...200415466859
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
reintroduction of foot-and-mouth disease in argentina: characterisation of the isolates and development of tools for the control and eradication of the disease.this paper describes the antigenic and molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains isolated during the 2000-2002 epidemic in argentina, and the strategy implemented for disease control. two different fmdv serotypes, o and a, were involved. of the various field isolates studied, two distinct o1 lineages (strains corrientes/00 and misiones/00) and two serotype a lineages (a/argentina/00 and a/argentina/01 prototypes) were identified. the genome sequences of these stra ...200415474705
sequencing and analysis for the full-length genome rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus china/99.the complete nucleotide sequence of genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain china/99 from infected bovine tongue epithelium is presented. the nucleotide sequence extending from the 5' end of the genomic rna to the 5' end of poly (a) tail contains 8173 nucleotides (nt). its open reading frame, which encodes a single polypeptide of 2332 amino acids, encompasses 6999 nt starting from the initiation codon aug and terminating at the uaa codon 93 bases upstream from the 5' end of pol ...200415382679
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by small interfering rna.foot-and-mouth disease, caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is one of the most dangerous diseases of cloven-hoofed animals and is a constant threat to the dairy and beef industries in the middle east and other regions of the world, despite intensive vaccination programmes. in this work, the ability of specific small interfering (si)rnas to inhibit virus replication in bhk-21 cells was examined. by using bioinformatic computer programs, all fmdv sequences in public-domain databases wer ...200415483234
expansion of host-cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus despite replication in a constant environment.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) variants adapted to bhk-21 cells showed an expanded host-cell tropism that extended to primate and human cell lines. virus replication in human hela and jurkat cells has been documented by titration of virus infectivity, quantification of virus rna, expression of a virus-specific non-structural antigen, and serial passage of virus in the cells. parallel serial infections of human jurkat cells with the same variant fmdvs indicates a strong stochastic component ...200415269370
detection of economically important viruses in boar semen by quantitative realtime pcr technology.the objective of this study was to develop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (reti-pcr) tests for the detection of five economically important viruses in swine semen namely, pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). each reti-pcr test was validated for specificity, analytical sensitivity (detection limits), and experimental ...200415288957
development and use of a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein in a solid-phase competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein was developed and used in a competitive elisa (celisa) to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies in cattle, sheep and pigs. in this report, we describe the cloning and expression of 3abc protein in escherichia coli cells as fusion protein with 6xhis and biotin. this celisa uses streptavidin to capture bacterially expressed and in vivo biotinylated 3abc antigen. the antigen capture strategy provides a simple and reliable method, which does no ...200415288965
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna-dependent rna polymerase and its complex with a template-primer rna.genome replication in picornaviruses is catalyzed by a virally encoded rna-dependent rna polymerase, termed 3d. the enzyme performs this operation, together with other viral and probably host proteins, in the cytoplasm of their host cells. the crystal structure of the 3d polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus, one of the most important animal pathogens, has been determined unliganded and bound to a template-primer rna decanucleotide. the enzyme folds in the characteristic fingers, palm and t ...200415294895
past and present vaccine development strategies for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus to be identified. since then, it has become a model system in animal virology and more information has been obtained about fmdv. the disease causes heavy economic crises in enzootic countries both due to loss of animal health and productivity. the only way of its control in an enzootic area is strict vaccination and restricted animal movement. the first experimental vaccine against fmd was made in 1925 using formaldehyde inacti ...200415745043
an investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in zimbabwe.african buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. the buffalo were infected with sat serotypes (sat-1, sat-2 and sat-3) of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of fmd to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. th ...200415861873
enhanced laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction.the performance of an automated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was compared to virus isolation (vi) in cell culture and antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease (fmd). the world reference laboratory for fmd in woking, the united kingdom, examined a collection of 334 epithelia received from eighteen countries between august 2002 and january 2004. the results showed that all vi positive (n ...200415861896
quantitative estimates of the risk of new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease as a result of burning pyres.the risk of dispersing foot-and-mouth disease virus into the atmosphere, and spreading it to susceptible holdings as a result of burning large numbers of carcases together on open pyres, has been estimated for six selected pyres burned during the 2001 outbreak in the uk. the probability of an animal or holding becoming infected was dependent on the estimated level of exposure to the virus predicted from the concentrations of virus calculated by the met office, bracknell. in general, the probabil ...200414979669
evidence that high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine inhibits local virus replication and prevents the "carrier" state in sheep.the ability of a single administration of a high, medium and low potency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine to decrease or inhibit local virus replication and excretion in the oropharynx of sheep following aerosol challenge with homologous live virus 14 days later was examined. unvaccinated sheep showed signs of clinical fmd, whereas all of the vaccinated sheep, regardless of antigen payload, were protected against clinical disease and development of viraemia. virological and serological resul ...200415003651
comparison of elisa for the detection of porcine serum antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.three foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein antibody detection kits, chekit fmd-3abc, ubi fmd ns eia and dvivr nsp elisa, were compared in the study. the results showed that the specificity of the kits ranged from 96.7 to 100% in nai;ve pigs and from 93.6 to 98.1% in vaccinated pigs, and that the dvivr kit had the highest analytical sensitivity. the kappa statistics for the detection of 612 sera were 0.582, 0.447 and 0.658 for chekit/ubi, chekit/dvivr and ubi/dvivr, respectively. t ...200414738982
evaluation of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus.differential detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) from the other vesicular disease viruses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), vesicular stomatitis (vs) and vesivirus is important as the vesicular lesions produced by these viruses are indistinguishable in pigs. two independent sets of primers and probe, designed from nucleotide sequences within the 5' untranslated region (utr) of the svdv genome, were evaluated in a real-time (5' nuclease probe-based or fluorogenic) pcr format. althoug ...200414738984
vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) among pigs. reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. transmission of fmdv was studied in three groups of ten pigs: one non-vaccinated group and two groups that were vaccinated 7 days (-7 dpi) and 14 days before inoculation (-14 dpi), respectively. five randomly selected pigs from each group were inoculat ...200415063559
expression of a foot-and-mouth disease virus immunodominant epitope by a filamentous bacteriophage vector.we described the construction of a recombinant filamentous phage displaying on its surface the immunodominant site of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the coding sequence was inserted at the amino-terminus of the major coat protein pviii via a spacer. the hybrid phage proved to be antigenic as it was recognized by polyclonal and monoclonal anti fmdv sera. in two experiments involving immunisation of guinea-pigs with the recombinant phage, a low antibody response was generated. ...200414745601
integrin alphavbeta8 functions as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus: role of the beta-chain cytodomain in integrin-mediated infection.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been shown to use three alphav integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, and alphavbeta6, as cellular receptors. binding to the integrin is mediated by a highly conserved rgd motif located on a surface-exposed loop of vp1. the rgd tripeptide is recognized by several other members of the integrin family, which therefore have the potential to act as receptors for fmdv. here we show that sw480 cells are made susceptible to fmdv following transfe ...200415078934
detection of foot and mouth disease virus by rt-pcr and microplate hydridization assay using inactivated viral antigens.a single step rt-pcr was tested for detection of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and immunoenzymatic determination of amplified products in a microplate hybridization assay. inactivated reference strains (elisa antigen) of all seven serotypes were used to optimize the test. oligonucleotide primers were selected from two different genomic regions coding for rna polymerase and vp1 protein, respectively. the rt-pcr used to amplify the polymerase gene specific rna detected fmdv strains a, c, o, ...200414992244
validation of a foot-and-mouth disease antibody screening solid-phase competition elisa (spce).this paper describes the validation of a solid-phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (spce) for the serological detection of antibody to serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sheep, cattle and pigs. the specificity of the spce was calculated from the results of testing known negative sera from sheep, cattle and pigs (n=3030, 1418 and 1495, respectively). the mean percentage inhibition (pi) for known negative sheep, cattle and pig sera were 19.3, 24.1 and 20.8%, respectively. t ...200414667530
emergence of a novel subgroup within the widely circulating lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 in india.the complete vp1 encoding (1d) gene of 54 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype asia1 field isolates, most of which were isolated during 2000 and 2001, was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis identified a novel subgroup (>10% nucleotide divergence) within the widely circulating lineage of this serotype. the newly emerged viruses were responsible for disease outbreaks in both cattle and buffaloes and were present in six different states in the country. amino acid sequence comparison of the ...200414672859
stable, stoichiometric delivery of diverse protein functions.as contemporary "genomics" steadily reveals an increasing number of novel gene sequences, the need for efficient methodologies to functionally characterize these genes in vivo increases significantly. reliable coupling of target gene expression to a variety of surrogate reporter functions is critical to properly assay novel gene function in complex cell populations. ideally, independent target and reporter proteins would be derived from a single open reading frame creating a stoichiometric relat ...200414980783
low linkage disequilibrium indicative of recombination in foot-and-mouth disease virus gene sequence alignments.we have applied tests for detecting recombination to genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). our approach estimated summary statistics of linkage disequilibrium (ld), which are sensitive to recombination. using the genealogical relationships, rate heterogeneity and mutation parameters estimated from individual sets of aligned gene sequences, we simulated matching rna sequence datasets without recombination. these simulated datasets allowed for recurrent mutations at any site to mimic homop ...200415105526
no foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves.the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. the outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of fmd were reported. also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical signs and limited virus transmission were observed. since fmd is known to be a very contagious disease, and can cause severe lesions, these observations were disputed. therefore, we carried out two expe ...200414738779
developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically significant disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and wild ruminant species. the fmd virus genome encodes a unique polyprotein from which the different viral polypeptides are cleaved by viral proteases, including eight different non-structural proteins (nsps). both structural and non-structural antigens induce the production of antibodies in infected animals. in contrast, vaccinated animals which have not been exposed to replic ...200414623146
studies of genetically defined chimeras of a european type a virus and a south african territories type 2 virus reveal growth determinants for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the three south african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display great genetic and antigenic diversity, resulting from the independent evolution of these viruses in different geographical localities. for effective control of the disease in such areas, the use of custom-made vaccines is required. to circumvent the tedious process of vaccine strain selection, an alternative in the control process is being investigated. specifically, it is proposed to replace the antig ...200414718620
molecular phylogeny of leader proteinase gene of type a of foot-and-mouth disease virus from india.we previously demonstrated the presence of three genotypes (iv, vi and vii) of type a (subtype a22) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in india based on 1d gene sequence analysis. in the present study, the leader proteinase (l(pro)) gene sequences of 35 type a fmdv field isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) have been analyzed. maximum-likelihood (ml) phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct genetic lineages (a-d), indicating high divergence in l gene of type a fmdv. lin ...200414991441
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
high-level expression of codon optimized foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes and cholera toxin b subunit chimera in hansenula polymorpha.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the n-terminal end of a 6x his-tagged cholera toxin b subunit (ctb) gene with the similar synonymous codons preferred by the methylotropic yeast hansenula polymorpha. the fusion gene was synthesized based on a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and subsequently overexpressed in h. polymorpha. the chimeric protei ...200415013451
cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4gii within foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells: identification of the l-protease cleavage site in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a very rapid inhibition of host cell protein synthesis within infected cells. this is accompanied by the cleavage of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4gi (eif4gi). the cleavage of the related protein eif4gii has now been analyzed. within fmdv-infected cells, cleavage of eif4gi and eif4gii occurs with similar kinetics. cleavage of eif4gii is induced in cells and in cell extracts by the fmdv leader protease (l(pro)) alone, generating cleavage ...200415016848
a simulation model of intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease with reference to disease spread before and after clinical diagnosis.intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was examined using a simulation model for a hypothetical 1,000-cow dairy, assuming clinical diagnosis was made when at least 1% (10 cows) or 5% (50 cows) had clinical signs of fmd, i index case cow, and transition state distributions for the latent, subclinically infectious, and clinically infectious periods of fmd calculated from published data. estimates assumed for the number of animal-to-animal contacts (k) adequate for transmissi ...200414974841
immunogenicity and t cell recognition in swine of foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase 3d.immunization of domestic pigs with a vaccinia virus (vv) recombinant expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d protein conferred partial protection against challenge with infectious virus. the severity reduction of the clinical symptoms developed by the challenged animals occurred in the absence of significant levels of anti-3d circulating antibodies. this observation suggested that the partial protection observed was mediated by the induction of a 3d-specific cellular immune response. t ...200415110524
a practitioner's primer on foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by an rna virus of the genus aphthovirus; 7 immunologically distinct serotypes of the virus have been identified. susceptible species are mainly domestic and wild even-toed ungulates, such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and deer. all body fluids of infected animals can contain the virus and are considered infective. the primary mode of transmission is animal-to-animal transmission through inhalation or ingestion of aerosols containing the virus. the ...200415112774
an approach to a fmd vaccine based on genetic engineered attenuated pseudorabies virus: one experiment using vp1 gene alone generates an antibody responds on fmd and pseudorabies in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and pseudorabies (pr) are two important infectious diseases in swine. an attenuated pseudorabies virus (prv) has been successfully used as a gene delivery vector for the development of live-viral vaccines. in this study, a recombinant prv-vp1 virus was constructed by fusioning the vp1 gene of fmd virus in frame to the n-terminal sequence of the gg gene of prv. to test the protective immunity, 15 fmdv sero-negative white swine were divided into three groups and immuni ...200415149769
comparable sensitivity and specificity in three commercially available elisas to differentiate between cattle infected with or vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus.three commercially available elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were evaluated, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, infected, inoculated, first vaccinated and subsequently infected, and first vaccinated and subsequently inoculated cattle. we compared antibody kinetics to non-structural proteins, sensitivity, and specificity. one of the elisas had a higher sensitivity and much lower specificity than the other two, there ...200415019100
the ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-38 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus of the picornaviridae: infection by picornaviruses results in a major rearrangement of the host cell membranes to create vesicular structures where virus genome replication takes place. in this report, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of fmdv-infected bhk-38 cells are documented. at 1.5-2.0 h post-infection, free ribosomes, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, g ...200415039536
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. due to the high antigenic variability of fmdv, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. to study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-fmdv fabs. ch1-vh chains with fmdv specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. though their involv ...200415087230
extent of reduction of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna load in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid after peak levels may be a critical determinant of virus persistence in infected cattle.to investigate whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna loads in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (op-fluid) in the early course of infection is related to the outcome of virus persistence, viral rna in op-fluid samples from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv type o was quantitatively analysed by using a quantitative real-time rt-pcr. viral rna was detected within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) in all infected animals. rapid virus replication led to peak levels of viral rna load by 30-53 h ...200414769899
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates.a total of 30 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 belonging to two different lineages and five isolates belonging to a divergent group as delineated earlier in 1d (encodingvp1 protein) gene-based phylogeny were sequenced in the structural protein (p1) coding region. phylogenetic comparison of these isolates along with some of the published exotic sequences revealed the presence of five different lineages around the world. similar grouping pattern was observed for ...200415196905
[expression of fmdv vp1 protein in pichia pastoris and its immunological activity in mice].to express and identify bovine o type foot and mouth disease virus protein 1 (fmdv vp1) in yeast pichia pastoris.200415367336
molecular epidemiology of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from cattle in ethiopia between 1979-2001.partial 1d gene characterization was used to study phylogenetic relationships between 17 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in ethiopia as well as with other o-type isolates from eritrea, kenya, south and west africa, the middle east, asia and south america. a homologous region of 495 bp corresponding to the c-terminus end of the 1d gene was used for phylogenetic analysis. this study described three lineages, viz. african/middle east-asia, cathay and south american. within lineage i ...200415373335
comparison and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from animals in korea and other panasia strains.during the last 3 years, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o, named panasia, caused two outbreaks in the republic of korea. to determine if there was an obvious genetic relationship between the virus isolated in 2002 (o/skr/2002) and the o/skr/2000, and to further analyze the epidemiological relationships between the panasia viruses and the viruses identified in korea, the complete nucleotide sequence of the o/skr/2002 and the o/skr/2000 were determined by automatic cycling sequencing and pr ...200415215684
control measures implemented during the 2002 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the republic of korea. 200415162790
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in the adamawa province of cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. most studies of fmdv are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. in contrast, in areas such as sub-saharan africa, where fmdv is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the world reference laboratory, pirbright, united kingdom. this paper describes the molecular epi ...200415131187
fitness increase of memory genomes in a viral quasispecies.viral quasispecies may contain a subset of minority genomes that reflect those genomic sequences that were dominant at an early phase of quasispecies evolution. such minority genomes are referred to as memory in viral quasispecies. a memory marker previously characterized in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an internal oligoadenylate tract of variable length that became dominant upon serial plaque-to-plaque transfers of fmdv clones. during large population passages, genomes with internal o ...200415136042
coordinate expression and independent subcellular targeting of multiple proteins from a single transgene.a variety of conventional methods allow the expression of multiple foreign proteins in plants by transgene stacking or pyramiding. however, most of these approaches have significant drawbacks. we describe a novel alternative, using a single transgene to coordinate expression of multiple proteins that are encoded as a polyprotein capable of dissociating into component proteins on translation. we demonstrate that this polyprotein system is compatible with the need to target proteins to a variety o ...200415141063
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an elisa based on recombinant 3abc.recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the eu in 1991. here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination and infection. the test is based on the detection of antibodies against the recombinant non-structural (ns) protein 3abc. in contrast to immunization with vaccines free of 3abc, these antibodies are eli ...200415223123
foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south american camelids, in dromedaries and bactrians is reviewed. recent well-executed experimental studies in new world camels indicate that, although the llama and alpaca can be infected with fmd virus (fmdv) by direct contact, they are not very susceptible and do not pose a risk in transmitting fmd to susceptible animal species. they do not become fmdv carriers. reports on fmd in dromedaries are, however, conflicting. serological investigations in africa and t ...200415301761
pressure-inactivated fmdv: a potential vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). alternative fmd vaccines have been pursued due to important disadvantages of the one currently in use. high hydrostatic pressure (hp) has been observed to inactivate some viruses. here, we investigated the effects of hp on fmdv o1 campos-vallée (cva) infectivity. a treatment consisting of 2.5 kbar at -15 degrees c and 1m urea, completely abolished fmdv infectivity, maintaining the integrity of its cap ...200415149793
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